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Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.

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To enter into particulars would be te- the prescribed day to Savona, and dious. Your imagination will suggest was every hour triumphantly upbraidwhat passed among familiar friends, ing his Holiness for his absence. A unanimous in their pursuit of mirth. bitter circumstance this, and a disThis day was assuredly a happy one; grace to the Italians both of the preand it is especially to be deemed so, sent and of future times ! For what since, in such a state of confusion is could have happened to us more the pontifical court, that every em- shameful or more ignominious, than ployment is welcome which can in that the Pontiff should refuse to reany way enliven the gloominess of our pair to the spot which he had himself thoughts.-Lucca, June 10."*

selected for the effecting of that union The forebodings which Leonardo of Christendom, for which all men seems to have entertained of the state are looking with such earnest expecof turbulence in which the court of tation ? Methinks, some one will here the Pontiff was likely to be involved, say, Dare you write such things-you, were speedily verified. In the follow- who are in the service of his Holiness? ing letter to Pedrillo, a Neapolitan, Yes, truly ! For why should I flatter who in all probability was one of his him, and disguise my sentiments as colleagues in the papal secretaryship, to the nature of his conduct? I am a and who had withdrawn from the dis- Christian, and an Italian, and I am gusting scenes of ecclesiastical in- irritated at the thought that Chrisrigue, he thus expressed his feelings tians should be rived of the blessof honest indignation :

ing of unity and peace, and that my “Our conjectures have been proved countrymen should be impeached as by the event, to be but too well found faithless covenant-breakers. Do I ed. The storm, which has of late been not then love the Pontiff? Yes! much gathering by degrees, has at length more than they who by lying and flatburst with sudden fury. The cardi- tering have persuaded him to adopt nals, who have for some time past re- wrong measures. I do, indeed, study garded the conduct of the Pontiff with to promote the true glory of the Ponsentiments of indignation and resent- tiff, which consists in a spirit of unity, ment, have left him and departed. No- and in bestowing upon Christendom thing can be imagined more tempes- that peace which he had promised-a tuous or turbulent than the day of line of conduct than which nothing their departure. Greatly do I com- can be more conducive to immortal mend the wisdom and foresight which glory. But his evil counsellors have you evinced in quitting this scenè of advised him to retain his see by any strife, and retiring to Naples; and I means, however disgusting to the blame myself for not following the Christian community at large. They dictates of my better judgment, and who deemed this a glorious act are imitating your example.

mad, especially since the consequences "I will give you a history of this of such a step were easy to be foreaffair. I presume, that you are de- seen. But I return to the course of sirous of knowing the truth; and my narrative. many falsehoods are circulated by « The Pontiff not having repaired to those who are ignorant of the facts of Savona, and news having arrived that the case. I will recur, then, to the pe- the Antipope, who had come thither riod of your departure, in order that on the day appointed, was accusing you may have a more perfect idea of us for absenting ourselves; in consethe causes and the progress of the quence of the general ferment which late events. The Pontiff

, after he had took place in men's minds, another quitted Rome, had stopped for some proposal was made, namely, that the months at Siena. In the mean time Antipope should go to Porto Venere, the period had arrived, at which he and his Holiness to Lucca. We achad engaged to repair to Savona. But cordingly left Siena in the month of this period, to the great displeasure of January, in the midst of a heavy all good men, and in neglect and con- shower of snow, and repaired to tempt of his promise, he suffered to Lucca, where, notwithstanding the pass by. The Antipope, however, ac

constant interchange of messengers, cording to his agreement, came on

the affair seemed to make no prot

gress. * Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. ii. ep. 20..

(To be continued.)

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Literary Institution recommended.

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Literary Institution recommended to the Answer to a Question, on the Re-union Inhabitants of Liverpool.

of Married Persons who had sepa

rated. MR. Editor.

