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413 New-Zealandman's Head.Answer to a Query. 414 in diameter, which have great simi-, head is high, and has apparently been larity with the so-named Labrador stripped of the hair for the purpose of stones. On the evening of this day scarification; but from the hinder the emperor conducted the king to part of the head, the hair hangs luxOrange-tree, of which he had just uriantly in easy curls. It is black made a present to his eldest son, whilst and soft, and in a perfectly natural he had given to the second the seat state, not having been in the least of Strelna. The latter is half way injured by whatever process the head between Petersburg and Peterhof, and has been subjected to. This head has was intended for days of ceremony, been recognized by the chiefs who but remained unfinished. Orange-tree, were in this country, as that of a perseven wersts farther, opposite Cron- son of the most exalted rank, which stadt, was erected by prince Menczi- is also shown by the tatooing. As koft, but after his disgrace the crown every step in dignity is marked by a confiscated it. After the return from fresh scratch on the face, the owner of this excursion, one supped in the this head must have arrived at the saloon of Monplaisir, which is still the ne plus ultra of elevation.” same as it had been under Peter the Great: in a side-room stands also yet Answer to a Query on Burying in his bed; and all that one sees here

Churches. and in Marly, reminds one of the habitations in Holland, which belong to the Orange family.” (To be concluded in our next.)

Sir,-My attention was arrested by the Query of F. R.“ Whence arose the

custom of Burying in Churches, &c. ?'' New-ZEALANDMAN'S HEAD.

to be found in the Number for JanuAn Extract from a Paper concerning the ary, of your pleasing and useful pubCustoms of the New Zealanders.

lication, (col. 101.) To express my

Reply to the above Question in my “It is well known, that the New- own language, was my original intenZealanders practice a mode of drying tion; but on consulting Wheatly on and preserving the heads of their the book of Common Prayer, and chiefs who bave fallen in battle. finding the subject more luminously Some of these singular memorials and ably handled, by that perspihave been brought to this country by cuous and intelligent writer, I relinthe traders who touch on that island, quished my design. The extract I the sailors being anxious to get them submit to your inspection, to make in exchange for baubles which might what use of it you please. attract the cupidity of the natives.

I am, Sir, your's, One of these is in the possession of a

Porcus ET CLERICUS. gentleman in the city (London:) it is the head of a chief, who was killed in All nations whatsoever, Jews, Heabattle about twelve months ago, about thens, and Christians, have ever had thirty years of age. It is certainly solemn places set apart for their use ; much less disgusting than such a pre- but in permitting their dead to be paration might be conceived to be. buried either in or near their places of It is perfectly dry, and has not the worship, the Christians differ from least offensive smell. The whole of both the former. For the Jews being the substance within the skull is taken forbid to touch or come near any dead out, and the skin is fastened within to body, and it being declared, that they a small hoop. The skin has a yellow- who did so were defiled, had always ish tanned appearance, and there is their sepulchres without the city. not an eighth of an inch that is free And from them it is probable the from tatooing. The teeth are perfect, Greeks and Romans derived, not but small and much worn.

The place only the notion of being polluted by a in the cheek where the fatal balí en- dead corpse, but the law also of burytered, and where the skin was conse- ing without the walls. For this reaquently broken, is supplied by a son, the Christians, so long as the piece of wood, on which the lines of law was in force throughout the the tatooing are continued. The fore- Roman empire, were obliged, in coni

Answer to a Query.--Anecdote of Curran.

416 pliance with it, to bury their dead What has been already advanced without the gates of the city. A cus- has sufficiently, exhibited the origin tom which prevailed here in England, of burying in churches, and that such till about the middle of the eighth a practice has been contrary to the century, when Archbishop Cuthbert, usage of nations. of Canterbury obtained a dispensa- That interment within the shrines tion from the Pope for making church- of our sanctuaries is detrimental to yards within the walls. However, the health of mankind, or at least to that the Christians did not do this, that of societies of them who live in out of any belief that the body of a their immediate vicinity, there can be dead Christian defiled the place or no doubt; and it has been noticed in a persons near it, may be inferred from masterly way, by the gentleman who their consecrating their old places of terms bimseif, ' A Friend to Decency,' burial into places of divine worship, in Vol. I. col 455. of Imp. Mag. How and by building their churches, as far such a practice may be offensive soon as they had liberty, over some or to Almighty God, I will not take other of the martyrs' graves.

