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Cruelties in India.
CRUELTIES PRACTISED IN INDIA.
stition, which has no parallel in the
history of tribes the most savage and The name of Mr. Ward is well known barbarous. among the Baptist missionaries, who, A female is despised as soon as she for zeal and usefulness, have of late is born: she comes into the world been so justly distinguished among the amidst the frowns of her parents and idolaters of India.
friends, disappointed that the child is On returning to England, and sur- not a boy. Every mother among the veying the various privileges and bless- tribe of Rajpoots puts her female child ings enjoyed by his countrymen, it was to death as soon as born. While I was natural for him to contrast them with in Bengal, I was informed of the case the barbarities he had been called to of a Rajpoot who had spared one of his witness, during his long absence from daughters, and she lived till she attainhome. In his several discourses, while ed the age when India girls are marmaking an appeal to the judgments riageable. A girl in the house of a Rajand feelings of his hearers, Mr. Ward poot was, however, so extraordinary a gave in detail, to large and deeply affect-circumstance, that no parent chose to ed audiences, particularly in Liverpool, permit his son to marry her. The faa recital of facts that filled every mind ther then became alarmed for her chaswith horror. From these, the impres-tity and the honour of his family, and sion that was made will not be easily he therefore took her aside one day, effaced. But as there are multitudes and with a hatchet cut her to pieces ! within the circulation of the Imperial | These are the circumstances into Magazine, who had not the opportu- which your sex enter into life in Brinity of hearing from his own lips an tish India. account of the melancholy incidents, we
In childhood and youth they have rejoice in being able to furnish, from no education, no cultivation of any his pen, a faithful narration of cruel- kind whatever. There is not a single ties, which cannot be too widely dif- girls' school in all India; and the mofused, nor too deeply deplored.
ther being herself entirely unlettered,
and being the devoted victim of a dark On board the Ship Nestor, for New York. and cruel superstition, is utterly incaOctober 2, 1820.
pable of improving her child. The Having heard, in passing through Li- first days of the girl are therefore spent verpool on my way to America, that in an inanity which prepares her for a some Ladies of that town are anxious life doomed to be spent in superstition to propiote the education of Native and vice. Females in British India, I beg leave In the age of comparative childhood to offer to them some remarks on this she is united in marriage without any subject. This is one of the most in- knowledge of, or having ever seen her teresting and stupendous į charities husband: when they meet together for which has ever excited the attention the first time, they are bound together of British Females. This Letter is for life. Thousands who are thus martherefore immediately addressed to ried in a state of childhood, lose their them.
husbands without having ever lived
with them, and are doomed to a life of To the Ladies of Liverpool, and of the widowhood; for the law forbids them United Kingdom.
to re-marry. Parents in some cases There are in Hindoost'han seventy- marry fifty or sixty daughters to one five millions of your sex who can nei- Bramhun, that the family may be raisther read nor write, and thirty millions ed to honour by a marriage relation to of these are British subjects. In every this man. These females never live country not ameliorated by Chris- with the husband, but in the houses of tianity, the state of women has always their own parents, or they leave the been most deplorable; but the Hindoo houses in which they have been thus legislators bave absolutely made their sacrificed for the supposed honour of acquisition of the knowledge of letters a the family, and enter the abodes of incorse, and they are by a positive pro- famy and ruin. hibition denied all access to their Scrip- Supposing the female, however, to tures. Being thus degraded, even by have been united to a person who really their Sacred Writings, women in India becomes attached to her, what a mowe in a state of ignorance and super- ther, without the knowledge of the
Cruelties in India.