“ MR. EDITOR. Sir,-It is much to be lamented, that “Sir, I think there can be no doubt amongst the many associations, form- that the characters described in the ed by young people in this town, there question inserted col. 374, are at have not been some for the promotion liberty to return; for while they reof science and literature. The Phi- main by their second engagement, losophical Society is a public institu- they are in a state of adultery, (Mattion, and beyond the efforts of juvenile thew xix. 9.) But by a re-union, they genius. However excellent it may return to perform their first marriage be for the purposes intended, its esta- vow. Such act may also be consiblishment we think cannot in the least dered the fruit of repentance, if their promote the early emulation, or foster moral deportment admit such conthe clever but crude attempts which struction. And referring to John vi. 37. private societies would be enabled to we find our Saviour will not on any do. Now, a Literary Club, composed account reject the coming sinner; of young men, from the ages of 16 or therefore, no religious society has a 17, to 25, or upwards, would be a right to do so. great advantage. Several little so- “ With reference to the four first cieties of this kind might be formed verses of the 24th chapter of Deuteramong friends and acquaintances, onomy;-the separation there, is the which, without interfering with more result of a lawful determination on important avocations, would give a the part of the husband alone, and spirit to the society, and a tone to the put in force before the wife found pursuits of our young men, which favour. Whereas, according to the would completely raise the character present query, we may suppose the of our town. A year or two since, agreement to separate was mutual, indeed, we believe it was in one in- by each choosing a new spouse; and stance attempted, and a plan adopted moreover, prior to the first separation, of meeting together, at their respec- we may also suppose the parties to tive houses. But it was of no long have cohabited; from both of which continuance, while a Chess club esta particulars I conclude, the chapter of blished about the same time has long Deuteronomy, referred to, is not apsurvived it. This is certainly an plicable to the characters in question. agreeable and innocent recreation, and Besides, the second marriage, as in as far as it engages the attention of Deuteronomy, is lawful, and not the the mind, may be called useful. In ex- first: but with the case in hand, it is ercising the faculties of man, and pro- the first marriage that is lawful, and moting habits of patient thought, as not the second ; see 19th of Matthew, an amusement it is unequalledbut just quoted. why are literature and science to be

“ I am Sir, excluded! Frequently, through so

“ Your's, most respectfully, cieties like the latter, great minds

" Joseph WILLIAMS." have been produced, and latent talents Bridge-End, Cornwall.called into action. But where this is not the case, they at all events improve and refine the taste, and give a

Reply to a Query on Ringworms. stimulus to the ambition of the mem- In col. 374, a Question was inserted bers, which is sure to produce a bene- respecting this singular complaint, to ficial influence on their future lives. which two replies were given in col

. Elevated with such views, and such 477. Since the above appeared, we pure and delightful amusements, con- have been favoured with the followsecrating the hours of leisure to the ing, which we also insert, from a cultivation of talent, and the pursuits hope that they may likewise prove of literature, there can be no charac- beneficial. ter more noble and estimable, than that of a British merchant.

MR. EDITOR.

A TYRO. Sir,- In your Magazine for April, Liverpool, June 4, 1821.

1821, a Correspondent inquires for an

639
Replies to Queries.- Epitaph.

631 efficacious care of the Ringworm. I If the person that W. Smith has am induced to offer the following, be heard make the assertion concerning cause I have experienced its value. Screw-drivers, means only to say, When a child, of about 10 years of that a screw-driver with a long handle, age, I had the complaint, and by a to which you can apply both your persevered application of the following hands, will turn a screw with greater prescription, was completely cured, ease than one with a short handle, to and have never since had any return which you can only apply one hand, of the disorder. The trial bas proved I grant the assertion is true. But if equally successful in several other he intends to have the same wood instances, to my own knowledge, of handle to each iron screw-driver, the which two or three have taken place experiment will prove that both the among my own brothers and sisters. screw-drivers are powerful alike;

One admonition will be necessary, and like powers produce like effects before I state the recipe, and that is, in common levers. When the screwto persevere in the application; for driver is reduced to a common lever, the Ringworm, like the Wart, re- and we make an experiment with quires a considerable time to remove. oné, say 21 inches long, placed hori

Recipe.—Let the head be shaved, zontally, and resting upon a circular and that every week. Wash the step, and a weight applied to a lever head morning and evening with soap upon the handle of the screw-driver, it and water, after which, apply the fol- will raise a certain weight upon the exlowing ointment, by rubbing a small | tremity of the flat part of the screwquantity into the part affected. driver. Now if you make an experi.

