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Reflections on the Catholic Claims.


are only the enemies of his opponents. the Church and the State, is not always When the legislature does interfere, an advantage to both of them; for the method acquires rather an imagi- the State is governed by convenience nary importance from that reflection, and propriety, and the principles of than any refinement in the mode of religion seem to be less flexible than proceeding. The Italian republics, in the occasional compliances and bendthe middle ages, had an annual day ings of the civil. Those, who before fixed for the discharge of their sedi- our own revolution had taken the tious bile, by allowing every citizen oath of abjuration, imagined that it to beat his adversary with fists, from applied as much to a renunciation of sun-rise to sun-set, without being the authority of the Prince of Orange subject to any legal penalty. A simi- in their kingdoms, as to the sovereignty lar effect is produced by our method of the Pope. They were, therefore, of electing members of parliament. divided into Jurors and Nonjurors, If this succeeded more frequently, and many were deposed from their I think it would serve to allay the bishoprics and cures. It was then habitual bitterness and ill-temper that that the lofty names of Tillotson and infests society, and converts convivial | Sherlock were stained with the foul meetings into clubs of hostility. When spots of duplicity and falsehood; and a member is returned for so long a they seized, under the protection of time, he has gained too great an ad- their new principles, the high prefervantage over his adversary, who has ments which Dutch Protestants beno hope of being soon able to annoy bim stowed upon them. The Archbishop again, and he torments himself with Sancroft died in retirement, objecting gloominess as well as envy. The dig- to the qualified doctrines of his sucnity of proceeding, however, is not cessor Tillotson; while Johnson, who greater upon these occasions than in had been the confessor and approver the bull-baitings and matches of foot- of Lord Russell, upbraided the new ball. Upon this principle, of praise metropolitans with having changed always generating abuse, though both the very essence of his religious piinmay be well founded, it is not only ciple, to comply with the prejudice i extremely difficult to form a due es- of a parricide from Amsterdam. The: timate of the leading characters who Bishop of Salisbury, a creature of the live in our time, but it is perhaps im- revolution, of which he became the possible to appreciate justly the me- historian, wrote an “ Essay on the rits of any eminent figure in our bis- Memory of the late Queen,” in which tory. We are in the habit now, of he does not venture to discuss the speaking with respect of all those point of filial obedience. He cannot men, who brought about the British possibly find out that her persecution revolution ; yet if we look a little more of her father might be the cause that narrowly into the history of those her days were not long in the land. times, we shall find imputations to Perbaps it was not. Religion must which a felon would not willingly be be under the control of the State, but truly liable. It was boldly stated at I think it both dangerous and imthat time by one party, that the crown moral to mingle them without necesis the gift of the people, and that the sity. It is the duty of every man to legal conveyance is by a bill of the obey the laws of the country in which two houses of parliament. By the he was born, and of the society to other, that William and Mary had which he belongs, and this principle conspired, for the paltry interest of is inculcated in all the detached pre

one step in dignity, against cepts of the Bible; yet the Bible has the life and peace of their father. some examples that cannot escape the Foreign authors do generally agree in most superficial reader, which might adopting the latter opinion, and think authorize injustice. The army of this king and queen not much more Moses under Joshua treated the nahonest than Reoan and the Bastard of tions of Palestine as the Spaniards Gloucester. But distinctions of this treated the Americans; yet the Spasort are only brought forward, when niards were cruel and unjust. And revolutions are in their beginning, for the clergy at present are wrong in trust to power,” and declaiming so violently against the

principle of reform on sacred authoThe alliance, as it is called, between rity, if one missionary from Heaven



they very soon
violence dictates to reason.


Reflections on the Catholic Claims.


drowned his king with his whole army did (as I find in an interesting book in the Red sea; and the very Being not just now upon my table) employ who sent him came afterwards in hu- bis spies and agents to promote a conman form, to subvert all the religions spiracy among the villains of the in the world. I know that this was country, always known to the secreright; but exhortations from the pulpit tary of the home-department, who were should be given with more caution, to blow his majesty and his parliaand managed with more address. ment into the air. The letter to Lord

