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Fabulous Foundation of the Popedom.

524 way, but also because the Holy Spirit makes no mention of Peter; a circumwould not permit Paul, then travelling stance so extraordinary, if Peter had with the decrees through Phrygia and been at Rome, that Papists must acGalatia, to go into Asia and Bithynia, count for it, or give up their cause : where he would have been labouring accordingly, they attempt to do it in a on the ground occupied by St. Peter; strange manner, by affirming that, tofor the Lord never used the ministry gether with the public epistle, private of two apostles together in any place letters were sent from the one apostle out of Judea and its immediate neigh- to the other, which rendered the pubbourhood, as he did the ministry of lic mention of St. Peter's name unPeter and John in Samaria. And necessary! that Peter was in these countries The differences at that time existwhich he mentions in his first epistle, ing between the Christians at Rome, at the time when he wrote it, appears respecting meats, the observance of from the best authority; and even days, and other things mentioned in from the apostle himself, in his se- the canonical epistle, are abundant cond epistle; who says, “ We made proofs that no apostle was then at known unto you the power and coming Rome ; for surely the Prince of the of our Lord Jesus Christ,” which cer- Apostles could have set these matters tainly implies his labouring among right as well as Paul; or if Peter held them. While Paul abode at Corinth, them good, why did Paul interfere ? which was a year and half, and when Bellarmine, to get rid of this diffihe went from thence to Ephesus the culty, differs from the Rhemists and first time, afterwards to Cæsarea, then most other Papists, saying, that Peter to Jerusalem, and after that tó An- at this time was not yet returned to tioch again, and so over all the coun- Rome after the repeal of the decree of tries of Galatia and Phrygia, until Claudius; but therein he makes him his second return to Ephesus, where more negligent of his charge than he abode three years, it is probable Aquila and Priscilla were, who were that Peter was still in the east, be- at this time returned to the city. cause in his very last days we find When Paul became a prisoner at him at Babylon; not having, in all Jerusalem, and was conveyed to this period, approached nearer to Cæsarea, the Lord stood by him by Rome than the city of Corinth, which night, and told him that he should he visited, according to Dionysius, as also bear witness to him at Rome; quoted by Eusebius.

an expression very strongly implySt. Paul's Epistle to the Romans ing that no other apostle was at that was written when the Jews had ob- time doing the same : accordingly we tained liberty to return to Rome, find, that when St. Paul was arrived Rom. xvi. 3. compared with Acts at that city the very chief of the Jews xviii. 2. which is supposed to have there were very ignorant buth of been about the seventh of Nero, when Christ and his gospel, Acts xxviii. 22. Paul had so preached in the parts calling it a sect, asserting that they where he was, as to have no more had heard it spoken evil of, but that place there, Rom. xv. 23. when he had they knew not what it was, and definally parted from the Ephesians, sired to hear; circumstances these Acts xx. and was going to Jerusalem which fully prove that Peter could with the contributions, Rom. xv. 25. not have been labouring in the gospel and 1 Cor. xvi. 1. and when he had at Rome. determined, after visiting Jerusalem, When Paul approached the city as to see Rome, Acts xix. 21. and, as we a prisoner, the brethren came out to may conclude from these circumstan- meet him; and doubtless Peter was ces, but a few years before his death. not too proud to do the same, if he And that Peter had not to that period had been there; but his name is not been at Rome, appears from these alluded to. Paul resided two full circumstances : Paul desired to come years in his hired house, and wrote to the Romans, that he might establish from thence to the Galatians, Ephethem; but they would not have need- sians, Philippians, Colossians, Phileed his labours for this purpose, if mon, and Timothy. In his Epistle to Peter had been their bishop, or 're- the Galatians,

he mentions his intersided in the city. He salutes many course with Peter

both at Jerusalem of note, both Jews and Gentiles, but and Antioch, but does not, in the most

Fabulous Foundation of the Popedom.

526 distant manner allude to his having Papists affect to shew Peter's tomb seen him at the imperial city; and yet in the city of Rome, and argue from the occasion and the matter of the this, and from the fact that pilgriepistle seem to require it, at least in mages have been made to it from a the salutation or valediction.