upon me to assert: but surely it will “After churches were built, indeed, be more pleasing to him who had they suffered nobody to be buried in rather save than destroy men's lives, them, but had distinct places conti- to adopt those methods which will be guous to them, appropriated to this salutary, and not detrimental, to the use, which, from the metaphor of health of the human species. sleep, by which death in scripture is If I mistake not, the pious bishop often described,were called Koimeteria, Hale, and the great Sir Matthew i. e. Cæmeteries or Sleeping-places. The Hale, manifested their disapprobation first that we read of, as buried any to burying in churches, by directing where else, was Constantine the that their remains should be respectGreat, to whom it was indulged, as a ively deposited in the church-yard ; singular honour, to be buried in the the latter of these illustrious characters church-porch. Nor were any of the pertinently observing, that“ churches Eastern emperors, for several centu- are for the living, and church-yards ries afterwards, admitted to be buried for the dead.” any nearer to the church; for several canons had been made against the allowing of this to any person of been received from J. M. of Torquay,

An answer similar to the above has what dignity soever.

And even in

Devon. our own church we find, that in the end of the seventh century, an Archbishop of Canterbury had not been To the preceding communication buried within the church, but that the and extract, the following Epitaph porch was full with six of his prede- deserves to be added. It stands on a cessors, that had been buried" there headstone, erected over the before.

a Clergyman's daughter, in the church“By a canon made in king Edgar's yard of Lanivet, in the county of reign, about the middle of the tenth Cornwall :-“Her father, chose this century, no man was allowed to be spot, when he had resolved to put an buried in the church, unless it were

end to a bad custom, that of burying known that he had so pleased God in in the church, and he wills himself and his lifetime, as, to be worthy of such family to be here disposed of after a burying place; though, above an death; disclaiming all superstition in hundred years afterwards, we meet his choice, and professing to rely with another canon, made at a council alone for salvation on the merits of a at Winchester, that seems again to crucified Saviour.” prohibit all corpses whatsoever, without any exception, from being buried in churches. But in later times, every

ANECDOTE OF CURRAN. one that could pay for the honour, has A Barrister entered the hall with been generally allowed it.”-A short his wig very much awry; and, of which quotation might be made to the same not at all apprised, he was obliged purpose from Milner's

Ecclesiast. Hist

. endure from almost every observer But it is expressed at large in Vol. I. some remark on its appearance

, till at Imp. Mag. col. 728.

last, addressing himself to Mr. Cure


of 417

The Moralizer.-- No. 8.


RAN, he asked him,“ Do you see any endeared himself to the soldiers of the thing ridiculous in this wig?” The Emperor. To the wealth and dignity answer iostantly was, “ Nothing but of bis father he now succeeded ; and the head.”

at the expiration of a few months returned to his martial office. But what

enjoyment can either wealth or dignity THE MORALIZER.-No 8.

afford to him, who feels at once the Saturday, March 3, 1821. pangs of grief and the torments of ap

prehension? To the mind of Pootala, “ Paulum sepultæ distat inertiæ there was nothing triumphant in vicCelata virtus."

HORACE. tory, and nothing consoling in caresses.

He had contemplated the virtues of his DURING the administration of Kaung- father, and he lamented the unmerited hi, emperor of China, there lived in infelicity of his exit. “ The lamp of the city of Canton, a mandarin, of his existence,” said he, “ and of his ancient family, extensive connections, reputation, were extinguished togeand acknowledged merit. His youth ther. The lesser evil precluded the had been employed in the service of greater, and death alone prevented his sovereign, and in the defence of disgrace. And shall I not avoid a his country. All that could add dig- snare which I cannot but see? Will nity to counsel, or success to enter the stag of the forest designedly enprise, centered in the son of Otkay. tangle himself in the net? or will the His tongue was the oracle of wisdom; eagle of the mountain deliberately enand his arm the security of innocence. counter the hunter? I will fly the In his presence integrity defied slan- malignance which I cannot dissipate: der; and oppression deprecated pu- I will shun the stroke which I cannot nishment. The deserts of Tartary avert. Envy may cloke itself with echoed his name, and the islands of acclamation, but the son of Honyan the ocean listened to bis praise. At has heard its murmurs, and will avoid his appearance, youth shrunk into re- its attack." tirement, and age rose in respect. Such was the soliloquy of Pootala : His merit was encouraged, and the satisfaction soothed his soul; and the throne was established: his virtues project which he contemplated with were rewarded, and the nation was delight, he delayed not to prosecute secure. But the eye of envy beheld with ardour, He obtained access to his exaltation, and the artifices of his Sovereign. “ Great Emperor,” falsehood meditated his ruin. The said he,

your slave acknowledges enemies of Honyan were the slaves of your bounty.