Mr. Burke passes over all the Mounteagle was written by Cecil himcrimes of our own revolution, by con- self, in skilful imitation of political sidering the value of the thing we oracular wisdom, which was to amuse gained in exchange. But perhaps be the king with a display of his own thoughtlessly condemned the French sagacity. The rest of the history of revolution, when he could not pos- the gunpowder plot is sufficiently sibly tell what they were to have in known, except that all the ammuniexchange. I mean only on his own tion was prepared by Cecil himself. principle, for it is my maxim that sins This project was, too, intended to conshould never be voluntarily committed vince the king that the Roman Cabecause good may possibly follow. tholics ought not to be cherished by There are some dark traits in the re- him. To lessen the power of the king, volution of England. For the list of he contrived to dilapidate and alienate the voters in the house of Lords, on the crown lands; in which monstrous the question of giving to William the exhibition of prodigality, he usurped crown of England, was published to his own share, as a reward for his under the title of the Black List, with zeal in the gunpowder plot, the mag. a view of exciting the populace to nificent seat of Hatfield, now in the murder all the dissentients; and it was possession of Lord Salisbury. The proposed to clothe in bear-skins many king, however, was not totally dea of the nonjuring clergy, and amongst ceived, for he always spoke of the them the great Mr. Kettlewell, to fifth of November by the name of amuse the people with putting them to Cecil's holiday; and some spirited death.

remonstrances of Sir Walter Raleigh But enough of this: “Spartam nac- on the subject of the crown lands, and tus es hanc orna.” I take the govern- Hatfield in particular, ended fatally ment as I find it; and as I am without for this gallant and honourable adveninfluence even over the opinion of a turer. The time and manner of his single infant, I can only wish those who execution, 15 years after sentence was administer this government to make pronounced, with the general tenor of the people as happy and as virtuous Sir Walter's memoirs, makes this conas they can.

clusion probable. The history of the Stuart dynasty The excessive animosity of the na. in this kingdom might form a most tion against the Catholics, from whose interesting and instructive volume; conspiracy the Lords still pray to be but it will never be written with im- delivered, (though the Chancellor partiality and ruth, as long as our thinks that they are praying to be present religious bickerings shall en- saved from the hostility of one Titus dure. The accession of James I. took Oates) being thus imbittered by a place under circumstances the most new and dreadful plot, became a unfavourable to the tranquillity of the standard drain of seditious humours country that could well be imagined. for the people. Whenever the nation He was received by that Cabinet and was discontented, a crusade against Parliament who had applauded the the Catholics was set on foot, which assassination of his mother, and who resembled the hunting parties that, could never pardon him for the insults Mr. Bruce tells us, are annually conwhich they themselves had offered to ducted by the Ethiopian princes, into his family. Cecil had two main ob- the country of the Lhang-allahs. The jects to accomplish; to reduce the London fire was, perhaps, kindled for power of the crown for his own the same purpose; and ever since, safety, and at the same time to per- Englishmen have been obliged to suade the king that he took the great- swear a sort of hatred to the Cathoest personal interest in his happiness lics, about as humane as that which and security. For the first object, he Jean de Brie swore to tyrants. I wish

Essay III. On Caloric.


cosas it were likewise as rational. I sbould knowledgment of jurisdiction in a hardly have mentioned the pardonable foreign potentate. But this has been mistake of the Chancellor in what the too satisfactorily explained by the CaLords pray for, if it had not been a tholics, to excite any but a fictitious proof of the prejudice with which the jealousy. We can have now no more question is considered, and that the apprehension of the papal power, than dislike of these our fellow-citizens is of the cruelties of Tiberius. His founded upon any or no reason. The very existence depends on his perbest speech that has been made in the sonal merit; and the present Pope enpresent year on the subject, was, in joys all his influence, be use he has my opinion, that of the Duke of Sus- displayed more than human virtue, sex; and the worst, that of the Chan- in stripes, in imprisonment, in revilcellor.

ings, &c. The most important consideration It is easy enough to perceive, that has, however, been omitted by all par- | I am an enemy to continuing longer ties; and that is, the effect that our the persecution against our fellowdisputes with the Catholics has had, creatures; and I think, that if all the and still continue to have, on religion ministers had zealously and sincerely itself. It is not necessary for a stran- ratified the full rights of our Roman ger to be previously indisposed to- Catholic brethren, they would have wards Christianity, to feel disgust made a worthy epilogue to their teragainst a religion productive of so mination of the continental war. What much uncharitable acrimony. If the indeed is the benefit of our victories, Catholics are right, we are guilty of if we still tremble at the fluttering of gross blasphemy, and most unneigh- a leaf? if the recovery of Job from bourly malicious conduct towards his sickness may frighten us in our them. If they are wrong to the de- strong holds, and freeze up the blood gree that we represent them, our in- of exultation in the heart in the most structors in Christianity taught us overbearing moments of triumphant nothing but paganism and idolatry. pride! Such a crime in the parent, may render the offspring suspicious, and give a final victory to infidelity. In suppressing their writings, we do not hinder the progress of their opinions.