very early period—that of course he In the Epistle to the Ephesians, he must have died there. But it is cerspeaks of Christ the head of the tain that pilgrimages have been made church, the corner stone, the founda- to the tombs of saints which never tion laid by prophets and apostles of existed; as in the case of one named one baptism, one Lord, one church Longinus, whose tomb was visited subject unto Christ—but not one word both at Mantua and Lyons. The of the vicar-general; which, as Paul wise men also, who came from the professes he kept back nothing from east to visit the Lord in his infancy, them, Acts xx. 27. had been inexcu- were made to be three kings; and sable, if Peter at that time presided in their bodies were supposed to have that see with the pretensions Papists been brought from the east as far as speak of. In the Epistle to the Phi- Milan and Cologne, where their lippians, Paul says he had none with tombs were much visited by pilgrims. him like-minded towards them as And the same contradictions which Timothy was; which would have been we have seen to exist among those very inapplicable, if the universal who have spoken of Peter's journey to bishop had been at his elbow; and Rome, will also be found in the acin the general salution which follows, counts of the place of his burial. he still keeps Peter out of sight. In Some have said that one half was the Epistle to the Colossians, Paul buried in the church of St. Peter at mentions three Jews as being his only | Rome, and the other half in the fellow-helpers ; but Peter's name does church of St. Paul, being equally dinot occur.

When Paul was brought vided by Pope Sylvester :-others, the second time before Nero, and his that only the two heads of Peter and time to be offered up was fast ap- Paul are at Rome. Peter's underproaching, he tells Timothy, 2 Tim. iv. jaw and beard are at Poictiers in no man stood with him, all forsook France ; many of his bones at Triers; him; which proves that Peter was not and his brain at Geneva. in the city. Again, he mentions A few words must suffice respectCrescens, Titus, Tychicus, and Demas, ing the authors, on whose authority as having departed from Rome; and this has been believed as an historical Eubulus, Pudens, Claudia, and Linus, fact. Those of the later and middle who is said to have been Peter's suc- ages are merely copyists; and, in fact, cessor, as being at Rome; but Peter the whole will be found to resolve is not named--a good proof that he itself into the authority of Papias, a was not in the city. We may go fur- man who lived in an early age of ther, and assert, that it is not difficult Christianity ; but whose claim to creto prove-not only that he was not at dit in this instance will be understood, Rone, but also that he was at a very when we remember that the opinion considerable distance from it.

of Eusebius regarding him is, that he St. Peter's first Epistle is dated was a man of small judgment; as infrom Babylon ; and that he was in the deed his writings shew, being full of same neighbourhood at the time of incredible things, strange parables Paul's and his own death, appears by and doctrines of our Lord, which rethis : Paul in his last Epistle says semble fables more than truth. An that his departure was at hand ; and idea of his skill as a commentator on St. Peter, in his last Epistle, that he Scripture, may be obtained, when we was shortly to put off this earthly ta- remark, that he considered the word bernacle-expressions which, being Babylon at the end of Peter's Epistle written at so considerable a distance as allegorical, Rome being intended from each other, prove that it was under that name; an interpretation scarcely possible for them afterwards which, however forbidding an aspect to come together; and that it was not it might have on their cause, as it at all possible that Peter could after- makes that city the mother of harlots ward settle a bishopric at Rome with by their own confession, Papists have the pretensions which Papists con- been fond of upholding; as thus ren

dered, it is the only scriptural autho

tend for.


527 Eagle of New South Wales.Chemical Essays. 528 rity they have, to prove that Peter was talons through a 'man's foot, while ever in the imperial city :-and for lying in the bottom of the boat, with the credit which Papias has obtained, its legs tied together. How it was from having been considered as an taken, we are not informed; but it reimmediate disciple of the apostle mained in custody ten days, during John, it must be borne in mind, that which time, it refused to be fed by Papias himself asserts the contrary. any but one particular person.

But what little confidence can be Among the natives it was an object of placed in the fathers of the church, in wonder and curiosity, but at the same regard to facts which did not happen time, such was the terror it excited, within their personal knowledge, ap- that' they could never be prevailed pears from the story of the Epistles of upon to approach it. They asserted Seneca to St. Paul, and of Paul to that it would carry off a kangaroo. Seneca ;-of Abgarus writing to our This astonishing bird, the captors Lord, and our Lord to him ;—of the intended sending to England; but one Virgin Mary's being at Rome with morning it was found to have divided Pope Anacletus, as we are informed the yarns of a rope with which it had by Ignatius. And how prone people been fastened, and to have inake its of the early ages were, not only to escape. run into errors, but to forge writings and to ascribe them to the apostles and other holy men, besides the instances just alluded to,may be seen in the innumerable spurious writings,

(Continued from col. 442.) which are rejected as such, both by The Effects of Calorie are, Expansion, Protestants and Papists. The story of Peter's journey to Rome was writ