But he has suffered an infamy. They maliciously hastened irreparable loss, and is overwhelmed to obscure the days of declining life ; with sorrow. Suffer him to relinquish and whilst age was whitening his his station, and forego his honours ; locks, he heard the hailstones of per- since he is neither capable of acting secution clattering against his dwell with resolution, nor of suffering with ing. Yet the angel of death disap- constancy; and can neither discharge pointed the designs of malevolence; the obligations of office, nor enjoy the and the eyes of Honyan were for ever splendour of distinction.” closed, ere the quiver of defamation The emperor, though unwilling to was exhausted.

deprive himself of the services of one His son, who was engaged in a dis- who so justly merited his favo'ır, and tant province of the empire, on the so completely possessed his confidence, news of his father's illness, hurried, was pleased with his candour, and with pious precipitance, to the scene granted his request. The resignation of sorrow; but the groan of departing of Pootala was accepted, and the gelife had already escaped, and the lips neral retired, oppressed with sentiof instruction were eternally sealed. ments of gratitude and joy. He imThe storm of slander, though its vio- mediately repaired to his paternal lence had ceased, had not yet wholly estate, and found sufficient satisfacsubsided. The son of Honyan heard tion in recalling filial recollections, its fury, and trembled for his safety. and in retracing

juvenile scenes. But He had for some time successfully public curiosity was not content to headed the Chinese army: he had de- allow him that repose, which was the seated the troops of the Khan, and object of his search.' The novelty of



Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino. his retreat afforded a suitable topic of guished by his zeal in the cause of discussion, to a class of men who are literature, he gave his sentiments on found alike in every civilized commu- the subject of the merits of Plato, and nity. By some of these, his conduct of the true principles of translation was imputed to a desire of ascertain- sentiments which evince the purity of ing his influence at court; and by his taste, and the early correctness of others, to a wish of sounding public his judgment. opinion. Many regarded it as an arti- Though I always entertained a fice for the concealment of pusillani- regard for your favourite Plato, (for I mity, and more as the consequence may justly denominate him your faof some private mortification in the vourite, since you have so frequently fulfilment of his office. He was altern- maintained his cause against the aniately applauded for his magnanimity, madversions of the unlearned,) yet I censured for his imprudence, admired must confess that my fondness for him for his modesty, and despised for his has greatly increased, since I underpresumption. Pootala could not but took to translate this dialogue into the be aware of the interest which he ex- Latin tongue. No composition can cited; and for some time diverted possibly be found, which is charactehimself with the reports which loqua- rized by sounder philosophy or more city had circulated, the conjectures striking eloquence. Of this I am still which assurance had confirmed, and more persuaded than I formerly was, the censures which impertinence had in consequence of my being compelled, pronounced. But his pleasures were in the course of my late employment, suddenly interrupted by a summons to accurately to weigh, and minutely to appear before Kaung-hi, to whom he examine, his style and sentiments

. was accused of having resigned bis Greatly, therefore, am I indebted to command, in consequence of a secret my father and friend Colucio for the and mercenary contract with the enemy pleasure which he has procured me of his country. To confute an accu- by the injunction of this task. For, sation equally unfounded and danger- formerly, I had only seen Plato; but ous, he consented to resume his post, now I flatter myself I am well acafter having been apprised that his quainted with him. If I shall be able future success was to be the argument to finish my version according to my of his fidelity and allegiance; and that ideas and wishes, I assure you, Nicloss of victory would be punished by colo, you will prefer the dignity of his the forfeiture of life. He renewed the writings to all other compositions campaign, and returned decisively tri- which have hitherto attracted your umphant. His character was justified, attention. He is an author of the and his adversaries were punished; greatest urbanity, and of the most and“ he has bequeathed to posterity," consummate skill and subtlety in disadds the traditionary legend, a putation; and the rich and divine senpowerful enforcement of this truth ; timents of his interlocutors are interthat every station is alike obnoxious spersed with the most engaging suavity to the stratagems of falsehood, and and incredible copiousness of diction. that it is the province of Heaven alone His style is flowing, and wonderfully to exhibit the graces of innocence, by graceful. You find in it nothing launravelling the intrigues of guilt.” boured or overcharged—but it evinces

throughout a complete command of

language, and the utmost facility and OF LEONARDO ARETINO,

elegance of expression. Such is the

character of the original Greek. If (Continued from col. 308.)