alphabet! Wholly unacquainted with But horrors still deeper are connectmankind, and with all the employmentsed with the state of female society in of females in a civilized country; un- | India. The English magistrates in the able either to make, to mend, or to presidency of Bengal, in their annual wash the clothes of her household ! Official returns to the Calcutta governShe never sits to eat with her husband, ment, state, that in the year 1817(three but prepares his food, waits upon him, years ago,) seven hundred and six woand partakes of what he leaves. If a men, widows, were either burnt alive friend, of the other sex, calls upon her or buried alive with the dead bodies of husband, she retires. She is veiled, or their husbands, in that part of British goes in a covered palanquin if she India. Is there any thing like this in leaves the house. She never mixes in the whole records of time? Have fires public companies. She derives no like these, and so numeroas, ever been knowledge from the other sex, except kindled any where else on earth-or from the stories to which she may lis- graves like these ever been opened ? ten from the mouth of a religious men- Two females roasted alive every day dicant. She is, in fact, a mere animal in one part of British India alone! At kept for burden or for slaughter in the noon-day, and in the presence of nuhouse of her husband. A case lately merous spectators, the poor widow, occurred in Calcutta of a girl being ensnared and drawn to the funeral burnt alive on the funeral pile with the pile, is tied to the dead body, pressed dead body of the youth with whom she down on the faggots by strong levers, was that day to have been married. and burnt alive, her screams amidst You will be prepared now, Ladies, to the flames being drowned by shouts expect that such a system of mental and music. Amidst the spectators is darkness will have rendered the sex, her own son, her first born, who, trein India, the devoted victims of ido- mendous idea! has set fire to the pile, latry: and such victims no other coun- and watches the progress of the flames try, however savage, however benight- which are to consume the living moed, can boast. What must be the state ther to ashes, the mother who fed him ot the female mind when millions are from her breast, and dandled him on found throwing the children of their her knees, and who once looked up vows into the sea; when a guard of to him as the support of the declining Hindoo soldiers are necessary to pre- days of herself and his father. vent mothers throwing their living I have seen three widows thus burnt children into the jaws of the alligators, alive, and could have witnessed many these mothers standing and watching more such spectacles, had they not the animal while it crushes the bones, been too much for my feelings. Other tears the flesh, and drinks the blood of widows are buried alive: here the fetheir own offspring! How deplorable male takes the dead body upon her the condition of your sex, when super-knees, as she sits in the centre of a deep stition thus extinguishes every sensibi- grave, and her children and relations, lity of the female, and every feeling of who have prepared the grave, throw in the mother, and makes her more savage the earth around her: two of these dethan the tiger which howls in the forest, scend into the grave and trample the which always spares and cherishes its earth with their feet around the body of own offspring
the widow. She sits an unremonstratAt the calls of superstition, many fe- ing spectator of the process: the earth males immolate themselves by a volun- rises higher and higher around her; at tary death in the sacred rivers of India. length it reaches the head, when the A friend of mine, at the junction of the remaining earth is thrown with haste Jumna and the Ganges, at Allahabad, upon her, and these children and relain one morning, saw, from his own win- tions mount the grave, and trample dow, sixteen females, with pans of wa- upon the head of the expiring victim !! ter fastened to their sides, sink them- 0
British mothers—ye British wiselves in the river, a few bubbles of air dows, to whom shall these desolate bearising only to the surface of the water ings look? In whose ears shall these after they were gone down. The drown- thousands of orphans cry, losing father ing of so many kittens in England would and mother in one day, if not to you? excite more horror here, than the Where shall we go? In what corner of drowning of sixteen of your own sex this miserable world, full of the habitain India!
tions of cruelty, shall we find female
Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.
society like this widows and orphans | putation, is not a town of any considerlike these? Seventy-five millions in this able antiquity. Within the memory state of ignorance? Say, how long, of many now living, its appearance ye who never saw a tear, but ye wiped has assumed a new aspect, and houses it away—a wound, but ye attempted and streets now cover an extensive to heal it—a human sufferer, but ye tract, which, within the reach of their poured consolation into his heart-how recollection, was formerly clothed with long shall these fires burn—these graves verdure. be opened? The appeal, my fair coun- Emerging thus from comparative try-women, is to you, to every female obscurity into affluence and power, its · in Britain. Government may do much origin has been but indistinctly markto put an end to these immolations; ed; and its progressive movements but, without the communication of from insignificance to wealth and influknowledge, these fires can never be ence, have partially escaped the notice wholly quenched, nor can your sex in of its merchants, to whose industrious India ever rise to that state to which activity, and successful speculations, it Divine Providence has destined them. is chiefly indebted for its aggrandise
Don't despair—the victims are nu- ment. merous; but on that account shall the On the origin of its name, different life-boat not leave the shore? There opinions have been entertained; and can bardly be a misery connected with from the variations which occur in the human existence, which the pity and orthography of the term Liverpool, the zeal of British females, under the its etymology, which perhaps was forblessing of Providence, is not able to merly distinct and unambiguous, is remove; and if this dreadful case be now rendered equivocal and uncerproperly felt in every town of the tain. United Kingdom, these immolations Liver, the former part of this name, must shortly cease for ever.
is said by some to have been derived Schools must be commenced-know- from a species of Liverwort, which in ledge must be communicated; and then some places abounded on its coasts. the Hindoo female will be behind none Others have contended that a particuof her sex in the charms which adorn lar species of water-fowl, denominated the female character-in no mental ele- Liver or Lever, frequenting a collecvation to which the highest rank of Bri- tion of waters, which in ancient times tish females have attained. Other tri- was called the Pool, gave birth to this umphs of humanity may have been branch of its name. To favour this gained by our Howards, our Clarksons, etymology, it is urged that the crest of our Wilberforces, but this emancipation the town-arms exhibits a bird, bearing of the females and widows of British this appellation. This fact, however, India must be the work of the British has been doubted by others, and Fair, (Signed) W.W. powerful reasons have been assigned
to destroy the application, but without
substituting any thing more plausible OBSERVATIONS HISTORICAL AND
in its stead.