(Continued from col. 535.) At all events, the subject of the sa- Another effect of Caloric is vapocrament was the most unfortunate rization. When bodies are reduced that could be selected for the aliment to a state of vapour, their particles of contention. In receiving this at are separated to a greater distance the altar, we pray so to eat the flesh of from each other, than when in a state Jesus Christ, and drink his blood, of fluidity. Some substances require that our sinful bodies may be made great degrees of heat before they clean by his body. It is a subject assume this form, whilst others bem that surpasses human reason, and come vaporized at very low temperaought to be left open; but if we will tures. Thus, for example, Ether is rush in where angels fear to tread, by converted into vapour at 1049 of Fahour example infidels may justly re- renheit; Alcohol at 182o ; Water at ject what they do not understand, and 212° ; whilst Mercury requires at least throw the highest mysteries of our a temperature of 650°. It must be faith wholly out of the creed. If the observed, however, that at the mescripture asserts the real presence after dium temperature of the atmosphere, consecration of the elements of the an evaporation to a greater or less exsacrament, it is certainly true, that if tent occurs in all fluid bodies. This we reject any part of a divine revela- is called spontaneous evaporation, and tion, we falsify the whole. The union may be regarded as an aërial solution of God and Man, the Trinity, the of different fluids. Vaporization is Birth, the Resurrection, are all be- to be understood as referring to that yond the powers and conceptions of process, by means

of which a body

is converted into an elastic vapour by There is one part of the question caloric alone. Vapours may be with which the Government may and again condensed by the abstraction of ought to interfere, and that is, the ac- caloric.


our philosophy.


Essay III. On Caloric.


Gases are those bodies which exist nation have been separated from each in an invisible elastic state, and which other; for, as some bodies require a cannot be reduced to a solid or liquid greater, and others a less degree of state by a reduction of temperature. temperature, to bring them into a state Elasticity is one remarkable property of vapour, it is evident that a separapossessed by bodies in a state of gas tion of this kind may be easily effector vapours. By the application of ed. From this principle, the processes pressure, their volume is considerably of distillation, sublimation, and evareduced; but, upon its removal, they poration, have arisen. Count Rumex to their original bulk. It is ford, and Hassenfratz, have made owing to this property, that the vapour some experiments, with a view to deof water has been employed as a me- termine the capacity of boilers best chanical power. If any fluid be heat-suited to evaporate water from a ed in a vessel from which the vapour given quantity of fuel; and the latter cannot escape, the vessel will soon has stated the comparative results of burst, although formed of the strongest evaporation at different temperatures. metal.

The result with regard to the last, is, All vapours and gases possess gra- that it is most economical to keep the vity, as they consist of solid matter liquor up to its boiling point, the rarified by caloric; the discovery of greatest quantity being thus evapo the weight of the atmosphere was one rated with the least consumption of of the happy results of philosophical fuel. It is necessary, however, to obinvestigation. But there are some serve, that the heat must not be bodies which require the most intense raised too high, as, when this is the heat to convert them into vapour, and case, the vapour carries with it a porothers which have not undergone this tion of the fixed body. This has been change: these are the earths and me- remarked, even when the most fixed tals; although, however, there are salts have been evaporated from some bodies which have not yet been water at a high temperature, made to assume this form, still it is The transition of fluids into vapour, presumed that they might be rendered at a temperature inferior to that at volatile, if it were possible to produce which the liquid boils, is much accea sufficient degree of temperature. lerated by passing over their surface a

As vapours, possess elasticity to a current of air: if a liquid, whilst exvery considerable degree, it is obvious posed to heat, has but an imperfect that pressure must materially influence communication with the air, the protheir formation. When pressure is cess of evaporation goes on slowly; applied, it requires a higher degree of if, however, the air be admitted to the temperature to convert liquids into surface, a rapid disengagement of vavapour: thus, for example, under the pour ensues. Gay Lussac has made usual atmospheric pressure, water several experiments on this subject. boils at 2126 of Fahrenheit; but it If sulphuric acid, he observes, he undergoes the same change at 180°, poured on nitre, vapours of nitric when placed under the exhausted re- acid continue to be disengaged for a ceiver of an air-pump. Ether, which long time under exposure to the air ; requires a temperature of 104° when but they soon cease, if the air is exexposed to the pressure of the atmo- cluded. If muriate of potash be kept sphere, rapidly boils at the common in fusion in an open vessel, there is a temperature of the atmosphere when considerable loss of weight from evaplaced in vacuo. By applying pres- poration, which does not happen if sure to fluids, they may be heated to a the vessel be lightly covered ; and if very high temperature: Water has been the cover be removed, vapours almost heated to above 400° in Papin's di- immediately arise, though none apgester, which is a close iron vessel, peared to escape before from the furnished with a valve, on which a small apertures between the vessel regulated weight presses, and retains and the cover. A number of the methe vapour without the risk of burst- tals, too, suoh as lead, antimony, and ing the vessel.

