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Ansmer to a Query on Surnames,

712 Macartney: and by 0, in like manner haps among the most ancient of this in the peerage, O'Brien, (2) O'Neil, class, its chief having possessed under O'Callaghan, and O'Hara. In Wales, that name his present lands in Athol ap, originally prefixed to the name for more than 400 years. of the father, had the same import; as, Of proper names, almost every one ap-Rice, ap-Howel, ap-Evon; the son may be adduced as surnames. The of Rice, -of Howel,-of Evon. The following are in the peerage, but, extwo first were soon contracted to Price cept the first, of no great antiquity: and Powel, and still indicate anti- Peter, Alexander, Duncan, and Matquity; but the more common practice thew. of expressing the sirname plainly, The surnames derived from the diEvans, Edwards, Johns, or Williams, minutives of proper names, such as is a modern device, which tends to Dick, Thom, Jamie, Will, Watt, Rob, confound ancient families with the Sim, Saunders, Pate, with their own commonalty of that country, who progeny of Dickson, Thomson, Jachange the sirname every generation, mieson, &c. must all have sprung oriby adding for their own sirname the ginally from the lower orders, if not genitive s, to the proper name of their from illegitimacy; as is most proimmediate progenitor. Ex. William bably the case with all surnames dethe son of John Edwards, will call rived from the names of women, such himself William Johnes, or Jones, as Alison, Mollison, Nelson, Beatson, and his own son Edward will in like and Christieson, as well as Christie, manner call himself Edward Williams; or rather Chirstie itself, that being so that were this practice general, all the usual appellation of Chirstain, family distinction, so far as depends which in Scotland, is a woman's name. upon sirname, would be involved in It would be an endless task to trace utter confusion.*

the origin of every surname, nor is it That branch of sirname that is form- here meant to be attempted; but still ed by adding son in plain English to a few observations more may be inthe proper name of the progenitor, is, dulged, particularly on such as have like the English language itself, more attained in this country to celebrity. modern, and besides that there are Thus we may observe, that official fewer of the nobility of this denomina- station and rank have given rise 10 tion, their elevation to the peerage is many dignified families that still conbut of recent date; the most ancient tinue in power and affluence, although at present on the list being Watson the station or rank that their ancestors Lord Sondes ; created such only 45 held has long since ceased to be enjoyyears ago, since which there has been ed,--such as Stuart, Marischal, Cononly eight more of this class added, stable, Butler, King, Dean, Monk, viz. Robinson, (2) Leeson, Dawson, Knight, Falconer, Forester, Bishop, Acheson, Jenkinson, Nelson, and Archdeacon, Treasurer, Chamberlane, Hutchinson. Sanderson, Earl of Scar- &c. There are now about twenty borough, is no proper exception to of the prime nobility of these surthis, that being only an assumed name names, exclusive of the four last, at no remote period, the original name which have not yet attained to that being Lumley, which is indeed a name honour. of great antiquity. There was in- Some surnames again denote the deed a Robertson, now changed to Col- nation or people from whence the falier, Earl of Portmore, of pretty an- milies are derived, as Scott, Fleming, cient date, but that name itself is per- French, (which have all attained to the

Not unsimilar to this is the practice in the crown, he lodged one night at Lumley castle, Imperial family of Russia, where the children between Newcastle and Durham. Here the take the name of their own father as a sirname: chaplain of the family, in conducting the royal Ex. Peter Alexowitz, Paul Petrowitz, Alexan- visitor through the gallery of family portraits

, der Paulowitz. They have even a feminine took occasion to expatiate on the vast antiquity declension owna, instead of owitz. Ex. Elizabeth of his patron's ancestors, tracing them through Iwanowna, Ann Paulowna, &c. But here an almost endless genealogy. His Majesty, there is no danger of confusion, the family who

foresaw where this was to end, and unwillbeing too dignified to admit of doubt, as to ing to be longer detained on the subject, cat lineage.

him short at once with—“Stop, stop, man, I + It is related, that when our sagacious mo- never kend before, that Adam's surname was narch, James VI. was on his journey south to Lumley.” London, to take possession of the English

Answer to a Query on Surnames.

