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Chemical Essays.



matter, apparently a mixture of com- observed that there is a remarkable mon air and carbonic acid, takes place; difference between expansion and flufrom that to a strong red heat there is idity. The former is produced graa loss of weight amounting to about dually, there being as many degrees two parts in the 100. But past this of it as there are degrees of temperathere is no further loss. It is sup- ture; whereas the latter is suddenly posed that there may be interstices in produced. It is said, that if the body the clay,and that the caloric favours the be within one degree even of its meltaggregation of the particles, by which ing point, it still preserves its solid

a condensation takes place. form; and when a sufficient degree of With the exceptions now stated, it caloric is communicated to it, it immay be laid down as a general law, mediately becomes fluid. Some subthat caloric expands all bodies. stances become soft before they pass FLUIDITY.-The second effect of calo- into a state of fluidity, as, for instance, ricis, fluidity. Water remains in a state resin, wax, and animal fats. Mr. of fluidity, owing to the influence of ca- Nicholson has remarked, that the loric; for when this is abstracted to same thing is observable in some of a certain extent, it assumes a solid the metals. In solder of the pewterform. Many bodies, which in their ers, for example, the interval between natural state are solid, become fluid the commencement of congelation and by the application of heat; thus, for the solidification of the whole mass, is example, lead and iron, and most of not less than 40 degrees. the other metals, are melted by expo- Some suppose that solidity is the sure to caloric. Some of these, how- natural state of every body, and that ever, require a much greater degree all bodies may be rendered solid by of heat to produce this effect than the abstraction of caloric. Indeed, others. Lead and tin are the most every known liquid has been reduced fusible; platina is the most infusible, to a solid state, with the exception of and requires an intense degree of heat alcohol; so that this conclusion may to produce liquefaction. Mercury is be adopted. We may conclude, therethe only metal which is in a fluid state fore, that caloric produces fluidity by at the temperature of our atmosphere; separating the particles of bodies, and as, however, we have before observed, it by producing new arrangements into can be made solid by the abstraction of which the particles enter. Indepencaloric. The substances most difficult dent, however, of a reduction of temof fusion are, the earths; these, how- perature, when liquids are reduced to ever, can be melted when mixed toge- a solid form, there are other circumther; and even separately, most of stances which have an influence in these have been fused by intense heat. producing this change; for example, Those bodies, therefore, which are li- water may be cooled below 32 degrees quid at the common temperature of our without becoming solid; it may without atmosphere, are said to be frozen difficulty be brought to 27 degrees, or when they assume a solid state ; whilst 25 degrees, and with ease even to 23 those which are naturally solid, when degrees. Blagden succeeded in redubrought to a state of fluidity are said cing it to 21 degrees, De Luc cooled it to to be melted or fused. It must be ob- | 6 or 7 degrees lower, and Dalton brought served, however, that some bodies it to 5 degrees of Fahrenheit without cannot be fused, as, for instance, wood freezing. These facts shew, that someand pure lime; the fact is, that some thing more is necessary than merely of these substances suffer a chemical a reduction of temperature, when wadecomposition at a temperature lower ter assumes a solid form. Accordthan that which would be necessary to ingly, it has been found, that agitation, fuse them; they are compound bodies, and the introduction of any particle of and by the agency of caloric their con- ice or snow, contributes to the producstituent principles pass into new forms tion of ice. It is said that on the introand combinations.

duction of the smallest particle of ice Sir James Hall succeeded in fusing or snow, crystals instantly shoot from marble, chalk, and likewise coal, by the spot which is touched, and the the application of strong pressure, so whole surface in a short time becomes as to prevent the decomposition aris- congealed. Sir Charles Blagden asing from the separation, by heat, of cribes the freezing of water to frozen aerial or volatile ingredients. It is particles which float in the atmo



On the Substratum of Matter.

536 sphere, which, when they touch the its identity.As I never“ presumed cooled surface, cause it to freeze. on the existence of no permanent prinThese phenomena, have been explain- ciple,” however similar the plight may ed on the principle, that the congela- have been in which we have both been tion of a fluid such as water, is a spe- placed, there must have been somecies of crystallization, in which the thing of difference in it. Your corparticles, by agitation, and the intro- respondent's permanent principle," duction of an extraneous substance, is the substratum of matter; mine is at a certain temperature assume dif- matter itself. I deny a substratum, ferent forms, and become differently but do not deny a permanent princiarranged.

ple. His principle is something dis(To be continued.)

tinct from its attributes; mine is not, except it be in name and in imagina

tion. The denial of an ulterior sub. (Continued from col. 362.)

stratum, therefore, does not involve

the startling consequences which M. S. In the article that gave birth to

has deduced from it. Constant Reader's” remarks, some

However absurd my notion of the doubts were expressed on the exist- identity of subject and attributes may ence of an unknown substratum of appear to M. S. it cannot appear more matter; and the reasons urged against so to him than does his incongruous it were as follow.*First, that when notion of the existence of something in the mind excluded from its concep

which properties are united. His protions the essential properties of mat- perties are things that he well knows; ter, it had nothing left within its grasp.