bismuth, give fumes at a red heat, in Another advantage has been taken, an open crucible, but

afford no subliof this tendency in bodies to become mate in a closed crucible; appearing, volatile upon the application of calo- therefore, in the one case volatile, in ric: substances in a state of combi- I the other'tixed. Lastly,

water quickly


Essay III. On Caloric.


evaporates at a common temperature a red light is emitted; if the temperaif exposed to the air, but cannot be ture be increased, the red light is distilled at the same temperature in mixed with yellow rays; and by a vessels imperfectly closed. He ac- still further augmentation of tempecounts for these facts, by supposing, rature, a white light is observed. The that when a liquid passes into vapour white light is the highest state of igat a temperature inferior to the boil- nition, for no change is produced by ing point, it is not counteracted by any farther degree of heat. Ignition the pressure of a different elastic fluid, is also produced by friction and perbut by the pressure of its own vapour. cussion. Bodies, when converted into vapour, By applying different mineral subabsorb a quantity of caloric, which stances to the circumference of a wheel they give out upon being brought into of fine grit, Mr. Wedgwood found a state of condensation. Although, that the substance applied became however, they absorb a very large luminous, even in day-light, at the quantity of heat by assuming the touching part; if the wheel was made elastic form, there is no indication of to revolve very rapidly, a pure white an increase of temperature. light was produced. These sparks

The last effect of caloric is ignition. exploded gunpowder and inflammable When certain bodies are exposed to gas, and burnt the skin; a proof that great degrees of heat, they emit light, they were actually in a state of igniand are said to be in a state of igni- tion. Various opinions have been tion or incandescence. No chemical entertained with regard to the oause change, however, occurs when they of ignition. Some who have regarded are brought into this state; for when light and caloric as substances in most the caloric which they contain is respects similar, have conceived that emitted, they assume their original during ignition caloric is converted form. Combustion is a process differ- into light; others have supposed that ent from that of ignition. When com- light is a constituent principle of all bustible bodies are exposed to caloric, bodies, and that by the agency of a chemical action takes place; the caloric it is expelled, when bodies are combustible body, by combining with exposed to high temperatures. The one of the principles of atmospheric former supposition appears to be conair, has its form entirely changed, and tradicted by the circumstance of the is no longer combustible. Ignition is rays of light and heat having been produced by the action of caloric separated from each other. alone.

Chemists have observed, that adopt the latter opinion, there is some the temperature at which the first stage difficulty in explaining the reason why of ignition occurs, is the same in all the emission of light during ignition bodies. Mr. Wedgwood gilded lines does not gradually diminish, and at running across a piece of earthen- length cease, since there must be a ware, and luted it to the end of a tube limited quantity of light in the body which was placed in a heated crucible; which is exposed to caloric. To get by applying the eye to the other extre- over this dificulty, it is supposed, that mity of the tube, no difference of time bodies, in a state of ignition, receive could be perceived in either the gold light, as well as caloric, from those or the earthenware beginning to shine. substances which keep up and augIn a body, which appears in the dark ment their temperature. In the proat a low red heat, no light will be per- duction of ignition by attrition, the ceived during day-light. Sir Isaac same difficulty attends an explanation Newton calculated, that bodies which of the evolution of caloric as of light. assumed a red heat in the dark, cor- It is supposed that the light which responded with 635° of Fahrenheit's does appear, may perhaps be conscale; in full red heat, with 752°; and tained in the body, and that it is exin ignition, visible in faint day-light pelled by the high temperature which with 1000 Mr. Wedgwood fixed the the friction or percussion excites. It point of red heat in the dark, at -1 must, after all, however, be acknowof his pyrometrical scale, which corre- ledged, that there are difficulties atsponds with 947° of Fabrenheit; and tending the extrication of light and ignition during day-light, he placed at caloric, which do not admit at present the commencement of his scale, or of a satisfactory solution. 2077o. In the first stage of ignition

(To be continued.) No. 30,--VOL. III.


If we

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