Fluidity, Vaporization, g Ignition. ten by Metaphrastes; but herein, 1. EXPANSION.- When Caloric is says Baronius, he is not worthy of applied to any body, whether it be credit; and Linus, the supposed suc- solid, fluid, or gaseous, it produces an cessor of St. Peter, is said to have augmentation of volume. For examwritten of Peter's death at Rome; of ple, if a piece of iron be heated to which work Bellarmine's inion is, ignition, it will be found, that it has that it should be rejected as fabulous. increased very much in size ; this exThus-If the story of St. Peter's periment may be easily performed, by

Bishopric at Rome be improbable measuring the metal before and after in itself, and contrary to authentic it is heated: the iron should be of a history-if the authority on which cylindrical shape. Tbis expansion is it has been credited be that of sufficiently evident, too, in thermoweak men who have related many meters. It is well known, also, that other fables-if the different cir- alcohol, water, atmospheric air, and cumstances of the case cannot be other fluids and gases, experience an made to agree together and if, enlargement of volume when submitted on the contrary, the importance to the action of heat. When caloric is

ttached to it as an article of faith withdrawn, budies assume their wonted requires, according to God's con- form, and invariably contract to their stant dealing in all other things former size. necessary to salvation, the plainest The thermometer was invented by demonstration,—we may reasona- Sanctorius, an Italian physician, who bly conclude that the story of St. lived in the 17th century. Having Peter's having resided at Rome is witnessed the expansion of air by nothing more than a fable.

heat, it occurred to him, that this exJ. Couch. pansion might be used as a measure of

the variations of temperature. His thermometer consisted of a hollow glass ball, from which proceeded a

hollow cylindrical tube, open About the commencement of the extremity. A small quantity of the year 1800, a large eagle was taken air of the tube was expelled, by ap; near Broken Bay. This bird stood plying heat to the ball; the open about three feet in height, and gave of the tube was then immersed in proof of its strength by driving its some coloured liquor, which entered





Chemical Essays.


when the air of the ball became cool. I to one temperature: by marking this, A scale of equal degrees was attached therefore, we have one point fixed; of to the tube, and the expansion of air course this will be the same in all in the bulb by beat, was discovered by thermometers. Hooke observed also, the descent of the coloured fluid, its that water boils at one uniform temcondensation being marked by its perature; by noticing this, therefore, ascent. This instrument has, how- we have another invariable point: ever, since the time of Sanctorius, and these two points are connected been much improved; the thermome- by means of a graduated scale. ter which we have just now described, The thermometer which was made was liable to variations from changes by Fahrenheit, a German, is most in atmospheric pressure, and was un- commonly used in this country. The fit for measuring high degrees of tem- lowest temperature which this therperature.

mometer indicates, was produced by The members of the Academy del a mixture of snow and sea salt. It is Limento, substituted a liquid as the the zero of Fabrenheit; the range of measure of expansion, instead of air; temperature between zero and the the tube which arises from the ball of freezing point is 32 degrees. Between the thermometer was hermetically the freezing point, and that point sealed, as soon as the fluid was ad- which indicates the boiling of water, mitted, by which means the effects of there is a range of 180 degrees ; so atmospheric pressure were guarded that the highest degree of Fahrenheit against; and the instrument was ren- | is 212 degrees. It has been proposed dered more accurate and manageable. to make a thermometer, the fixed Alcohol coloured, was the first liquor points of which shall indicate the that was made use of. Dr. Halley and freezing and boiling of quicksilver: Sir Isaac Newton, afterwards employ- certainly this would be very coned mercury. The principle on which venient, especially in chemical operaa thermometer indicates temperature tions, as there is a very extensive is, that caloric always has a tendency range of temperature between these to preserve an equilibrium : this we two points. "Quicksilver freezes at have taken notice of in a former essay. -39 degrees of Fahrenheit, and boils

When caloric is applied to the ther- at+655 degrees. If therefore, accordmometer, the fluid rises in the tube; ing to Dr. Murray's proposition, a scale when it is abstracted, the fluid sinks; of 1000 degrees were made between a graduated scale is attached to the these two extremes, a thermometer tube, and measures exactly the changes might be made, which would be much

It is evident, however, more complete than any other, and that the expansion and contraction of there would be no necessity for emthe glass must affect in some degree ploying the negative and positive the changes which take place ; its ex- signs, to denote

those degrees which pansion must prevent the fluid from are above the boiling and below the ascending, and its contraction must freezing points of Fabrenheit. Το prevent its descending, so much as it measure high degrees of temperature, would otherwise do, were the glass quicksilver thermometers are prefernot at all affected by changes of tem- able to those made with alcohol ; beperature. It is only therefore the ex- cause the latter fluid is converted into cess of the expansion or contraction vapour at 182 degrees of Fahrenheit, of the fluid over the glass, that is ob- whilst the former is not evaporated served. The scale of the instrument until it reaches 650 degrees. When, is, however, constructed in such a way, however, we wish to measure low temas to prevent any material error. peratures, alcohol is to be preferred,