The latter part of the term appears The large, populous, and flourishing evidently to have been derived from town of Liverpool, may be considered local circumstances. It seems to be as holding, in a commercial point of admitted by universal consent, that the view, a rank inferior to none in the site now occupied by the old Dock British nation, with the exception of was formerly a pool, to which the tide London; and even to this grand empo- flowed through Byrom-street, Whiterium of the world, it may be deemed chapel, and Paradise-street. On the in many respects a formidable rival. border of this pool the town originally The enterprising spirit of its mer- stood; and the primitive appellation chants, and the adventurous hardi- is still preserved in the name of Poolhood of its sailors, have carried its lane. name into every quarter of the globe, But from what source soever the and established its mercantile reputa- former term has been derived, there is tion among all the civilized nations of decisive evidence that the compound the earth.
was in existence so early as the days Liverpool however, notwithstanding of Henry II., for in a charter bearing its long-established and increasing re- date 1172, it is said to be a place
DESCRIPTIVE RESPECTING LIVERPOOL.
Historical Observations respeeting Liverpool.
“ which the Lyrpul men call Lither- and execute his commands. These pul.” Since that charter, the name circumstances might suddenly have has been occasionally written Liverpull, augmented the number of the cottages Lyvrepol, Lyvrepole, Leerpool, Lever- and inhabitants, and thus have given pool, and Liverpool.
commencement to those movements The antiquity of this town is not less which have raised Liverpool to its preuncertain than the etymology of its sent state of commercial prosperity
Ambition affects to trace it up and glory. to the days of the Romans; but this That a castle did exist on the elevatclaim is disowned by reason and com- ed ground which rises between Lord
The situation of the town street and the harbour, is attested by was totally without the range of any the most decisive proofs; and although Roman roads hitherto discovered, and its visible vestiges are done away, the no monument of Roman greatness has name still survives in the names of ever been found, to give the least coun- Castle-street and Castle-ditch. By whom tenance to the supposition.
this castle was erected, is a point on Nor is it absolutely certain that Li- which historians have also been diverpool had any distinct existence, even vided. Movery asserts, that it was so recently as the Norman conquest. built by King John; but he adduces no The survey of the kingdom, which authority in support of this assertion. was taken as soon as William had se- Camden on the contrary, who wrote cured the throne, was registered in a about the year 1586, expressly asbook called Domesday, which is still cribes the building of this castle to extant. But although, in this venera- Roger of Poictiers ; and he also adds, ble record, mention is made of all the that the wardenship of the castle was lands in England, together with the bestowed by the Earl on Vivian de names of their respective owners; and Molyneaux, whose descendants still notwithstanding Everton, Formby, and hold estates in the vicinity, and in this Litherland, appear under their respec- family it continued so late as the 30th tive appellations, the name of Liver- of Elizabeth. In 1704, the castle was pool is unknown. The tract of land granted to the town at the rent of now occupied by Liverpool and its vi- £6. 138. 4d. the constable's salary; and cinity, seems to have been noticed in about this time the parish received a Domesday book, as Esmedune or Swe- rent from the corporation for some dune. It is described as one carucate houses in it. About ten years afterof land worth thirty-two pence.” Sme- wards, the parish conceded its claims thorn or Smedone-lane, has probably to the corporation ; in consequence of derived its name from this tract of which arrangement, the remains of land.
the castle were taken down, and St. It appears from Domesday, that all George's church was erected on the those lands which in Lancashire lie be- ground which this memorial of antitween the Ribble and the Mersey, were quity formerly occupied. granted to Roger of Poictiers, an inti- The conquest of Ireland, in 1172, mate friend of the Conqueror, and who was the first event which gave to Liwas created by him Earl of Arundel and verpool any commercial importance. Shrewsbury. It is not improbable that the relative situation of its harbour Roger of Poictiers, having taken pos- to that country, was noticed by governsession of his lands, erected a castle on ment; and it very soon became the it, for his own security, to display his established port, whence troops and grandeur, and to awe into obedience military stores were conveyed to or those turbulent spirits which had only from Ireland ; and the common inlet submitted to the force of arms. This, where the commodities of both counhowever, is a fact which wants corrobo- tries were interchanged. rative evidence; but if it could be as- Henry II. finding it thus advancertained, it would furnish a plausible tageous to his interests, granted its guide by which we might fix the im- first charter in the same year (1172) portant era when the scattered hamlets in which the conquest of Ireland was first started into notice.
