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434 preaching to the Gentiles; but this power of the last-named apostle, if he was out of the ordinary course: Paul was incapable of stopping the mouth was to offer salvation to the Jews, of this heretic. Simon is described but be was principally sent to the as deceiving and seducing the people : Gentilés ; Peter was more especially and though Paul must have been there sent to the Jews, and therefore could before, Peter must be sent for from hot go to Rome, the principal seat of Jerusalem or Antioch to do this work ; the Gentiles, to teach them. The Jews and this notwithstanding that Paul at Rome were few; and Peter could was more particularly sent to preach not leave so many myriads in Judea to the Romans. and in the East, to teach these few at a The manner of Simon's travelling to distance: and when Paul was brought Rome is variously described by auto Rome, long after Peter is said to thors; but all these accounts are suffihave been bishop of that place, he ciently curious to deserve mention : found the Jews deplorably ignorant of Eusebius says he went by sea; this Christianity; which we cannot believe Egesippus denies, asserting that he would have been the case, if Peter flew through the air; to which Clehad been so long employed in in- ment adds, that he was lifted up of structing them.
devils ; and Sulpitius confirms the acBut the object of St. Peter's visit to count of Clement, saying that he was Rome deserves attention: it is indeed borne along by two evil spirits. It is an uncommonly curious one. He did most commonly reported that the connot take this journey to translate his test was between Simon and Peter; seat from Antioch thither, to make but Cyril, Sulpitius, Ambrose, and the Pope the prince of prelates, and Gregory Turonensis, say he was overthe Church of Rome the bead of all come by Peter and Paul. Egesippus churches,-no such thing; but he came and Clement describing the event say, thither for no other purpose than to that in the conflict he fell down and oppose Simon Magus, who was broach- broke his legs and joints; of which he ing his heresies in that city. We are some time after died. Eusebius retold of this Simon, that while resident ports that the conflict was in the reign in Judea he was prince of heretics, a of Claudius ; but Egesippus makes it great adversary of the apostles, and to be towards the end of the reign of in a particular manner à malicious Nero, who on account of the death of dealer against Peter; to avoid whom Simon put Peter to death: so that by he fled from Judea to Rome. The this reckoning the apostle was 25 years book which contains this account gives in conquering this sorceror, though he to Peter the title of Prince of the Apos- came post to Rome for this express tles ; and this, which is contrary to purpose, by the inspiration of God, Luke xxii. 25, 26. is sufficient to ren- and fenced with divine armour. Belder the story suspected by all Pro- larmine, indeed, endeavours to save testants. Neither do we read that the credit of the apostle's power; but Simon opposed St. Peter ; rather he at the same time involves himself in a was struck with fear, requesting Pe- confusion from which there is no reter and John to pray for him; and with tracting : he asserts, that though the regard to the flight of Simon to Rome apostle came to the imperial city for to avoid Peter, it is rendered very the purpose of putting down the prince improbable by the consideration, that of heresies, yet he quitted it again the apostles did not continue at Sama- without having accomplished his purria, where Simon was; but went to pose ; and that Simon continued to Jerusalem, leaving the magician be- flourish until Peter came again. hind them: and after that time the But what we have already related Scripture says nothing more concern- forms but a small part of the contraing him.
dictions in which Popish writers inWe have already mentioned the ig- volve themselves to support a fable. borance of the Jews at Rome con- Bellarmine says, that Peter continued cerning Jesus Christ, as a reason for in Judea but five years after Christ's refusing our belief to the story of St. passion ; but Onuphrius says nine: Peter's being resident in that city Bellarmine reports, that the apostle when Paul was first carried thither; went to Rome in the second of Clauand surely we must be led to entertain dius; which Cajetane denies, affirma very humble opinion of the zeal and ing that he was at Jerusalení in' the
435 Foundation of the Popedom.-Chemical Essays. 436 sixth or seventh year of that emperor. more, when Paul went from JerusaSome Popish authors believe that he lem to Tarsus, Acts ix, 30. Gal. ii. 11, went from Jerusalem to Rome; but and then to Antioch, where he abode Anacletus will have it that Antioch with Barnabas a whole year, Acts xi. was his seat before he went to Rome; 26. and then both were sent to Jeruthis Onuphrius denies, placing him salem with relief to the saints, Acts xi, first at Rome, then at Antioch, and 30. which was in the 13th of Paul's afterwards at Rome again; and Ante-conversion, Peter was not at Rome, rius the Pope, according to Nicepho- neither had been there; for Bellarrus, speaks also of his seat at Alex- mine allows these seven years to be andria. Bellarmine and other authors spent at Antioch ; at which place he place the apostle at Antioch for seven supposes Peter to have been bishop at years; which the Cardinal Cortesius this time. But that this supposition, reduces to five, adding these words, and his planting a church there, at “ Nullum gravem authorem septen- least at this time, is incorrect, appears nium illud approbare;” and these are from this: that no apostle taught first but a part of the stories which have at Antioch, Acts viii. 1. and xi. 19, 20. been invented to uphold this prolific The first person of note was Barnabas, belief,
