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423

Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.

424

Soon after the death of Colucio, | of his master, therefore, Leonardo, Leonardo meditated the design of tes- though not without reluctance, quitted tifying his gratitude to his deceased Rome, on a mission into Lombardy benefactor, by celebrating his virtues and the Marca d’Ancona. In this in a funeral oration. But in the pro- mission he was employed till the latter gress of this work he was embarrassed, end of June, when he arrived at Viby the consciousness that the life of terbo on his return to Rome. At the subject of his panegyric was desti- Viterbo he was detained many days tute of those splendid events, the re- by his dread of the Neapolitan troops, cording of which can alone render such whose hostile incursions rendered tracompositions permanently interesting. velling - extremely dangerous.|| He As no oration of this description has had, however, at length the good fors yet been found in the libraries of Italy, tune to surmount all difficulties; and it is probable that the abovementioned in the month of July, he arrived in circumstance induced him to relin- safety in the pontifical capital. quish his undertaking. In conse- Soon after the return of Leonardo quence of this determination, though to the papal court, the good effects of we must applaud the discretion of his negociations were experienced, in Leonardo in not attempting to grace pacific overtures, which were made to the character of his friend, by ascrib- his Holiness on the part of the king of ing to it a factitious importance, we Naples. By the mediation of Paulo, have to lament the suppression of the chief of the illustrious family of anecdotes relative to the life of a scho- | the Orsini, these overtures were speelar, who by his literary merits raised dily ripened into a treaty of peace; himself to the chancellorship of the according to the tenor of which LadisTuscan republic. *

laus, on the 9th of August, surrendered In the letter in which Leonardo an- to the pontiff the castle of St. Angelo. nounced to Niccolo Niccoli his unfor- This event seemed to insure the futunate altercation with Colucio, he ture tranquillity of Innocent, who, by apprised his correspondent that the the influence of his good character, no pontifical court was about to be trans- less than by the terror of his power, ferred from Viterbo to Rome. This had subdued the seditious spirit of his change of residence, which he ascribed subjects. But this gleam of hope was to the intrigues of a few interested the serenity of the setting sun. On and ambitious individuals, was by no the 6th day of November, the church means pleasing to his feelings. He was deprived of a pontiff, who is chadreaded the hostile and seditious spi- racterised, by a most respectable Itarit of the Roman citizens. Nor could lian historian, as worthy of general he be persuaded that the pontiff could commendation, on account of the safely reside in his capital, whilst the mildness of his temper, bis abhorrence castle of St. Angelo was garrisoned of simony, and the benevolence of by the enemy.t These considerations his disposition. Sí The circumstances did not, however, prevent Innocent which attended his death are thus narfrom proceeding to Rome; in which rated by Leonardo in a letter to Francity he arrived on the 13th of Marcb, cesco, prince of Cortona. 1406.I

“ So various are the opinions and In the course of a very short period suspicions which bave been circulated of time, events but too well justified in the very city-nay, in the very the fears which Leonardo entertained house in which the pontiff died, that I of the rebellious disposition of the am by no means surprised that you Romans. In the beginning of April, have received contradictory accounts the pontiff was reduced to the neces of the particulars of that event. The sity of applying to his allies for assist- pontifical court swarms with men of ance; and it is a proof of the high esti- malignant minds; some of whom are mation in which he now held Leonardo, prone to give credit to every sinister that on this occasion he determined to report, while others are so abandoned delegate to bim the important office of as to propagate calumnious stories, confidential envoy. At the command which they do not themselves believe.

* Leonardi Aret. Epist. lib. xi. ep. 1.
+ Ibid. Jib. i. ep. 10.
# Maratori Aonali, tom. ix. p. 33.

$ Leonardi Aret. Epist. lib. i. ep. 11.

Ibid. lib. i. ep. 14.
Maratori Aupali, tom. is. p. 33.

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Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.The Stayed Man.