714 peerage) Inglis, and Welch. Nobody Crookshanks, Bastard, Trollope, &c. has, however, yet thought of distin- which in some of the cases may have guishing themselves by the name of been assumed by, and in others imIrish, yet Ireland is not uncommon as posed on, the parties; of which the a surname; as also England, Scot- wonder is, how their descendants do land, Wales, France, and Holland. not contrive to alter them, which is Almost every town and country, in- often done in other cases, where nodeed, has given rise to a surname. thing opprobrious attaches from the

The cardinal points, South, East, name. There can be no doubt also, North, West, are all surnames, of that many surnames are corrupted which the two last are in the peerage. undesignedly in the hands of illiterate

Parts of the Body have been as- people; of wbich, perhaps, there cansumed as surnames, -as Foot, Hand, not be shown a stronger instance than Tongue, Head, Heart, Beard, Belly, the surnames Death and Devil, from Shank, Leg, of which last there are De Ath, and De Ville. two families in the peerage ; and of But the most numerous of all the dress and armour, such as Sword, classes of surnames, is that which has Spear, Shield, Buckle, Greaves or arisen from trade and occupation, Graves, Hood, Cuff. Of the three there being very few handicrafts that last surnames, there are five peers of have not given surnames to particular the realm.

families; and even these must be of The Colours form a numerous and considerable antiquity, as the different brilliant class,-as Green, Red, Black, employments of men would be an obBlue, Brown, of which there are seve- vious distinction at the first assumpral in the peerage; White, lately rais- tion of surnames among the great ed to it, and Grey, which has been for body of the people, which it is beages on the list of nobility, and had lieved took place in this country about once nearly secured the crown. the end of the 13th, or beginning of

From Animals, a numerous race the 14th century. But as in these are surnamed, and of high dignity. rude ages, the path to honour would Guelph, the German for Wolf, is the rarely lie in the way of rustics and surname of the illustrious house of mechanics, it would be long before Brunswick, and, of course, of the many families of this class would atRoyal Family of Great Britain: and tain to rank or distinction, and in fact in the list of the peerage are the fol- there are few or none thus derived that lowing ; Lyon, Griffin, Wolf, Fox, lay claim to much renown, till within Lamb, Hare, Hawk, Coote, Cocks, these 150 or 200 years ; although in and Finch.

the present day the number, even in There are remarkably few surnames the higher ranks, thus descended, is taken from the Sea, notwithstanding very considerable, and even among our intimate connection with it. them some are named from profesShore, lately advanced to the peerage, sions by which one would scarcely exseems the only one of respectability; pect that almost any family would for, of the few others in use, such as have chosen to be distinguished. Thus Herring, Haddock, Crab, Whale, and Collier and Salter, which were oriHulk, they seem rather to have been ginally professions held in great disimposed as nicknames, than assumed repute, (so much so as to be conducted as surnames of distinction.

only by bondmen,) are now the names A considerable number of surnames of very respectable families; as well are derived from the Gaelic, such as as Dempster, which was originally Roy, Red; Bane, White ; Ogg, Young ; the public executioner. More, Great ; Begg, Little ; none of The following surnames of this plethem have, however, attained to much beian origin, are now enrolled in the distinction, except Duff, Earl Fife, class of nobility: Fayer, Collier, and of the same import Dove and Cooper, Carpenter, Turner, Ryder, Dow, all of which signify Black. Smith, Litster, and Gardiner or Gard

There are several surnames derived ner, consisting of the families of one from personal qualifications or cir- Marquis, six Earls, two Viscounts, and cumstances, such as Sharp, Smart, four Barons. Jolly, Fair, Short, Small, Strong, On the whole, it is a most gratifying Little ; and even some from personal reflection, that, as, on the one hand, reproach or deformity; as Waddle, such a numerous race of dignified No. 30,--VOL. III.