who brought Paul from Tarsus, Acts xi. The contradictions between them, 25, 26. which needed not to have been regarding Peter's abode in Rome, are done if Peter had been there before. as great as those respecting his arrival Besides, before Paul went to Antioch, there. Some make him resident at Peter was at Jerusalem, Acts xi. 2.; his bishopric 25 years; but Onuphrius and when Paul came with Barnabas to reports that he kept both that and Antioch, Peter was in prison at JeruAntioch at the same time. Bellar- salem, Acts xii. 3. so that for 12 years mine says he was absent for a few of Paul's conversion, Peter not having years, and Cortesius 16 years, from been at Antioch, could not have been the 11th of Claudius to the 30th of at Rome, Nero, the year before he died, ac
[To be concluded in our next.] cording to the same accounts. But if a true chronology be made of St. Paul's travels, from the time of his
CHEMICAL ESSAYS, BY H, B. conversion to his death, it will appear
FEB, 15, 1821. that St. Peter was not at Rome during the first-named apostle's life; and,
Essay I.-On Caloric. consequently, as they are supposed CALOric is that principle which has to have died nearly about the same been termed heat, fire, matter of heat, period, St. Peter could never have and igneous fluid. It pervades all resided at Rome.
nature, and is contained in all bodies. St. Paul was converted in the year It is that principle which supports after our Lord's passion, in the year animal and vegetable life ; for when of Christ 35, and 19th of Tiberius. an animal or vegetable is deprived of Baronius affirms that Peter and Paul it to a certain extent, it inevitably suffered in the 13th of Nero ; and perishes. When a sufficient quantity Epiphanius refers this event to the of it is accumulated in our bodies, it 12th of that emperor, which will be produces a peculiar sensation, which the 33rd or 34th after our Lord's death; we term heat; the abstraction of and this is more likely to be correct which by other bodies, containing a than what Bellarmine advances, that smaller quantity, produces the sensa Paul suffered in the 37th year after his tion to which we give the name of conversion : for from the 19th of Tibe- cold. We are not to suppose, howrius, the year of Paul's conversion, to ever, that a frigorific principle actually the beginning of the 12th of Nero, are exists: the sensation of cold which 33 years, one month, three weeks, and we experience, is to be attributed en12 days. It is granted by Bellarmine, tirely to the abstraction of caloric. and not denied by any, that Peter was, This principle has a continual tenduring the first five years of Paul's dency to promote equilibrium of temconversion, in Judea and its neigh-perature in all bodies: for if a body bourhood, 'as is concluded from Acts which contains a small quantity of ix. 32 to 43. X. 24 to 48, and xi. 2. caloric be brought near to, or in conGal. i. 18.
Then, after seven years tact with, a body which contains
439 large quantity, the latter will impart have endeavoured to shew that this its excess to the former, until an equi- explanation is insufficient, and have librium is established.
adopted the opinion of Bacon. RumIn prosecuting this important sub- ford had observed, that in the boring ject, we shall consider first the nature of cannon much heat is rendered senof caloric; secondly, its effects upon sible by the friction of the borer. To different bodies; thirdly, the laws by ascertain its quantity, he fixed a solid which it is regulated; fourthly, the cylinder of brass in a trough filled quantities which different substances with water; and having adapted the contain; and lastly, the sources of the borer to it, it was made to revolve at variations of temperature, and the the rate of 32 times in a minute. Heat application of these to practical che- was soon excited: in an hour the temmistry.
perature had risen from 60° to 107°;
and in two hours and a half the water 1. The Nature of Caloric.
was brought to boil, the quantity of Different opinions have been enter the water being 18 lbs: the apparatas tained with regard to the nature of itself, which weighed 15lbs. was raised caloric: some have supposed that it to the same temperature: the source is not a material agent, but that it of this caloric, he conceives, could not arises from violent motion in the inter- arise from a diminution of capacity nal parts of bodies; whilst others con- for caloric, since the capacity of the ceive it to be a subtile, active fluid, borings of the metal he found to be which pervades all bodies. Bacon, the same as that of the solid metal; Boyle, Newton, and Macquer, enter that the atmospheric air had no share tained the former opinion; whilst in producing the heat, was evident Homberg, Lundey, and Boerhaave, from the circumstance of the apparatus together with the greater number of being surrounded with water; nor chemists, advocated the latter. Ba- could it be produced by the water, con, finding that motion and percus- since that underwent no chemical sion increased the temperature of change; and the other surrounding bodies, concluded that heat arose bodies, instead of communicating, from the vibration of their particles: received the heat that was generated. he says, heat is an expansive motion, He concludes, that any thing which tending to dilate the body in which it any insulated body or bodies can furhappens; although, however, there is nish without limitation,
cannot posa tendency in the smaller particles to sibly be a material substance ;' and he expand, this motion is restrained, and adds, “it is extremely difficult, if not a kind of vibration is produced: his impossible, to form any distinct idea
“ Calor est motus expansi- of any thing capable of being excited vus, cohibitus et nitens per partes and communicated, in the manner the minores." The following facts appear heat was excited and communicated to confirm this opinion.