426

As for myself, as far as I was enabled Christendom was at this time disto judge by my personal observation, tracted, by the celebrated schism of I am firmly persuaded that the pontiff the west. For the space of eightdied a natural death. For what occa- and-twenty years, the true believers sion is there to impute to extraordi- had been scandalized by the .coexistnary causes the decease of a man of ence of two pontiffs ; each claiming upwards of seventy years of age, the power of the keys, and each anawhose constitution was broken by ill thematizing his rival and his adhehealth? For this was not the first rents. The competitor of the deceased time of his being attacked by infirmity. pontiff was Pietro da Luna, who, on To my own certain knowledge, besides his election, which took place at Avighis being occasionally subject to the non in the year 1393, had assumed the gout and to pains in his side, he was name of Benedict XIII. twice seized by apoplectic fits,-in a After the funeral of Innocent, the slight degree at Rome, and afterwards, Cardinals, who were assembled in with more alarming symptoms, at Vi- conclave 'at Rome, deliberated far terbo, when he was sitting in the hall some time whether they should decline of audience. On the latter occasion, proceeding to an election, or choose a had not I and some others of his at- new pontiff in the place of the detendants, who happened to be present, ceased. Their hesitation was occarun to his assistance, he would have sioned by the following circumstance. fallen from his chair in the presence The Princes of France had induced of the whole assembly. We carried Benedict most solemnly to promise him into his chamber, where he lay that he would abdicate the papal chair, almost lifeless and unable to speak. in case that the Italian cardinals should By the long and assiduous attendance forbear from proceeding to a new elecof his physicians, he at length escaped, tion, or that the pontiff whom they or rather, for a little while deferred his might choose should voluntarily vadeath. In the month of March, 1407, | cate the pontifical throne, in order he returned 10 Rome; and during the that by an union of the two colleges a warmth of the summer he seemed to pontiff might be nominated, whose be tolerably well, but on the approach appointment would meet with the of winter he was again attacked by the approbation of all Christendom. complaint which put a period to his “ This," as Leonardo Aretino oblife. There was this difference be- serves,t“ was certainly a pious protween the sickness with which he was vision of the Gallic princes--a proseized at Viterbo, and that which ter- vision which deserved the commendaminated in his death; that in the tion of all the faithful. For no end former, his speech was so much af- could be expected to be put to the fected that he could scarcely make schism, whilst each party stood upon himself understood, whereas in the the footing of right; especially as in latter he had no impediment in the this cause no judge was competent to use of his tongue. In the former decide, except God himself.' case, too, he was cross and peevish ;

(To be continued.) tle and meek. Four days before his death, I introduced into his chamber certain messengers,

CHARACTER OF THE STAYED MAN, who had been sent by the Florentine He is a man-one that has taken people to announce to him the capture order with himself, and sets a rule to of Pisa. With these he conversed those lawlessnesses within him: whose with so much ease, that he did not life is distinct and in method, and his appear to be at all troubled with sick- actions as it were cast up before ; ness; and with so much patience and not loosed into the world's vanities, politeness, that he stretched his naked but gathered up and contracted in foot from under the bed-clothes, in his station. Not scattered into many order that they might have the honour pieces of businesses ; but that one of kissing it. He died at Rome, in the course he takes, goes through with. Vatican church, where his remains are A man firm, and standing in his purdeposited."*

poses; not heaved off with each wind

in the latter,

* Leonardi Aret. Epist. lib. ii. ep, 2. No. 27.-VOL. III.

+ Leonardi Aret. Epist. lib. ii. e 2 E

..ep. 3.

TO MAKE GINGER BEER.

I am,

427

To make Ginger Beer.— Foundation of the Popedom. 428 and passion. That squares his ex-abler to any thing than to make pense to his coffers, and makes the verses. total first, and then the items. One From a curious little work entitled, that thinks wbat he does, and does “ Characters,” by EDWARD BLUNT, what he says; and foresees what he published in the year 1669. may do, before he purposes. One whose if I can, is more than another's assurance, and his doubtful tale before some men's protestations; that is confident of nothing in futurity, yet

MR. EDITOR. his conjectures oft true prophecies; SIR,—Mr. Matterson, chemist, Leeds, that makes a pause betwixt his can having observed in your valuable puband believe, and is not too hasty to lication, col. 344, a Receipt for Ginger say after others. One whose tongue Beer, handed to you by Mr. Wright; is strung up like a clock till the time, and knowing the same to be incorrect, and then strikes, and says much when has directed me to send you the folhe talks little ; that can see the truth lowing. betwixt two wranglers, and who sees

pro Edward Matterson, them agree even in that they fall out

Your obt. and humble Servant,

GEORGE SMITH. upon; that speaks no rebellion in a bravery, or talks big from the spirit of sack. A man cool and temperate in

Receipt. his passions, not easily betrayed by Indian raw Sugar 2} oz. his choler; that vies not oath with Carbonate of Soda 2 drams, oath, nor heat with heat, but replies

Ginger in powder 1 ditto, mixed. calmly to an angry man, and is too This makes the first six powders, to be hard for him too, that can come fairly wrapt in blue papers. off from captain's companies, and Tartaric Acid 2: drams, neither drink nor quarrel. One whom Essence of Lemons 12 drops, no ill hunting sends home discon- mixed together; these will constitute tented, and makes him swear at his the other six powders, wrapt in white dogs and family. One not hasty to

paper. pursue the new fashion, nor yet af

Directions. fectedly true to his old round breeches; but gravely handsome, and to his

