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will recur;

281 Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.

282 No man that has past the middle have nothing past to entertain us; and point of life, can sit down to feast upon in age we derive nothing from the retrothe pleasures of youth, without finding spect bút fruitless sorrow. The loss of the banquet imbittered by the cup of our friends and companions impresses sorrow. "Many days of harmless frolic, hourly upon us the necessity of our and many nights of honest festivity, own departure; we find that all our

he may revive the memory schemes are quickly at an end, and of many lacky accidents, or pleasing that we must lie down in the grave extravagancies; or, if he has engaged with the forgotten multitudos of former in scenes of action, and been acquaint- ages, and yield our places to others, ed with affairs of difficulty, and vicissi- who, like us, shall be driven awhile by tudes of fortune, may enjoy the nobler hope or fear about the surface of the pleasure of looking back upon dis- earth, and then, like us, be lost in the tress firmly supported, upon danger shades of death. resolutely encountered, and upon op- Beyond this termination of our corpression artfully defeated. Æneas very poreal existence, we are therefore properly comforts his companions, obliged to extend our hopes; and every when, after the horrors of a storm, they man indulges his imagination with have landed on an unknown and de- something which is not to happen till solate country, with the hope that their he has lost the power of perceiving it. miseries will, at some distant period, Some amuse themselves with entails be recounted with delight.

and settlements, provide for the inThere are, perhaps few higher grati- crease and perpetuation of families fications than that of reflection on evils and honours, and contrive to obviate surmounted, when they are not incur- the dissipation of fortunes, which it red by our own fault, and neither re- has been the whole business of their proach us with cowardice nor guilt. lives to accumulate. Others, more reBut this kind of felicity is always fined and exalted, congratulate their abated by the reflection, that they with own hearts upon the future extent of whom we should be most pleased to their reputation, the lasting fame of share it, are now in the grave. A few their performances, the reverence of years' make such havoc amongst the distant nations, and the gratitude of human race, that we soon see ourselves unprejudiced posterity, deprived of these with whom we en- It is not, therefore, from this world, tered the world.

that any ray of comfort can proceed to The man of enterprise, when he has cheer the gloom of the last hour. But recounted his adventures, is forced at futurity has still its prospects; there is the close of the narration to pay a sigh yet happiness in reserve, sufficient to to the memory of those who contri- support us under every affliction. Hope buted to his suceess: and he that has is the chief blessing of many, and that spent his life among the gayer part of hope only is rational, which we are mankind has quickly his remembrance certain cannot deceive. stored with the remarks and repartees of wits, whose sprightliness and merriment are now lost in perpetual silence. The trader, whose industry has supplied the want of inheritance, when he

(Continued from col. 153.) sits down to enjoy his fortune, repines Among the public edifices with wbich in solitary plenty, and laments the ab- the town of Liverpool is ornameyted, sence of those companions with whom and its inhabitants are accommodated, he had planned out amusements for the Town Hall claims the first notice. his latter years: and the scholar, This spacious building was begun in whose merits, after a long series of the year 1749, and completed from efforts, raise him from obscurity, looks the designs of Mr. Wood, of Bath. On round in vain from his exalted state, its rustic basement is an elegant range for his old friends, to be witnesses of of Corinthian columns and pilasters, his long-sought-for affluence, and to between whic are large handsome partake of his bounty.

windows. The capitals and columns Such is the imperfection of all hu- are divided by tablets of bas relief, man bappiness ; and every period of containing various emblems of comlife is obliged to borrow its enjoyments merce. Its front is adorned with a from the time to come.

In youth we handsome portico of more modern erer No. 25,--VOL. III.





Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.


tion, but in the same style of architec-| feet, and 178 from east to west. The ture.