2 Z


Observations on Authors and Books.


nobility, and opulent gentry, can be be read with pleasure and profit; but traced back to nearly the most remote there are none, I feel certain, recomperiod of our authentic history; which mended, from which neither can be shews, that the noble and exalted vir- derived. A few additions I have intues which first brought them into dis- cluded in (brackets) tinction have continued to influence

I POLPERROC. and animate their posterity, so as to bring them down to the present day with Geography and Chronology are their fortunes and honours unimpair-justly called the Eyes of History. For ed: so, on the other hand, from the Ancient Geography, I would recomencouraging and mild influence of mend Geographie Ancienne, abrégée British laws and manners, the temple par D'Anville, in 3 vols. 8vo. to read of honour is not restricted to the an- or refer to; the last Edition of Gucient aristocracy, (as in many other thrie's Grammar will, I should supcountries in Europe,) but is open to pose, be sufficient for modern, and the brave and the ingenious, in every the Maps of D'Anville for both; for department of life.

Chronology, Blair's Chronological TaIt may be proper to remark, that bles. (The Biographical and Histosimilarity of surname, in those classes rical Charts, by Joseph Priestley, are derived from the diminutive of proper useful.) Next comes 'Ancient History: names, and from trade and occupa- I remember so little of the volumintion, affords no ground to conclude a ous work of Rollin, as not to venture relationship between the parties, as to decide whether it will quite pay multitudes totally unconnected with you for the trouble of reading it. one another, would chuse to have im- (Rollin's Ancient History is certainly posed upon them some surname ori- a good work, and the little of Roman ginally. For the same reason, such history that it contains causes us to surnames as are derived from the di- regret that he had not taken the whole minutives of proper names, may have of it into his plan.) I am almost certain no affinity whatever with the proper that Elémens D'Histoire, par L'Abbé name itself. Ex. There is no affinity Millot, will give you a sufficient between the surnames Jackson and sketch, which you may afterwards Johnson ; Dickson and Richardson; fill up and improve by reading (if you Wilson and Williamson, nor between will be very learned in Greek history) Robinson and Robertson; although Translations of Herodotus, Thucythese two last are frequently, but very dides, and Xenophon; or perhaps, improperly, taken the one for the without these, 2 vols. 8vo. of Stanother. The arms of the respective yan's Grecian History may gratify names are completely different.

you. I would recommend, also, Spel

G. R. man's Translation (2 vols. 8vo.) of From a Constant Reader of Bris- Xenophon's Retreat of the 10,000; and tol, similar observations have been some Translation, if there be any, of received.

Xenophon's Cyropædia. The Lives of Plutarch: they are all admirable,

but those of the Grecians are to be Observations on several Authors and preferred. Hook's is the best Roman Books in the English and Foreign history: this will lead you to the Languages, which are necessary for History of the Grandeur et Décathe formation of a select and small dence des Romains, par Montesquieu; Library.--Abridged from tie Pam- and that, to Gibbon's Decline and Fall phleteer, No. 3.

of the Roman Empire. If you choose The following account of books was to avoid the latter's sarcastic account written a few years since in a letter of the rise and progress of Christo a lady, for the purpose of pointing tianity, you must omit the 15th and out to her those books that might be 16th Chapters of the first volume. most proper for her closet. I could (Whitaker's Review of this work might then have enlarged the plan without follow the reading it. It is published difficulty; a principal effort was, to in a separate octavo volume.) Middlekeep it within due bounds. It was ton's Life of Cicero, though it inclines formed entirely from recollection, and, to panegyric, will give you a juster therefore, it is possible that there may idea, on the whole, of that great man, be many authors omitted, which might than is to be met with elsewhere.

Observations on Authors and Books.