completed, and erected burgage houses Nothing was more common during for its merchants. In 1207, a second these times of commotion, than for the charter was granted by John; and dependant vassals to gather round the Henry III. in 1227, after confirming tyrant chief, to enjoy his protection, the grants of all former charters, for a 57 Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.
58 fine of ten marks, constituted it a free season consigned over to solitude, borough for ever, with a merchant and was finally metamorphosed into a guild or society, and various other li- prison, which character it sustained berties and privileges. These advan- until the year 1811, when the prisoners tages being secured, Liverpool held were removed to a more humane manout an inviting aspect to traders, and sion built purposely for their reception. speculative men repaired thither, and From 1811 until 1819 this gloomy manby their united efforts laid the founda- sion, which had progressively witnesstion of that extensive commerce, for ed the magnificence of nobility, the prowhich it has been so long and so justly fusions of festivity, the songs of mirth, distinguished.
the exhilarations of music, the groans In the earlier periods of its his- of the prisoner, and the clanking of tory, its exports consisted chiefly of his chains, was finally abandoned, and iron, charcoal, woollen-cloth, armour, left in a state of melancholy desolation. horses, and dogs; and its imports, of Towards the conclusion of 1819, its linen-cloth, yarn, fish, and hides. Its mouldering roof and walls were taken ships, which were then few in number, down, and this venerable monument of and diminutive in dimensions, only antiquity was completely demolished. carried on a coasting trade, and visit- From the fourteenth until the comed the shores of Ireland, which bound- mencement of the sixteenth century, ed the extent of their communications the history of Liverpool is but little and intercourse. Its warehouses, which known. By Edward III. Richard III. are perhaps unrivalled both in number and Henry IV. its charters were conand magnitude, now contain the pro- firmed, and its privileges extended, duce of every nation; and its long and little doubt can be entertained, range of extensive docks, exhibits that its commerce and the number of ships which trade in every quarter of its inhabitants increased in proportion the globe.
with the advantages they enjoyed. Of Next to the ancient castle, of which this town Leland gives the following we have already spoken, the venerable account. tower which stood at the bottom of " Lyrpole, alias Lyverpoole, a pavid Water-street claims our attention. This towne, hath but a chapel. Walton a was an ancient building; but by whom iiii miles of nat far from the se is pait was erected is rather uncertain. roche chirch. The king hath a castelet
By some it has been contended, that there, and the erle of Darbe hath a it was probably raised so early as the stone howse there. Irisch marchauntes daysof Henry I.; but others have argu- cum much thither, as to a good haven. ed that the year 1350 has a fairer After that Mersey water cumming claim to the erection of this building, towards Rumcorne in Cheshire liseth since at that time, the duke of Lan- amonge the cummune people the caster, to whom it has been ascribed, name, and is Lyrpole. At Lyrpole received orders from the king to guard is smaule custume payid that causith the sea-coasts of Lancashire with un- marchantes to resort. Good marchanremitting vigilance.
dis at Lyrpole, and moch Yrisch yarn The extent and form of this ancient that Manchester men do by ther.” pile, in its original condition, we have Flattering as this account may scem, now no means of knowing, as it is un- the town records state, that in 1565, certain what changes it underwent in the number of houses and cottages subsequent years, as it passed into the amounted to no more than 138. The hands of distinct possessors. So late shipping at this time consisted of tea as the year 1734, it was the occasional barks (the largest of 40 tons burden) residence of the Earl of Derby; for in and two boats, navigated by 75 men ; the above year James Earl of Derby, and at Wallasey, a creek on the oppobeing mayor of Liverpool, gave enter- site shore, were three barks, making totainments in it, to the inhabitants of the gether 36 tons, and navigated by 14 town. And after having been aban- men. In 1571 the declining state of doned as a residence of nobility, its Liverpool induced the inhabitants to great hall was converted into an as- petition Elizabeth that they might be sembly room, and was used for that relieved from a subsidy which had purpose until the middle of the last been imposed, and in this petition it is century; when amusement finding styled “ Her Majesty's poor decayed better accommodations, it was for a town of Liverpool. No. 23.-VOL. III,