whole space contains 35,066 square Subsequently to the period of its feet. It is more than twice the dimenerection, it underwent several altera- sions of the London Exchange, and is, tions, and received various additions ; without exception, the largest and but in the year 1795 the interior was most commodious building of this dedestroyed by fire. This led to nume- scription that England can furnish. rous improvements, which, in the aggre- of this magnificent fabric, the decoragate, were effected at an expense of tions are superb, and never fail to exabout £110,000. The plan of the in- cite the admiration of every beholder. terior, since it has been rebuilt, is more From the ground to the summit, the extensive than the former was. The whole height is 60 feet; and its extent basement contains a spacious kitchen, coincides with that of the area which with suitable offices. The ground story the fronts enclose. The three fronts has a committee room, rooms for the have each a fine piazza, fifteen feet magistrates and juries, general ses- wide, extending the whole length of the sions room, rotation office, town-clerk's, building, under which the merchants treasurer's, and surveyor's offices. The are sheltered from the inclemencies of principal story contains a suite of winter, and the intense heat of a sumrooms communicating with each other: mer's sun. In the eastern wing of this a saloon 30 feet by 26, west drawing building, is a news and coffee room, room 33 by 26, east drawing room 32 94 feet by 52; and immediately over it, by 26, a ball room 90 by 42, a second another spacious room, 72 feet by 36, ball room 66 by 29, and an eating room which is occupied by the underwriters. 50 by 30. These rooms are highly The front and west wings contain many finished, and elegantly adorned. Å elegant and commodious countinggrand dome surmounts this magnificent houses, behind which are several spacipile, on which a colossal figure of Bri- ous warehouses. Of the Corinthian and tannia appears in a sitting posture. Doric orders of architecture, this splenFrom a circular gallery which ranges did pile contains many beautiful specia few yards below, the town may be mens; but combining together its plan, surveyed in an advantageous manner; dimensions, and execution, it may be and as the building stands on an ele- ranked among the finest specimens of vated spot, many interesting objects Grecian architecture that was ever at a considerable distance, may be dis- erected in this kingdom. tinctly observed. The entire height, The Custom House is an ancient from the pavement to the centre of the fabric, which, although commodious as dome, is 104 feet; and when seen on to its situation and demensions, is by the inside, from the floor of the stair- no means adequate to the expectations case, it presents one of the richest views of strangers who visit Liverpool, and that modern architecture can afford. view it as a large commercial town.

The new Exchange appears, from This building is situated near the Old the effect which a general survey pro- Dock, and, no doubt, when it was duces, to have an immediate connec- erected, was sufficiently large for every tion with the Town Hall, and no doubt purpose of commerce.

A few years they mutually augment the grandeur of since, it was considerably enlarged and each other. This

vast work was under- improved ; but with every acquisition taken by the inhabitants, to facilitate it is unworthy of the rank it sustains their commercial transactions. The among the public edifices of Liverpool. money was raised by a subscription Should the design of filling up the Old of 800 shares, at £100 each; but the Dock be carried into execution, and accomplishment of the task vastly ex- a new Custom House be erected on ceeded the original calculation. This part of the site, there can be no doubt masterly undertaking was begun in that its dimensions and elegance will 1808, and finished in about three years add to the splendour of the town. and half, by Messrs. Hetherington and The Excise Office, the Dock Office, Grinrod, from the designs of John and the Post Office, though in some Foster, Esq.

respects falling under the character of The area which is enclosed by the public buildings, have nothing to enfour fronts, one of which is formed by title them to any particular descripthe northern elevation of the Town tion.

", measures from north to south 197 The new Tobacco Warehouse stands


Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.


on the west side of the King's Dock, the accommodation of the subscribers, and extends the whole length of the who may both read and take extracts, quay. This extensive range is built from any publication. Adjoining the of brick; it is without ornament, but library is the committee room and coris exceedingly strong, the walls being respondent apartments. Of this exeighteen inches thick. Its dimensions tensive and valuable selection of books, are 575 feet by 239. The entrance to a new catalogue has recently been the quay on which it stands is guard- published by Mr. Burrell, the principal ed by a gate at each end, and between librarian. In the classification of the its outer wall and the river is a plea- books, he has displayed much judgsant walk. In this warehouse all the ment, application, and erudition; and tobacco imported, is examined, and his arrangements will stand as a direclodged until the duties claimed by tory to others who may be engaged in government are paid. Prior to its similar undertakings, and as a memoerection, the old Tobacco Warehouse, rial of his talents and perseverance. which faces the northern end of the The Lycæum is a handsome strucKing's Dock, was appropriated to this ture, and occupies a pleasant situation purpose. It was erected by the cor- at the bottom of Bold-street. It was poration, and rented by government; erected by public subscription, at an but since the building of the new one, it expense of upwards of £11,000. The has been applied to private purposes. proprietors are 800 in number, whose

Although Liverpool may be consi- annual subscription is one guinea each. dered as the second corn market in The news-room is 86 feet long and 48 England, it had no Corn Exchange wide, having a coved ceiling 31 feet until 1807, when the present was raised from the floor. This also is well furby subscription, in shares of £100. nished with London, provincial, and cach, amounting to £10,000. It is situ- foreign newspapers, and with a variety ated in Brunswick-street, and is a hand- of magazines, reviews, maps, &c. The some structure of plain Grecian archi- library, which is a circular room 135 tecture.