Ointment.--two Scruples of White ment with a screw-driver, say 15 inches Precipitate ;— eight Grains of Subli- long, you will have the same result, mate ;-mixed up in two ounces of admitting you make the experiment Hog's-lard.

with the same handle, lever, and As the particles of this ointment weight; which is demonstrable to are a rank poison, I beg to caution every intelligent mind. But if you person's again st leaving it in the way apply your hand to the wood handle of children or servants.

of a screw-driver, and cause it to pass Your's, &c. B. B. through a much larger circle, most London, May 15, 1821.

certainly it will have more power than

the screw-driver with a small handle, Mr. Joseph Williams, master of the because the radius of the large circle Free School, Bridge-End, Cornwall, is greater than the radius of the small observes, that about three years circle ; therefore the ratio of the since, the above disorder appeared power will be as the difference of the among a few of his pupils. Fearing radius of these circles. Yours, &c. the complaint would prove infectious,

A SUBSCRIBER. the lads were taken home by their

Low Moor Iron Works, parents respectively, where they re

April 17th, 1821. mained until they were cured, which To the preceding Question we have was effected in a few months. Among received two other answers; one from the different applications which were Mr. Joseph Williams of Bridge-End, made, he knows of none that proved Cornwall, the other from Mr. Robt. more speedily efficacious than, first, Hall, junr. Colchester. Both the reBlack Ink without any other mixture; ply we have given, and that transand secondly,a preparation made from mítted by Mr. Williams, were accomChalk.

panied with figures"; but we conceive that what we have inserted will be

sufficiently clear without a diagram. Answer to a Query on Screw-Drivers. MR EDITOR.

The following EPITAPH in Hollesley SIR, - If you think the following re

Church-yard, is curious for the nummarks on a question proposed (col.

ber of metaphors it contains. 375;) by Mr. W. Smith, of Camborne, A man is born-alas! and what is man? Cornwall , worthy a place in yoar A vale of tearsa vessel tan'd with breath,

A scattle fall of dust a breath-a spanvery valuable Magazine, they are at Bs sickness broach’d, and then drawn off by your disposal.

death. No. 29,- VOL. III.

2S

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Life of Martin Luther.

630

LIFE

GAZINE.

OF MARTIN LUTHER ;-LATELY

ject matter, but went through or over TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN, siderations upon it as he found occa

his text, and formed as many conPURPOSELY FOR THE IMPERIAL MA- sion, and his fruitful genius point

ed out to him. The usual application Not only as a reformer of the church had no particular place, as all his doctrine, and religious discipline, but moral representations were brought likewise as a German writer, has Luther forward in immediate application to acquired immortal honour. He wrote all the hearers. All this, and the spirit his mother tongue more perfectly which pervades his sermons, and the and elegantly than any other author often unexpected and lively thoughts, of his time. In his translation of the the affecting representations, the canBible, he has left a pattern of a pro- did and powerful tone with which he per, just, and clear, nay of an harmo- speaks, combined with the great simnious, expression. He translated with plicity, popularity and artless manly true feelings of its great and noble eloquence, give his sermons a particontents, and learned to exchange cularly original value. The common many of the peculiarities of the Scrip- and low expressions will be readily ture language with the German. Ne- pardoned, if viewed according to those vertheless he let many remain, and times when they were not then, what not without reason; and so incessantly they are now. improved his work, that, with the ex- Luther belongs to those rare men, ception of some particular passages, who with proportionately small means it has not since his day received any to effect great matters, are able to improvement. In his spiritual songs, produce incredible changes. He was, he was not so much engaged in nar- and became, every thing through himrowly observing the rules of language self; and humanity, debased under the and art of poetry, as to express free yoke of superstition and spiritual desand lively Christian feelings; and we potism, has to thank him for enperceive at the present how well he nobling and reinstating her in her, succeeded. The fine, and the exalted through many centuries, disallowed sentiments, with which many of them and oppressed rights. In an age are composed, express his mind, his when no one was accustomed to think heart, and representations, more natu- or to inquire, he profited of the fragrally than all which history can add ments of budding literature, which upon the subject.

with unwearied diligence he collected, The man who could compose that partly at school, and partly in his hymn “Euie feste Burg ist unsa Gall,” | academic years, for a solid exposiand treat it in such a manner, must be tion of holy Scripture, and for a refar exalted above the common sort of gular improvement of the entire relimen of his day. In his controversial gious instruction in the pulpit, as also writings, there reigned much solidity, upon the spiritual teacher's rostrum, strong wit, and genuine humour, not- Possessing too great a mind to feel withstanding the bitterness and pas- the sensations of envy or jealousy, he sion, which must be forgiven in a man willingly did justice to others' merit, of his stormy and fiery soul. In his yet pursued his own path; and the sermons, Luther shews himself as the happy ideas of the best heads of his great, thinking, honest, and candid age, of an Erasmus and a Melanctbon, man, which he was in all his enter- were only instruments in his hands, prises; and his religious expositions and not the sources of his farther prowere entirely different from the then gress in the elucidation. He exalted common way, in substance, form, dress, particularly in his translation of the and expression. Even here he pursued Bible) the German language from its his own path, which he considered former neglect and barbarousness:

he the most proper to promote in the taught princes and citizens their mu. best manner the result of preaching, tual rights and privileges, more solidly instruction, and improvement. The and justly than the most penetrating ancient, and, in the first days of lawyers, long before, or until his Christianity, usual form, of homilies, time, had done; in short, he seized appeared

to him the most natural and and made use of every opportunity to useful. Without exordium, theme, or

overcome prejudices, to spread useful division, he delayed not by one sub-I truths, and would certainly have pro

Life of Martin Luther.

638

ceeded much farther, if various theolo- | fulfilment of our duties, and which gical controversies, and other avoca- no accidental change of our external tions, had not robbed him of the circumstances can add to or diminish. greatest part of his leisure.

In himself alone he sought and found If Luther be viewed on the side of the sources of true happiness, the his comprehensive mind, he deserves possession of which his ever active our wonder; he likewise becomes mind, as well as heart full of senamiable through his character, and an timents for general good, assured him. object of just veneration: He was He therefore set no value on the adcontent, temperate, bold, undaunted, vantages or gifts of fortune, the posdisinterested, and beneficent, mag- session or loss of which depend upon nanimous and discreet, a zealous the temper of human favour, or huworshipper of God, and an active man hatred. From hence arose his friend of mankind. The contentment unmoveable stedfastness, his heroic to which he had accustomed himself undauntedness in threatening danfrom early youth, and during his gers, his incorruptible love of truth, severe life in the cloister, may be con- in his bold judgment of others' failsidered as the foundation of the great ings, the baneful influence of which part of his other virtues. It was this he remarked on the welfare of man, which made him moderate with re- and the interest of religion. No emispect to every kind of enjoyment, and nence of person was available to also created that serenity of the soul, soften or turn aside his loud and sewhich is the daughter of temperance, vere reproaches, and which he sufliand the parent of great ideas and ac- ciently evinced in his often-repeated tions. Confined to a small circle of declarations against two of the most wants, he was an enemy to all excess ; open enemies of the Reformation and the voice of revengeful calumny Albreckt of Brandenburg, cardinal alone, and which he sufficiently con- and elector of Mainz, and George futed by his simple manner of life, Duke of Saxony. With equally imcould ever accuse him of intemperance. partial boldness he reproved the failFar removed from permitting his body ings of those persons, whom he otherto usurp dominion over the nobler wise loved and esteemed on account part of the man, he often renounced of their virtues, and their favourable the reasonable enjoyment of proffered sentiments of the unadulterated doccomforts, and appeared at times, for trine. Thus he reproached the Elector whole days together, quite to forget Frederick the Wise, with his shy all bodily wants. Equally removed lukewarmness at the commencement of from a complaining humour, and the Church reformation, and his very proud contempt, of the extended invi- extreme carefulness; the Elector John tations to enjoyment spread through the Constant, with his too great mildall creation, he was animated and ness and his too yielding goodness to lively in the companiable circle of the pride of the nobles; the Elecfriends and acquaintances, and he tor John Frederick, with his obstinacy taught by his example the great art and the boundless confidence placed to forbear the innocent comforts of in his council, and with his love for life, as also to use them to the collect- hunting, pursued without proper moing of new powers, and to the awaken- deration, at the expense of the poor ing of joyful thanksgivings to the over country people. all apparent goodness of the great The noble disinterestedness of LuCreator.

ther, as well as his beneficence, was the Even this art of forbearance, which effect of that satisfied contentment, in so great a degree he made his own, by which he so favourably distinraised him above all fear of man, and :

guished himself. He never submitted over the mean necessity of conceal- to immoderate desires after riches ing his sentiments under the com- and greatness, and, accustomed to a plaisant garb of flattery. Free from happy mediocrity, he deigned no atthe reproaches of an accusing con- tention to a possible and shining science, and unacquainted with the beautifying of his natural situation. seducing charms of excessive desires, The Roman court, as well before as he enjoyed that exalted tranquillity after the excommunicating bulls diof soul, which accompanies the con- rected against him, offered him consoling consciousness of the exact siderable sums; and, if some not im

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