my Latin version should not exhibit During the residence of the pontifical the qualities which I have just enucourt at Viterbo, Leonardo resumed merated, I must declare that the fault his literary pursuits, which had been is mine; and that my readers do not so disagreeably interrupted by the peruse Plato, but my fruitless atcivic tumults of Rome. It was at this tempts to imitate him. Though I am period that, in compliance with the determined to use my utmost endeawishes of Colucio Salutati, he trans- vour to avoid this imputation

of failure, lated into Latin the Phædon of Plato. I dare not assure myself of success, In the following letter to Niccolo Nic- But this I think I can promise, that I coli, a citizen of Florence, distin- I shall enable you to read Plato with





Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.

422 ease and pleasure; which, in my opi- | he was attacked at Viterbo, he could nion, has not been effected by Calci- not procure either wine or medical dius, nor by the other translator who assistance, to upbraid him as being has wisely suppressed his name. The too much attached to corporeal pleaprinciples of their version are different sures. To these reproaches Leonardo from those of mine. For, neglecting forbore making any direct reply ; but the spirit of Plato, they have exhibited retaliated upon Colucio, by some sarmerely his words and form of expres-castic remarks upon the style of the sion. But I have endeavoured to im- / letter in which they were conveyed. bibe his spirit, and to translate him in For this flippancy, however, he cansuch a manner as he would have been didly imputed to himself considerable likely himself to approve, had he been blame, in a letter to Niccolo Niccoli, skilled in the Latin language. In the of the date of the 20th of March, 1406, first place, therefore, I scrupulously in which he thus expresses himself:preserve all his sentiments." In the “ Not daring to trust myself to reply second place, I make a point of adopt- to this imputation, I passed over that ing a literal translation, whenever that part of his epistle; but I made some can be done without degenerating into satirical animadversions upon a few inelegance. But in cases in which slight inaccuracies which I had obthis is impossible, I am not so timid served in his expressions, for which I as to think myself guilty of high-trea- am now sorry; for it would have been son, if, with a view of avoiding incon- much more proper to bear with his illgruity of phrase whilst I preserve the humour, especially as I shall ever sense, I deviate from the words of my continue, as I have hitherto done, to author. In this I am countenanced revere him as a father.” by Plato himself: for it is not to be Leonardo did not enjoy the satisfacsupposed that he, who was renowned tion of a reconciliation with his offendamongst his countrymen for the ele- ed patron. On the 4th of May, 1406, gance of his diction, would wish to be Colucio died. The intelligence of represented as speaking barbarous this event, which reached Leonardo

as he was travelling from Cesena to From this epistle, which bears the Rimini, on his road to Florence, overdate of the 5th of September, 1405, it whelmed him with sorrow. “I hoped," appears that Leonardo about this time says he in a letter to Niccolo Niccoli, composed a oration in praise of the “ to have spent some pleasant days in city of Florence. In this composition the Tuscan capital. But I now find he proposed to himself, as a model, that I shall come, not to the participathe oration of Aristides in praise of tion of pleasure, but of sorrow. For Athens.t It is mentioned with com- how can I behold without tears the mendation by Poggio and Gianozzo street in which our friend resided, Manetti, but it has not yet been the public buildings and temples of printed. I

Florence, in which I was accustomed From the pleasure which Leonardo for so long a space of time to hold seems to have experienced in comply- converse with that most excellent ing with the wishes of Colucio Salu- man. With what spirits can I revisit tati , by undertaking the version of the you and the rest of our common friends

we may estimate the uncasi- who, I doubt not, are deeply affected ness which he felt on being apprised, by this mournful event. But I must early in the ensuing year, that the af- close my letter, for I am prevented fections of this protector of his early from proceeding by my tears. Be so youth were entirely alienated from good, however, as to present the offer him. The first intimation which he of my best services to Bonifacio and received of this circumstance was con- his other sons, and also to his nephew veyed in a letter from Colucio, who Giovanni. For as their father contook occasion, from the complaint of stantly treated me with the kindness his young friend, that during the con- of a parent, it is proper that I should tinuance of a violent fever, by which regard them as my brothers.”I



* Leonardi Aretini Epistolæ, lib. i. ep. 8.
+ Mehi Vita Leonardi Aretini, p. 61.
; Leonardi Aret. Epist. lib. i. ep. 4.

Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. i. ep.10. lib. X. ep.5.
Mehi Vita Colucii Salutati, p. 74.
Leonardi Aret. Epist. lib. i. ep. 12.

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