After the thermometer was invented, because it has not yet been frozen, it was some time before fixed points whereas mercury becomes solid at were discovered, by means of which -39 degrees. different thermometers might be com- The expansion of different bodies, pared. Various attempts were made by the application of caloric, is not to remedy this inconvenience. For uniformly the same, being in general the discovery of two invariable points, less as the density of the body is we are indebted to Newton. It had greater. A knowledge of the expanbeen previously observed by Hooke, sibilities of different solid bodies is that water freezes or ice melts always highly useful in the arts; to a want

which occur.

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Chemical Essays.


of this knowledge, imperfection in the observed, the lines shooting out from construction of machinery of different each other at an angle either of 60 kinds is mainly attributable. We degrees or 120 degrees. The freezing have every reason to believe, that if of water therefore is supposed to be a sufficient attention were paid to this species of crystallization, and in concircumstance, much trouble and in- sequence of the arrangement it proconvenience might be prevented, and duces, varieties are formed in the solid that machines would be much more mass, and its volume compared with certain in their operations. The ex- the fluid is enlarged. There is reason pansion of solids from heat,is a source to believe that other fluids expand in of error in the construction of time- the act of congealing, and that this pieces; the pendulum varying in expansion takes place through a cerlength according to the temperature tain range of temperature, as in water. of the atmosphere. This error is re- One other exception to the law of moved by making use of two metals, expansion from caloric, remains to be and adjusting them in such a manner considered. It is observed in the that the expansion of one counteracts different clays, and the pure earth the expansion of the other. In fluids, called argil, which they contain. also, there is a diversity as it regards From a knowledge of this circumtheir powers of expansion, upon the stance, Mr. Wedgewood constructed application of a given quantity of his pyrometer. This instrument is caloric. Thus, the expansion of water calculated to measure high degrees of is greater than that of quicksilver, and temperature. It consists of a gauge, the expansion of alcohol is greater composed of two straight pieces of than that of water.

brass, twenty-four inches long, divided It has been found by Dalton and into inches and tenths, and fixed on a Gay Lussac, that all aerial substances brass plate so as to converge; the suffer the same degree of expansion, space between them at one extremity when they are brought to any given being five-tenths of an inch, and up temperature. Caloric is considered the other, three-tenths. The pyromeby chemists a repulsive power, inas-trical pieces of clay are small cylinmuch as it produces a separation of ders, flattened on one side, made in a the particles of bodies: the expansion mould, so as to be adapted exactly to of different substances, therefore, will the wider end. It is evident, that in be according to their cohesive powers. exposing one of these pieces to a There are a few exceptions to the gene- high temperature, we can measure its ral rule, that bodies expand by the ap- contraction, by sliding it into the plication of heat; for instance, water, groove. Each degree of this pyroby the reduction of its temperature, suf- meter is equal to 130 degrees of fers an enlargement of volume, it ex- Fahrenheit. The zero corresponds pands from 41 degrees of Fahrenheit with 10771°, and the scale of Wedgeto 32 degrees, until it arrives at a state wood includes a range of temperature of congelation. The expansive force equal to about 32.000 degrees of which is exerted in the act of freezing, Fahrenheit. The highest heat that is supposed by some to be owing to a has been measured with it is 16 or disengagement of air which the water 21.877 degrees of Fahrenheit, being held in solution; this, however, is not the temperature of a small air furnace; the chief cause, for the same expan- and 30 degrees of the scale above the sion occurred when water had been point at which cast-iron melts. It is deprived as much as possible of air difficult to ascertain the cause of these by the air-pump:

contractions in these substances. By Mairan explained it on the supposi- some it is supposed to arise from an tion of a polarity in the particles of escape of some volatile matter, partithe water, or a tendency to unite by cularly of water, which clays imbibe certain sides in preference to others; and retain with force. This, however, to arrange themselves in a certain seems to be contradicted by Mr. manner, and run into right lines at Wedgewood, who found that his determinate angles. This explana- pyrometrical pieces, at very high tion is thought by some to be proper, temperature, suffered no diminution of inasmuch, as when the freezing of weight; although they continued to water is examined by a microscope, contract. At a low red beat, it is this polarity of arrangement can be stated, a disengagement of aerial

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