in these experiments, except it be If a piece of iron be placed upon an motion.” anvil, and forcibly struck for a length Boyle made two pieces of brass to of time, it becomes heated; and if the rub against each other in the exbeating be continued, the iron arrives hausted receiver of an air-pump; by at a state of ignition. If a solid body which means he guarded against any rapidly revolves round another body, deception which might be supposed to considerable heat is produced ; and if arise from the communication of calothe motion be very rapid, ignition ric by surrounding bodies ; still, howtakes place. Two pieces of hard wood ever, a sensible degree of heat was may be kindled by friction; and it is soon excited. Pictet and Mr. Davy well known that caloric is generated made some similar experiments; the by the collision of flint and steel. effects of which were the same; and
Those who favoured the opinion they were led to draw similar concluthat caloric was material, supposed sions. Mr. Davy, by rubbing togethat in these instances the caloric ther two pieces of ice, caused a sufficontained in the body was driven out cient degree of heat to melt them. In by the efforts of the motion and per- this experiment, he did not conceive cussion, which forced the particles that the heat arose from a diminution into a state of greater aggregation. of capacity; for water has a greater Some modern chemists, however, capacity for caloric than ice: nor
449 could it have arisen from any chemical culty which remains, therefore, iq action of the atmospheric air, since establishing this opinion is, to acice is not acted on by air or any of count for the fact of caloric being proits principles. In other experiments, duced by friction and percussion. caloric was evolved when the friction Independent of the conclusions was excited in vacuo. From tbese which have been drawn by those who experiments, Mr. Davy inferred, that consider caloric to be a vibratory mocaloric must be derived from the tion of the particles of bodies; those motion and vibration of the particles who have adopted the opposite opiof bodies, since he conceived it impos- nion bave come to different conclusible to account for its production in sions, by explaining, iņ a different any other way.
manner, the experiments of their opThe opinion which other chemists ponents: thus, for instance, they remaintain, namely, that caloric is a gard the caloric arising from percusmaterial substance, is also supported sion, as an effeet of the condensation by a number of facts; if, for example, of the particles of that body which is caloric be applied to a body, whether submitted to percussion: the partisolid, fluid, or aerial, the bulk of that cles, they maintain, are forced into a body is very much enlarged: thus, more intimate union; and the caloric when caloric is applied to water, it which they contain is evolved. Dr, increases its volume 1800 times; and Murray says, “ It is far from being when it is applied to atmospheric air, improbable, that the part of the body or any gas, a very considerable expan- submitted to friction, and giving out sion takes place: now upon the sup- the caloric in consequence of it, may position that caloric is a mere vibra- receive caloric from the rest of the tory motion, consisting of an alternate mass; owing to the elasticity of that contraction and dilatation of the minute agent, or its tendency to exist every particles of bodies, it is impossible to where in a state of equilibrium. In account for the permanent increase of the separation of the particles, caloriç volume which takes place. Again, may flow from every side; the layer Pictet found that a thermometer intro- of matter immediately in contact with duced into the exhausted receiver of the surface, in a state of friction, may an air-pump, indicated both an in- afford a quantity, which may be supcrease and decrease of temperature; plied from the matter contiguous to it; and Count Rumford showed, that this and thus a constant evolution may be takes place when the thermometer is kept up. Nor is it impossible, but introduced into the Torricellian vacu- that this may extend to a considerable um. On immersing the apparatus distance from the surface to which the with the thermometer into a quantity friction is applied; and even thro' difof warm water, an increase of tempe- ferent kinds of matter, if they are in rature was indicated; when intro- contact.” He conceives, that there is duced into cold water, the tempera- an analogy in these cases between ture was decreased: these experi- caloric and electricity, as it regards ments are very much relied on by the their production, tending to establish advocates of the materiality of caloric; his position. By friction, electricity for in these cases there is no medium is excited and forced out, while a new by which the vibratory motion can be portion is received from the matter ip produced.