feet in circumference, contains upwards Liverpool has two public libraries, of 21,000 volumes. The proprietors, the Atheneum and the Lyceum. The among whom the books circulate, are former took its name from the ancient nearly 900 in number; each of whom Athenæa, where the professors of the subscribes fifteen shillings per annum. liberal arts held their assemblies, the The Union News-Room, is so called rhetoricians declaimed, and the poets from its having been instituted on the rehearsed their performances, and first of January 1800, the day on which which, built in the form of amphi-the union between England and Iretheatres, were numerous in Athens : land took place. This is a plain comand the latter, from the Lycæum at modious building, which was erected Athens, in which Aristotle explained by public subscription at an expense bis philosophy.

of between five and six thousand The Athenæum, situated in Church- pounds. It is situated on the east street, is a neat stone building, con- side of Duke-street, about midway besisting of a news-room and library. tween the two extremities. Its larIt was erected at an expense of £4000, gest room is 46 feet wide and 49 deep, and was opened in 1799. The pro- and, like the news-rooms of the Atheprietors are 500 in number, each of næum and Lycæum, is furnished with whom pays two guineas and a half the London and provincial papers, annually. The news-room, which oc- lists, magazines, reviews, and maps. cupies the ground floor, is handsome The number of proprietors is 253, and and commodious, including 2000 square the annual subscription two guineas, feet, and is well supplied with all the The Liverpool Royal Institution was London, and most of the provincial formed in 1814, in shares of £100 each. papers, magazines, reviews, maps, &c. The spacious edifice appropriated to The library, which is over it, is more the purposes of this scientific'establishlofty, but has a narrower base. It ment, is situated in Colquitt-street. It contains upwards of 10,000 volumes, was formerly a gentleman's mansion, among which are many works that are but since it has been purchased for its both scarce and valuable. No one is present purpose, the interior has underpermitted to take any book from the gone a variety of alterations, and the library; but the room is fitted up for whole has been enlarged with consi,


Revier-Thoughts on Baptismt.


we may

derable additions. The primary ob-tuated from age to age ? or was it appointed, in ject of this institution is the promotion its original institation, as an ordinance of proof literature, science, and

the arts ; for selytism, of which, (if continued at all) Miswhich purpose the different rooms are tors, and Proselytes the only proper subjects ?

the only proper administrawell adapted. The museum which it to conduct the reader to the latter conclusion, contains, is already enriched with a is the design of the following pages ; and should valuable collection of natural and arti- the writer succeed in the attempt, and his views ficial curiosities. The Institution was

of the subject be generally adopted, he will opened in 1817 by Wm. Roscoe, Esq. portant service to the religious public, by re

consider himself as having rendered a very imwho delivered an eloquent discourse moving out of the way, what has hitherto on the occasion. Since that time, proved one of the greatest hinderances to that courses of lectures have been deliver- union of Christians, which, as stated above, ed on Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, versal spread of the gospel, and usher in the

seems indispensably requisite to effect the uniAnatomy, Physiology, Botany, and glory of the latter day.”—p.8. Poetry, by several gentlemen, whose

To this view of the author's design, names give the highest character of respectability to this abode of scien- general, which appears in the following

add his opinion of Baptism

in tific research.

passage. [To be continued.]

That Baptism was originally of Divine

appointment, is readily acknowledged ; and so Review.--Thoughts on Baptism, as an

was the serpent which Moses lifted up in the Ordinance of Proselytism; including

wilderness. That serpent, in the hands of him Observations on the Controversy re

to whom the command was given, to exhibit to

the view of the whole camp of Israel, answerspecting Terms of Communion. By ed a very important purpose. But, after that Agnestos. 8vo. pp. 136. London. purpose had been fully accomplished, when, Pewtress, Low, and Pewtress, 30, coming at a subsequent period into other bands, Gracechurch-street, 1819.

it was perverted to superstitious uses, and be

came the object of idolatrous veneration, HezeCONTROVERSIAL theology, like law, is kiah very properly ordered it to be destroyed, a profound abyss, through the depths And could our feeble voice prove as effectual of which no line has ever yet descended, in one case, as the mandate of authority did in and to the bottom of which no plummet the other, we would say of Modern Baptism, has ever reached. It is an ocean, on

Let this superstitious ceremony, this root of which the adventurers that embark, removed out of sight; and let no trace of it

error, this bone of contention, be completely soon get out of soundings; and too remain, except on the records of the sacred page; frequently lose their reckoning, if not where, like the brazen serpent, it may prove their compass; and where, growing be- the vehicle of instruction, without becoming wildered, they are in danger of for an engine of mischief."--p.100. getting their polar star.