--his some-thing, is no-thing that he Secondly, that as far as the essentiai does know; and yet it appears to him properties of any being are known, so

more rational to unite his known promuch is known of its essence or na- perties to his unknown something, ture. Thirdly, that the doctrine of an

and to give it“ a local habitation and unknown substratum leads to specu- existence, and admit that an assemi

a name,” than to deny a doubt of its lative atheism.

A conjecture was somewhat hastily blage of attributes constitute as well expressed, namely, that “ solidity as imply a subject. may be the essence of matter, and

It must, I think, be admitted, that, consciousness the essence of spirit.” which side soever we take of this quesBut as I know nothing of essences, as tion, difficulties and inconsistencies real entities, distinct from certain ag- present themselves; and we only difgregates of indissolubly united proper

fer as to the side on which they preties, I cannot admit that any single ponderate. M. S. thinks that they property is entitled to such a denomi- incline to the latter; and I judge them nation. I therefore disapprove of to be more numerous and weighty that phraseology, and pass over the against the former; and with these remarks which it occasioned.

views we shall probably both throw M. S. has frequently found himself down our pens, and agree to differ. in the same plight as myself, but

M. S. observes very justly, “that adopted a different plan to extricate God can create substances different in himself: he has reasoned thus ; " If principle, and bearing different and I presume on the existence of no per- even opposite properties; and infers, manent principle or substance, I must

“ therefore there may be matter and then grant that there is solidity while spirit.” But is not one of these subthere is nothing that is solid ; exten- stances matter? and is not matter one sion, while nothing is extended;

of these substances ?-and though the shape, while nothing possesses figure terms are different, and do not produce and I suspected that I was thus in- | precisely the same mode of concepvolved in greater difficulties, and sur- tion, yet do they not both refer to the rounded by greater inconsistencies, same thing, namely, to a substance than if I allowed the existence of called matter? And as a something in which these properties constitution, or the essential properties rate them from it without destroying the constitution

and properties of mate were united, though I could not sepa- that being, as we know something of

* Imperial Magazine, vol. i. col. 980. ter, how can its nature or essence be


On the Substratum of Matter.

538 unknown? The essential properties they would be a novel negative inof any being, bear a similar relation to deed! “ It is because we have no that being, that the parts of an object idea of spirit, (says a great writer) bear to the whole, with this difference, that we are naturally led to express it that while the parts of a whole may by a negative, to call it immaterial exist separately, essential properties substance, or something that is not cannot; they are indissolubly united. matter, something that is not any, And as a whole is not distinct from all thing we know.”+ its parts, though distinguished by a M. S. has backed his opinion by a different name; so neither are proper- quotation from an authority to whom ties different from their subjects, tho' I yield more than a common deference; distinguished by particular names. A but should the inference which atheists material substance is a certain aggre- have drawn from the doctrine of an gate of properties, and a certain indis- unknown substratum prove illogical solubly united aggregate of properties when closely examined, if the princiis a material substance.

ple be false, and the phraseology imIn contending for his “mysterious proper that leads to such a result, it principle,” your correspondent, after is of importance to reject them. the example of others, presents it to Allow me, Sir, to write another paus in very different capacities. 1. We ragraph, and I will then thankfully have it as a prop; in this it bears pro- quit this “ land of darkness,” this perties. 2. As a subject of inhesion; "thorny path,” these“ bogs and brakes in this properties stick in it. 3. As a of metaphysics;" for,“ my weary soul” cement; and in this capacity, it unites is already“ sick of journeying,” and properties with itself. But how solid- I am almost ready to “ sink into a ity, extension, and figure, can either state of supineness and apathy,"countrest upon, inhere in, or be blended ing it all " vanity, and vexation of spiwith, this unknown phantom, com- rit.” It is a charge of treason I have pletely baffles my conceptions. That it now to repel, and perhaps nothing else cannot perform all these offices, is cer- would have raised this last muscular tain, as each of them presents to us effort, and the last particle of mental modes of existence incompatible with energy, that will be directed by me each other. There seems to be as against this “ palpable obscure.” It much mystery about the use of this seems, that to deny a substratum of

principle” as of its nature; and all matter, is an attempt to shift from his that is said in its favour amounts to seat an aged and an unseen sovereign. this, that it is some thing, and is con- This is a serious charge, but it is “ nected with properties some how. false as it is foul.”. To deny the exist