They may be taken in the manner place, which suits him better than his

as directed by E. Wright in your tailor; active in the world without

Imperial Magazine. disquiet, and careful without misery,

- yet neither ingulft in his pleasures, nor a seeker of businesses; but hath

THE FABULOUS FOUNDATION OF THE his hour for both. A man that seldom laughs violently, but his mirth is A Treatise intended to shew that it a cheerful look; of a composed and cannot be proved that Peter was ever unsettled countenance; not set, not at Rome. Printed at Oxford, 1619. much alterable with sadness or joy: (The author, as appears from the Dehe affects nothing so wholly, that he dication, was Richard Bernard.) must be a miserable man when he Although it is properly proclaimed loses it; but forethinks what will to be the intention of the Editor not come hereafter, and spares fortune to admit into the Imperial Magazine his thanks and curses. One that loves Controversies on whole Systems of his credit, not this word reputation; Divinity, yet an abstract of the conyet can save both without a duel: tents of this old tract may be both whose entertainments to greater men amusing and instructive to your reaare respectful, not complimentary; ders; many of whom, though and to his friends

plain, not rude. A from Popery, may have suffered the good husband, father, master; that is opinion of Peter's having resided at without doting, pampering' famili- Rome, if not of his having been the arity. A man well poised in all hu- first bishop of that church, to become mours; in whom nature shew'd most settled in their minds, simply from its geometry; and he hath not spoil'd the having been generally credited. work. A man of more wisdom than *ness, and brain than fancy; and foundation, that Peter was bishop of

The fabric of Popery rests on this

POPEDOM:

averse

429

Fabulous Foundation of the Popedom.

430

we

nion;

Rome; and let Protestants bring what Rome was not sufficient to make the arguments they may, to convict Papists apostle bishop of that city, as of errors in doctrine, and of vicious understand the word bishop, must be conduct, yet all will be unavailing, granted; for then he had been bishop so long as they are permitted to take of Jerusalem, Cæsarea, Samaria, Lydshelter under the authority of the apos- da, Joppa, Antioch, and Babylon; tle Peter, or of his supposed successor which Papists will not allow of. But, the Pope of Rome. It is, therefore, certainly, residence in a place was the object of the following Essay to necessary, to constitute the apostle prove, that so far from having been bishop of that place; and the reason bishop of Rome, the apostle Peter given by the Popish champion, that was never in that city; and this will Clement V., John XXII., Benedict be done by appeals to the sacred XII., Clement VI., and Innocent VII. Scriptures, to authentic history, and were made bishops in France, and to common sense.

there abode, is flatly contrary to It must be admitted to have been an Scripture, and the practice of the ancient opinion, that Peter had been primitive church. And if Peter must at Rome, and that he sealed the truth be bishop, why not denominate his with his blood in that city :- but it see from the place of his residence ? must also be allowed, that antiquity But before Bellarmine, all Popish of itself is not a sufficient warrant for writers made it necessary that he us to place implicit faith in this opi- should reside at Rome; and for that

for there is an antiquity of error purpose, they asserted that the see as well as of truth; nor has this story was transferred from Antioch; and been first questioned in our day, as they even affect to show the chair the cardinal Baronius would persuade wherein he used to sit. us to believe: Whitakers and Mor- It will be admitted, that the Canoneus are evidences to the contrary; nical Scripture is entirely silent and Marsilius Patavinus discussed respecting any visit, or intended visit, the question in the days of the empe- of Peter to Rome; but considerable ror Lodowick, about 200 (400) years importance is attached by Papists to ago. Even Bellarmine acknowledges these words of our Saviour to this that Wickliffe, and Williams his mas- postle, “Feed my sheep,” and “I ter, called this matter in question; will give unto thee the keys of the and the archbishop of Spalatra men= kingdom of heaven,” Matt. xvi. 19. tions Firmilianus in the days of Cy- They seek in these words his supreprian, who doubted whether the bishop macy; but by what quintessence of of Rome sat in Peter's chair, and was wit do they find Rome there? The his successor.