In opposing the various arguments It is painful to reflect, that the most by which the combatants in this conacrimonious controversies have been car- troversy have distinguished themselves, ricdon about what the contending parties, this author has shewn much adroitness

, in their cooler moments, admit to be non- clearly pointing out that their most essentials; and which, could the points cogene reasonings are inconclusive, and in debate be brought to a final termi- better calculated to prolong the con nation, would prove less advantageous

tention than to bring it to an amicable to mankind in their various results,

termination. On these points, we than the irritation of the passions, pro, whether he has been equally fortunate

think he has argued successfully; but voked in the discussion, has proved pernicious. Among these we include in establishing his own peculiar views the fierce contentions that have ori- of this ordinance in its exclusive appliginated in some doubtful questions re- cation, will certainly admit of some specting Baptism, and the time when doubt. He readily allows that the misEaster ought to be celebrated. The sionaries sent among the heathens can treatise before us can only be said in a lay a stronger claim to the privilege of partial manner to enter the field of administering the rite of Baptism than Baptismal controversy, although it is any other: but even their claims he to this contention that it is indebted views as exceedingly doubtful; and for its existence. In page the seventh, even admitting that they could be the author thus states the design of his fairly established, he asserts, what we publication.

think no reasonable man will be dis"Was Baptism designed to be a standing posed to deny, that the rite is by no ordinance of the Christian Church, to be perpe- means essential to salvation. The telt


ReviewThe Mental Calculator.


dency of his arguments is to prove, that 1 This is a valuable little book, replete Baptism was never designed to be a with useful information ; and is better standing ordinance in the church of calculated to communicate to the pupil Christ, through succeeding generations; general ideas of the subjects of which and we conceive that the reasonings it treats, than any others with which and scriptures which he has adduced in we are acquainted, within the same support of this position will not easily compass, in the English language. be turned aside.

In his preliminary observations, the There is one point, however, that he author gives the history of the comhas obtruded on our notice, which we putation of time, marks the periods think of more magnitude and impor- when variations were introduced, and tance than all that has been either said assigns the reasons on which the alor written on the subject of Baptism, terations were founded. His direcand which will require no common share tions how the pupil may find the Lunar of ingenuity to rescue from the charge eyele, the Epact, the Moon's age, the of Antinomianism. It occurs in the fol- time of high water at any given place, lowing passage.

the time when the sun and moon will "The Lord's Supper was instituted either rise or set on any given day, for the Lord's people. It is the birth and the place of either in the ecliptic, right of those who are the children of are simple and perspicuous, although God by faith in Jesus Christ; a privi- compressed within a narrow compass. lege from which none of their brethren The rules by which he may find the have any right to exclude them, except Dominical Letter, the days of the (as must always be excepted) when week or month, the time of Easter, the they are chargeable with denying any moveable feasts which depend upon fundamental doctrines of the gospel, or Easter, the probability of an eclipse acting in a manner grossly inconsistent either of the sun or the moon, the with their Christian profession. With cycle of the sun, and of the Roman this exception only, we have every rea- Indiction, are as destitute of obscuson to believe that primitive Christians rity as the nature of the subject alnever denied access to the Lord's table, lows, and each is illustrated by exto those whom they considered as be- amples. longing to the household of faith ; nor A general survey of the constellais there any reason why we should." tions forms another part of this work;

Whether this passage, on which all and, by the imaginary lines which comment would be useless, resulted from Mr. Lovekin instructs his pupils to the author's principles, or, as we would draw, the mutual relations which they charitably hope, escaped him through bear towards one another, and a geneinattention, we take not upon us to de- ral outline of their respective situation termine. If from the former, his creed and bearings, may be easily ascertainrequires considerable reformation ; and ed. The whole concludes with a if from the latter, we would advise him miscellaneous collection of questions, to be more careful in future of what he adapted to the rules which precede, submits to the public eye. With this proposed for the pupil's solution. exception, the book is entitled to recom Examined on the ground of nice and mendation, from the justness of the critical exactness, some of the rules censures which it contains, the spirit of will be found inaccurate. Of this the enlightened liberality which it breathes, author makes his acknowledgments in and the harmony throughout the Chris- the preface. He tells the reader, that tian world, which it aims to promote “ It is neither intended nor presumed and insure.

that this work should supersede the

necessity of having recourse to those Review.-The Mental Calculator, being scientific and excellent treatises on the a compendium of concise, yet general globes already in the hands of the pubrules, for the ready solution of various lic, of whose utility none can be more and interesting Problems in Astrono- sensible than himself;" but he hopes, my; with explanatory illustrations ; however, that, “ with the utmost deforming an epitome of the elements of ference, he may at least claim the

To which is added, a merit of an bumble assistant.' Under Guide to theConstellations. ByP.Love- these restrictions, the excellencies of kin. 12mo. pp. 147, Lackington & Co. this little work will be apparent to all London, 1821.

who read it.

that science.

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