718 Read also Melmoth's Translations claim a place in your library. Of of the Letters of Cicero, and of his English, and, indeed, of all other Treatises on Friendship and Old Age, poets, Shakspeare is the first. Milton and of Pliny's Letters. Vertot's need not be praised. Spenser's Fairy Revolutions Romaines is a book in Queen. Gray, before he composed some degree of estimation. Bossuet's poetry, always read some stanzas of Essai sur l'Histoire Universelle. The Spenser. You should have Warton's moral works of Plutarch must not be Annotationson Spenser,2vols.12mo.;-forgotten, nor the Memorable Sayings Derrick's Edition of Dryden, 4 vols. of Socrates by Xenophon, translated 8vo.;-Gray's Poems, with Mason's by Mr. Lennox. Among the ancient Memoirs ;-Swift, but rather for his poets, inust be read Pope's Homer, prose than his poetry ;-Thomson ;and Dryden's Virgil. If you wish to Goldsmith; the Histories which go trouble yourself about the ancient by his name are said not to have drama, you may look into Theatre proceeded from his pen;—Churchill ;des Grees, par le Pere Brumoi, and Mason's Caractacus and Elfrida ;Potter's Translation of Æschylus and Beattie's Minstrel ;-(It must have Euripides ; and read Colman's Trans- been through oversight that Pope's lation of Terence.

works are omitted. Prior deserves For English History, read Rapin, to be read, if a new Edition were with Tindal's Continuation, in 5 vols. printed, with omissions. Cowper folio; and Hume, who, however, is claims a place in every house.) not to be believed, when he would French History:-Histoire de France, persuade you that the people of Eng- par l'Abbe de Velley et Les Contiland were wolves, and the princes of nuateurs ;-Abregé de l'Histoire de the house of Stuart, lambs: for just | France, par Henault, 2 vols. 8vo. information there is no comparison This masterly outline comprehends between him and Rapin. Lord Cla- more than many voluminous hisrendon is the first of English histories. Mémoires de Philip de Cotorians, and paints characters in co- mincs. Mémoires de Sully: an exlours that make them live and breathe. act account of a great, though absoIf he is partial to the cause of which lute monarch, given faithfully by his he was the chief ornament, the sup- favourite minister, who was greater port, and victim, who can blame him? than himself, and proof against all the he was a man liable to error, open to temptations of power and fortune, has affection, but above corruption or been presented to the world but once. wilfalmisrepresentation. Burnet's His- Mémoires de Cardinal de Rets. Métory of his own Times is an authentic moires de Madamel de Motteville, source of information for the period relate many curious particulars, of it embraces. Robertson's Histories, which the dignity of graver historians Melville's and Cary's Memoirs, pos- would have left no memorial. Siècle sess much interest. Walpole's His de Louis XIV.par Voltaire. Mémoires tory of Noble Authors, and Anecdotes de Gourville. Lettres de Madame of Painting in England, are full of de Sévigné, though not historical, are entertainment and information. The full of anecdotes of the times. LetBiographia Britannica is worth hav- tres du Comte Bussy Rabutin. Leting, to consult as a dictionary, if not tres et Memoires de Madame de Mainto read through. Mémoires de Gram- tenon. Souvenirs de Madame de mont may certainly be called English Caylus. Mémoires de Noailles. Mehistory: in them the gay court of moires de Madame de Stael; not Charles the Second will live for ever. historical, but very entertaining. (To Bacon's Essays in English, Algernon these must be added the same Lady's Sidney's Letters, and the Spectator, work on the French Revolution, 3 must not be neglected. For the sake vols. 8vo.) of the style, Bolingbroke's Letters on Natural History, Moral Works, &c. the Study of History, and on the in French:-Histoire Naturelle, par Spirit of Patriotism, and Idea of a Buffon: Without this work, no library Patriot King, are worth reading. Burke can be complete. (This is a mistake: on the Sublime and Beautiful, and the whole theory of the Earth, and his Junius's Letters, are valuable on the speculations on Man, occupying a same account. Clarissa, as the first large portion of the work, are erroneof novels, and Grandison (the inferior,) | ous ; many parts are highly indecent