contact with the electric substance, The radiation of caloric is regarded and ultimately from the earth itself. as another proof of its materiality. By this means a constant evolutiop is Something is thrown out in straight' kept up. In the same manner, he conlines from heated bodies, which can tends that caloric may follow the same be reflected and condensed ; and which laws. falling upon oiher bodies, increases There certainly appears to be ap their temperature: now it is difficult analogy in this instance; still, how, to conceive of a vibratory motion ever, it may be very much doubted obeying these laws, and producing whether this can explain, in a satisthese effects. Lastly, the rays of the factory manner, the evolution and sun, which are proved to contain calo- supply of caloric, which take place ric, apart from the rays of light, are in upon percussion. It is difficult to confavour of the opinion, that caloric is a ceive in what way caloric is accumumaterial substance. The only diffi- lated in such a large quantity, when Poetry-Ode to the Genius of Collins.
BY R. T.
a piece of iron is beat by a hammer | periments, with a view to determine for a length of time.
whether caloric is subject to gravitaBerthollet has shewn, by some ex- tion. The result of their experiments periments, that the caloric which is has been, that caloric produces no produced by percussion, is entirely augmentation of weight in those boowing to the reduction of volume, or dies in which it is accumulated; on condensation, which takes place. He the contrary, some of their experiments subjected different metals, gold, sil- seemed to indicate a diminution raver, copper, iron, of the same size, ther than an increase. We may supto the stroke of the press, by which pose, however, that caloric, although the impression is made on coin, and it may be material, is such a subtile ascertained the heat produced, by fluid, that its gravity cannot be ascerthrowing the piece of metal into water, tained by experiment. Its existence immediately after the percussion, hav- in a radiant state, in the solar beam, ing previously ascertained by experi- seems to be the only conclusive argument the relation existing between a ment in favour of its materiality. A certain temperature produced in the decided opinion, however, cannot be water, and the temperature of the given; the presumption, perhaps, is metal plunged into it, so as to draw in favour of its actual existence. the conclusion to what temperature it
(To be continued.) was raised by percussion. At the first stroke, the greatest degree of heat was produced; at the second, less heat was evolved; and at the third,
Poetry. still less. Berthollet farther discovered, that
ODE TO THE GENIUS OF COLLINS. condensation takes place, when bodies are subjected to percussion, and this he was convinced of from the differ- HARK! I hear my breathing lyre, ence of specific gravity which occurs
A spirit mid thy sad and sullen strings! after bodies have been struck: the
A hand sweeps wildly thro' thy quiv'ring wire
As fancy o'er thee spreads her radiant wings! specific gravity of copper before it No mortal touch awakes thee now; was struck was 8.8529, after the first I know that sad and pallid brow, stroke it was 8.8898, and after the se- That starting step and restless eye, cond 8.9081: that of silver previ
And song of mourning ecstasy
O shaded bard, and art thou hear, ous to percussion, was 10.4667; after
Who woke those wilder'd chords of fear? being struck it was 10.4838. The dif
Ruling the rapt and trembling soul, ferent metals, too, gave more heat, as That shrinks before thy dark and dread conthey suffered a greater condensation,
trol! copper having its temperature more
Beyond the faint and shadowy forms raised than silver or gold, and its den- That haunt the earth, or fill the sky, sity being more increased by the ope- Thro' fancied realms, that lie ration. From these experiments, there
Above this mortal bound of calms and storms, fore, it is presumed that heat arises
Ere spheres their radiant course began, from condensation.
His bold enthusiast spirit ran,
And wander'd thro' those paths sublime, Some have attempted to discover
Untrodden by the march of Time, whether caloric is material, by ascer- Where Fate unfolds no book of doom, taining whether there is any difference Nor Nature sighs o'er beauty's tomb; in the
weight of those bodies which But the immortal Sisters, there have been exposed to it. Buffon, and
For ever braid their golden hair,
And bind the Amaranth flowers that glow others, made experiments of this na- On Phæbus' bright and sacred brow; ture; and although the results were But startled at the vision bright, favourable to the opinion that caloric His spirit bow'd, and sank in mental night. is material, inasmuch as bodies exposed to heat indicated an increase
Who now shall breathe, with lips of fire,
The spirit of that sacred band, of their absolute weight; still it was Who first awak'd the Muse's lyre observed, that the sources of fallacy On Græcia's laurellid strand? Were numerous, and that the trisling O sov?reign of the wildly varied song! increase of gravity might be ascribed
"Twas thine to roll the voice along to other circumstances.
That charm'd her sons of elder lore,
To Nature, Truth, and Genius true : Dr. Fordyce, Count Rumford, and What beauties burst upon thy view, other chemists, have made several ex- As with a Prophet's hand, thou bore No. 27,-VOL. III.