Your correspondent says, that “ the ence of a sovereign, is not the same thing principal charge I bring against the

as an attempt to depose him. The“

gen"existence of a primary material sub- tlemen” who deny the existence of this

stance is, that it cannot be the object mysterious, unseen, aged sovereign, have " of our senses, and therefore we can been at no small pains to discover his know nothing of it.”*. In this he nature, and his residence; but having has erred; I bring no such charge, nor failed in their attempts, they suspect ever intended. I reject it, because it that he is nobody, and that his resiis inconceivable by the mind, not be- dence is nowhere. In this opinion I cause it is imperceptible by sense. I concur with them; but lest there should confess that I do believe that the ma- be, after all, such an old gentleman, terials of our knowledge are originally I will say no more against him, but derived through the medium of the leave him in the undisturbed possessenses. But then we have evidence sion of his invisible sovereignty. It sufficient to justify a belief in the ex- was my intention to extend my remarks istence of objects impervious to sense, on the origin of buman knowledge; I though their particular nature is not have, however, declined this, and shall directly known. The existence of spi- only notice the opinion, that “ all our rits, we infer from their operations: notions of the spiritual world are pureof their nature we know little, but as ly negative.” On this subject, I am the negative of matter. And if the happy that we are not left to the wild nature of matter itself were unknown, vagaries of unassisted reason.

* Imperial Magazine, vol. i. col. 818. † Wesley's Philosophy, vol. v. p. 153. No. 28.-Vol. III,

2 M


Fragment of a Day-Book.


ing of Orestes and Pylades, in the most

comical manner imaginable. Riviére (Concluded from col. 413.)

performed also the operation of a dent16th July. The king assisted with ist with Mandini. After a few scenes the whole court at the marriage of of the like nature, one represented count Dietrichstein, with the lady of living pictures, according to wellhonour Alexandrine Schuwaloff: the known subjects, viz: Achilles (Maceremony took place in the dining- dame Le Brun) discovered by Ulysses room, and the Nuntius Litta wore the amongst the companions of Deidamia dress of a bishop. After that, the act (princess Dolgorucki:) Stratonice on was repeated in the chapel, according the sick-bed of her son, (the princess to the rites of the Greek church, again;) the tent of Darius, &c. Mme. whereby Count Schuwaloff held the Le Brun ordered the positions, the garland over the head of the bride. illumination, &c. with so much taste, The empress had adorned the bride that this kind of spectacle afforded with her own hands, and she wore great amusement. All Petersburg diamonds to the value of a million of regretted the departure of Cobenzl ; rubles.

because nobody equals him in com“ On the 17th the emperor embark placency, ease, and all that renders ed with his whole family for Cronstadt, society agreeable. On his theatre and took the most hearty leave of the performed princess Dolgorucki the king.”

part of Camilla, to the admiration of Kammenoy-Ostrog, near Peters- every one; and on the very evening burg.-On the 24th the king went to a of his setting off, the embassador lent country-seat of prince Kurakin. The himself, for the pleasure of the comprincess Dolgorucki,an intimate friend pany, by fitting himself out as a ben, of the family, celebrated, as usual, the and all the present children as chickens, birth-day of princess K- at Alex- which he defended against every androwskie. The festivity had been attack in a very ludicrous manner.” advanced this year by a whole month, Gatschina, 9th September, and folon account of the approaching depar- lowing days. One of the three Russian ture of the Austrian embassador, count bishops, who had been knighted, made Cobenzl, who is a great friend of both a speech to the emperor. It is to be the ladies, and whose taste has always remarked, that only under the present enlivened their social amusements. government the bishops have received The company went first to a thicket; red and blue ribands. At the ball, where the children of both families which was given in the evening, the offered, in shops of green branches, empress asked the king, whether he various things for sale, such as flowers, played at cards ? and when he acknowfruit, music, &c. Instead of sign- ledged his ignorance on that point, boards, these shops had inscriptions the emperor said that it was the same drawn from the best and most known with him: but I, said the empréss, authors, and befitting the occasion. must play a little at picquet par conOne of the children made a speech, tenance ; and she did then play for and then they all united in merry about half an hour with the fieldmardances. From this place, one pro- shals Soltikoff, Repnin, and Kamensceeded to the theatre of the castle: koy. On the 10th, the king requested the princess Dolgorucki acted most the emperor to give him somebody, excellently a scene of Nina, or insanity who could point out to him all the caused by love. Thereupon followed beauties of Gatschina; and immedirepresentations of the magic lantern ately was the general-adjutant Plesbehind a curtain of gauze: the direc- chtschejeff sent to him as his 'guide: tor of the lantern appeared, and an- this man, who has served in the Engnounced the rising of the sun, and lish navy, has the reputation of saying this sun was-the Austrian embassa- always what he thinks; and whatever dor dressed in brocade, and his head he says, bespeaks a man of honour. surrounded by beams of gilded paste- He went with the king through the board; he was followed by the moon, subterraneous passages, which remind represented by Mandini, the first Ita- one of the catacombs, to the top of lian singer, who gave afterwards, with the tower: the interior division of the Mr. De Riviére, a brother-in-law of walls is still the same as in the time Mme. Le Brun, the painter, the part- when Count George Orloff was in pos.