Other writers on the most proper comment on the above same subject are, Valenus, Bale, L. quoted words, is contained in the 20th Osiander, Reneccius, Functius, Mag- chapter of John, ver. 21 to 23; deburgensis, Illiricus, Sibrandus Lub- my Father hath sent me, even so send bertus, Polanus, Willet, Junius, Hel- I you. And when he had said this, he vicus, Broughton, Rickerman, and breathed on them, and said, Receive others; who all had doubts whether ye the Holy Ghost; whose soever sins the commonly received opinion of ye remit, they are remitted unto them; Peter's residence at, or even visit to, and whose soever sins ye retain, they Rome, were true. And, indeed, só are retained.” There, no more is given strong are the arguments which these to St. Peter than to any other apostle, writers have advanced, that Bellar- a plenary power being given to each; mine is obliged to have recourse to a and the only reason which can be given miserable shift; and to say, that it is why Peter is particularly mentioned is, neither requisite nor sufficient to make that in the first instance, Matt. xvi. 19. Peter bishop of Rome, to prove that he was first to acknowledge Jesus he had been there.-(De rem Pontif. Christ as the Messiah; and in the se

cond place, having forfeited his aposBut though this is his assertion, he tleship by the denial of his Master, was well convinced of the importance that dignity is restored to him in the of proving the affirmative of the pro- words "Feed my sheep.” That the position; and accordingly he labours power of the keys was not exclusively mightily to make a good appcarance in Peter, is plain from the practice of of the matter. That his presence at St. Paul'; but if it must be, that the

66 As

lib. ii. c. 1.)

481

Fabulous Foundation of the Popedom. 432 words of Christ put Peter into the Jerusalem was held in the 10th year possession of his bishopric at Rome, from the conversion of St. Paul; to what reason can be given why he this adding seven years for his abode went, (as Bellarmine earnestly con- at Antioch, there remain but nine tends against Onuphrius that he did,) years, instead of 25, for his residence in the first place to Antioch, there to at Rome; and as for what Eusebius be bishop? If he was bishop of An- says, that he founded a church at Antioch for seven years before he went tioch, it is flatly against the authority to Rome, why is it that Antioch docs of Scripture, Acts xi. 19, 26. not possess the supremacy? How are A second reason for believing that we to know that the see was trans- Peter never was at Rome is, that his ferred from Antioch to Rome, if there journeying thither, spoken of by Meis no evidence of his having resided in taphrastes, the revelation of the transthe latter city? And when these ques- lation of his seat from Antioch to tions are answered, I would demand, Rome, mentioned in Gratian's dedid Christ speak these words to Peter crees, and his death as described by as an apostle, or as a bishop? If they | Linus, who is said to have been his were addressed to him as to a bishop, successor, are rejected as untruths by then Christ spake to him, not as to a three learned cardinals, Baronius, prince of the apostles, but as to one Causanius, and Bellarmine. Again, inferior to them all: for the apostles the holy Scriptures are entirely silent could and did make bishops, but no on the subject; though the fact is said man could make an apostle but Jesus to be of so great importance by the Christ himself.

Papists, as to be the foundation of It has been urged, that Peter would their faith; all who do not believe it necessarily choose the principal city being accounted heretics. And surely of the world for his principal seat; if the Papists are right, it was much but this is merely begging the ques- more important that Peter's journey tion: for if there be no evidence that to Rome should be recorded, than that he did choose this city for his princi- of Paul; and yet we find that the latpal seat, what men may imagine will ter went thither by revelation, though have little weight in an argument. not one word is said of the journey of But not only is there no evidence of the former. his having ever been at Rome; but A fourth reason is, the covenant there is the most positive proof that made between Peter and Paul; that can be expected on such a point, that the former should go to the Jews, and he never was there: we will examine the latter to the Gentiles : which covethese reasons in order.

nant was made on the effectual work The Papists say, that Peter went of God, seen plainly in the ministry of first to Rome in the second year of Peter towards the Jews, and Paul the emperor Claudius; but in the towards the Gentiles: to the one was Scriptures we find him before, at that committed the gospel of the circumtime and after, in Jerusalem, Judea, cision, and to the other the gospel of and the borders of that country; be- the uncircumcision, with the consent yond which he never went until after of the other apostles. Peter, therethe Council at Jerusalem, seven years fore, confined his labours principally after the second of Claudius. They to the Jews, to whom he wrote his also believe that he was bishop of Epistles; and at the time of the CounRome for the space of 25 years, after cil at Jerusalem, seven years after the having been bishop of Antioch seven time when it is feigned that he had years; and that he suffered martyr- taken up his residence at Rome, the dom at the same time with the apos- only instance which he could allege of tle Paul. But Epiphanius says that his ministry among the Gentiles was, Paul suffered death in the 12th year of that which took place at Cæsarea, Nero; and Baronius fixes that event when Cornelius was converted. Unin the 13th of that emperor, which less, therefore, we are to regard St. was about 33 or 34 years after his con- Peter as a covenant-breaker, we version. Bellarmine himself allows cannot suppose him to be bishop of that Peter abode in Judea five years, Rome. in Antioch seven, and at Rome 25, which added together make many preached to the Jews, and therefore

It may be objected, that Paul ore than Peter lived; the Council at there could be no harm in Peter's

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