Reflections on the Catholic Claims.




and on Birds and Fishes he is ex- | Reformation, Hooker's Ecclesiastical tremely deficient. Goldsmith's Natu- Polity, and Neal's History of the ral History will supply his place to Puritans, will afford valuable inforthe general reader; to which Pennant mation. On the subject of metaphymay be added. To the naturalist, sics, Bishop Brown's Nature and Turton's edition of the System of Na- Extent of Human Understanding deture, by Linné, must be recommended.) serves deep attention. Locke's Works.) Caractères par la Bruyère. Of all books of morality, this appears to be the best adapted to the uses of Reflections on the Catholic Claims. common life. Ouvres de J. J. Roussean ;-Ouvres de Voltaire, princi- TO THE EDITOR OF pally his dramatic works, and histories. Lettres Persannes, par Montesquieu. Melanges et Eloges, par Laudatur ab his, culpatur ab illis. d'Alembert. All these works are to As your correspondents generally be read with judgment. (Contes Mo- seem to have taken up the Catholic raux, par Marmontel, are to be viewed question rather warmly against those

a picture of French manners to whom some great men wish to exbefore the Revolution.) Sermons tend relief, I think it necessary to par Bourdalone:--Sermons par Mas- premise, that if I should happen to say sillon :-Orasons Funèbres par Bos- something in favour of men who still suet :-Histoire Philosophique et adhere to the old national religion, it Politique des établissemens des Euro- will be by accident only; as I do not peens dans les deaux Indes, par l'Abbe profess to treat of any question of Raynal :-Memoires de Petrarch, par political and occasional import, but l'Abbe de Sade.

of human nature itself. Machiavel French Poetry:- Ouvres de Gres- has formed the ablest theory of policy set ;–Fables par la Fontaine ;—The that ever was drawn up by any politiWorks of Boileau, Racine, Moliere, cal writer, on the mixed character of and Destouches.

every human being, as there never (The most modern Collections of did exist a man who was completely Voyages and Travels are worthy of bad or perfectly good.

It is upon being studied. The author has said this principle, that all discord, and all so little of the important subject of parties, rest; national, local, and doreligion, that it is better to omit it mestic. As we are well or ill inclined, altogether, and to substitute the fol- we may with truth praise or censure lowing recommendation in its place: every man living. Historical events The Bible should be read in as many are produced by human beings; and languages as the student is master of; therefore, if the Tuscan be right, there by a comparison of the rendering of must be something to praise and different translators, much light is ob- something to censure, in the conduct tained. The principal versions are, of every change that takes place in the Septuagint vulgate; that of Cas- the course of our national revolutions. talio, which is rather an elegant para- Society itself does invent, without any phrase than a translation; and that of impulse of the legislature, some habiJunius and Tremellius : the folio tual way of discharging the bile that edition of the latter contains a Latin arises from this continual disputation, translation of the Syriac Version of and the ferment of contending affecthe New Testament, parallel with that tions. Among country neighbours, it of Beza from the Greek. Next is may be done by the abilities of two Paley's Natural Theology, and Evi- greyhounds or two horses. In a town, dences of Christianity; also Grotius by the patronage of two pugilists ;

and on the Evidences of Christianity, and in a district, by a brace of bull-dogs. Doddridge's three Sermons on the We are not much governed by judgsame subject. Wesley's appeals—and, ment in adopting the heat of party: as practical works that supersede We wait only to hear the opinion of every other, the same author's Chris- somebody that we dislike, to be outtian Library, now publishing in 30 rageously violent on the opposite volumes. There is no good history of side ; and the idol of one party is the English Church ; but Burnet's often mistaken in supposing himself Abridgment of his own work on the beloved, when in fact his flatterers

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