Fragment of a Day-Book. session of the castle; but the emperor enfeld, a marquis de Montmort, the has enlarged it very much, and has old well-known French performer Ausdecorated it entirely to his own liking. rène, and Mr. Riviére, were appointed A Polish painter, Labinski, bas fur- for the remainder. In the second nished, amongst others, the finest Ara- piece performed princess Dolgorucki besks. Under the great number of herself with her wonted superiority, paintings, one remarks five large por- and her charming children appeared traits by Robert; one seven feet high as harlequins. by Vernet; Charles the Third of Spain « On the 23d October, a Greek at dinner; and a stag-hunt, which bishop lodged with the king; his name prince Condé gave to the emperor is Eugene, and he was born at Corfu. when he visited him at Chantilli as Without having ever been a monk, he grand duke, &c. The three graces, was named by Catharine to be bishop painted on a piece of marble, are less of Tauria. He resigned after a few remarkable for their beauty, than be- years, to spend his pension here. He cause they have been dug up at Her- has translated an Æneide in Greek culaneum. A representation of Peter verses, and, according to the judgment the Great on horseback, is perhaps the of connoisseurs, his performance is a best which one has of him, but the very good one: he speaks French and horse might be better: the dress is Italian, and knows the best authors more modern than one is accustomed of these nations. His conversation is to see from that epoch, and the painter spiritual, and one does not perceive has forgotten the star of the order of his eighty years.". St. Andrew. In the drawing-room an Gatschina, 26th October.—The em. antique basrelief is placed over the peror treated the empress to-day to an chimney, which has been so well pre- Italian Opera seria by Anfossi, which served, that one might almost doubt was excellently executed. The decothe truth of what is asserted about it: rator, (scene-painter,) Gonzaga, has they say, that it had originally deco- surpassed himself: he is one of the first rated a monument of Trajan, and that artists in his line, and knows how to from that it had been transplanted with produce optical effects which border several others to the triumphant arch on enchantment; although the house of Constantine, whence thieves had is but small, and the principal spectorn it off during the night, and sold tators are placed immediately behind it to chief-chamberlain Schuwaloff, the orchestra: even on the curtain who was just then travelling in Italy. stands a temple which seems to proIn the cabinet of the emperor hang ject, seen at a distance of only six five portraits-Prince Henry of Prus- feet: a woody district of his produces sia, betwixt four Russian fieldmar- the effect of a painting by Breughel: shals. As for the garden, the king a sun-beam coming through a window has but slightly glanced at it, for the of a prison, was absolutely deceiving; present. The emperor seemed highly and he has painted walls al fresco, pleased with the king's good opinion which delude the eye, notwithstanding of a place in which he delights so much prior information. After the opera, Le bimself: he said, it appears to me as Pieg gave a ballet, in which he showed if I were no where at home but here. himself to great advantage, in spite of It certainly must be acknowledged

that his sixty years. On the 24th Novemeven Pawbowski, pretty as it is, can ber, the

emperor had the opera repeated be called but a small diamond, when on the court theatre in Petersburg ; compared with Gatschina.

and as this is by far larger than that Petersburg, 17th October.-Prince in Gatschina, Gonzaga was obliged to Dolgorueki surprised the king in the paint fresh sceneries in the greatest evening with a theatre, which he had haste : this served anew to prove his erected, during the king's absence, in fruitful genius, and his extraordinary

One gave two skill. The play which had been anFrench pieces: Lecon seit paternel; and nounced for the 28th, was countermenage,

, by Florian. The author manded as soon as the emperor learned of the first is a count Golofllin, who of the death of the king of Prussia.” was educated abroad : the piece is Petersburg, 5th December.—This actually full of new and interesting day, prince Condé visited the king, and scenes. Madame Litwinoff acted the declared that he should have known principal part; a Bavarian count Lerch- him again, as he had had the pleasure


the marble palace.


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