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and on the Possibility of Approaching the North Pole. 786

blesome interruption; it might never- , The injurious effects of the severity theless be overcome, by having the of the weather, "might be avoided by sledges adapted to answer the pur- a judicious choice of woollen clothing, pose of boats; and it is to be ex- the external air being met by an outpected, that although openings amidst | ward garment of varnished silk, and the ice should occur, yet a winding the face defended by a mask, with course might in general be pursued, eyes of glass. The exterior garment, so as to prevent any very great would, at the same time, be waterstoppage.

proof, and thus capable of shielding *(c.) Many of the most prodi- the body from accidental moisture. gious fields are entirely free from (6.) The white bear is the only abrupt hummocks from one extre ferocious animal known to inhabit mity to the other, and field-ice, those regions, and he rarely makes as it appears in general, would be an attack upon man. At any rate he easily passable.

might be repulsed by any offensive (d.) The degree of interruption weapon. And, as the prey of the from mountainous ice, would depend bears is scarce in the most northern on the quality of its surface. If, as | latitudes, they would not probably is most probable, it were smooth, and occur in any abundance. free from abrupt slopes, it would not ." 4. Hitherto no insurmountable prevent the success of the expedition. objection has been presented : a few

2. The direct route would be serious obstacles, should they occur, pointed out, for some part of the remain to be considered. way at least, by the magnetic needle; “ (a.) Mountainous land, like and when its pole should be directed mountainous ice, would check the towards the zenith, should that posi- progress of the expedition, in protion ever obtain, the sun would be portion to the ruggedness of its surthe only guide. Or, the position of face, and the steepness of its cliffs. the true north being once ascertained, Its occurrence would, nevertheless, three sledges in a line, at a convenient form an interesting discovery. distance apart, might enable the lead. " (6.) From the pretended excuring one to keep a direct course. ' A sions of the Dutch, many have bechronometer would be an indispen- lieved that the sea at the Pole is free sable requisite, as the opportunity from ice. Were this really the case, for lunar observations could not be the circumstance would certainly be expected to occur sufficiently often. an extraordinary one; but I consider Were the Pole gained, the bearing it too improbable to render it necesof the sun at the time of noon, by a sary to hazard any opinion concernchronometer adjusted to the meridian ing it. of north-west Spitzbergen, would af- “ (c.) From the facts stated in ford a line of direction for the return; other parts of this paper, I think and, the position, in regard to we derive a sanction for calculating longitude, (were the sun visible) could on clear weather at all times, but be corrected, at least twice a day, with southerly storms; and, as these as the latitude decreased. The de- occur but rarely, the progress of the grees of longitude being so contract- journey would not probably be sused, any required position would be pended by an obscure sky, except pointed out by the watch, with the for short periods, and at distant greatest precision.

intervals. “3. (a.) Among the dangers to be “Notwithstanding I have now disapprehended, the coldness of the air tinctly considered every obvious obstands prominent. As, however, the jection and difficulty to be surmountcold is not sensibly different, between ed, I am nevertheless sensible, that the latitudes of 70 and 80 degrees in the realising of any project or diswith a strong north wind, it may becovery, whether by sea or on land, presumed that at the Pole itself, it there will occur many adventitious would be very little more oppressive circumstances, which may tend to than at the borders of the main ice, mar the progress of the best reguin the 81st degree of north latitude, lated expedition. Therefore, it may under a hard northerly gale: and not be improper to confirm and since this cold is supportable, that of strengthen the whole, by directing the Pole may be deemed so likewise.the attention to what has been done,


Interesting Particulars respecting Stonehenge. 788 ------corosos acords.................................oranenoorsoooooooooooooooooooooo.... in journeying under difficulties which | What could be the mode of conveymay bear a comparison with the un-ance ? and, To what purposes the dertaking here alluded to, and occa structure was appropriated ? are quessionally under circumstances the most tions not easily resolved. Every efunfavourable to success.

fect must have an adequate cause“Ist. When treating of ice-bergs, hence the learning employed by antiI alluded to the journey of ALEXEI quarians on the subject. MARKOFF, in which it appears, that “As to the appearance of Stonehe performed near eight hundred henge, seventeen buge stones are miles across a surface of packed ice, now standing, which, with several in the spring of 1715, in a sledge others lying on the ground, form the drawn by dogs; and, consequently, outward circle. The inward circle that he might be supposed to have is about eight feet from the outward, encountered the principal difficulties baving eleven stones standing, and that could be expected in the pro- eight fallen. Between these two cirposed scheme, whilst we have the cles, is a walk about three hundred advantage of improving by his ex- feet in circumference. The stones perience.

are from eighteen to twenty feet in “ 2d. Speaking of the south-western height, from six to seven broad, and tendency of the ice, I have also no- about three feet in thickness! The ticed the loss of several of the Dutch original structure was encompassed Greenland fleet in 1777, from which by a trench, over which were three we learn, that part of the unfortunate entrances. It is most probably the suffering crews, under every privation relic of a Druidical temple. In the of provision and clothing, and expo- | reign of Henry the Eighth a tin ed to the severity of an Arctic win- / tablet was found here, inscribed with ter, accomplished a journey on foot, strange characters. This has been along the coasts of Old Greenland, I lost; had it been retained, and unfrom the east side, near Staten Hook, I derstood, it might have elucidated to the Danish settlements on the this venerable monument of antiwest, a distance of near an hun- quity. dred leagues.

“ Dr. Stukely, who, about half “ 3d. On contrasting the projected la century ago, visited Stonehenge polar journey with the catalogue of in company with Lord Winchelsea, marvellous occurrences, and wonder- observed, half a mile north of it, ful preservations which are exhibited and across the valley, a hippodrome, in the records of maritime disasters, or horse-course. It is included bethe difficulties of the undertaking tween two ditches, running parallel in a great measure vanish, and its dan east and west 350 feet asunder, and gers are eclipsed, by the wonderful 100,000 long. The Barrows round results which necessity has, in vari THIS MONUMENT are numerous and ous instances, accomplished.” remarkable, being generally bell-fash

ion, yet there is great variety in their

diameters, and their manner of comINTERESTING PARTICULARS RESPECT- | position. These were single sepulING STONEHENGE.

chres, as it appeared from many

that were opened. On the west side The following observations on this of one was an entire segment, ma stupendous monument of Druidical from centre to circumference. ! superstition, is copied from the pre- was good earth quite through, except face to Dr. Richards's Cambro-Bri- a coat of cbalk, of about two tish Biography.

thick, covering it quite over under “ We now posted forwards, (July, | the turf. Hence appears the manne 1799,) to Salisbury (plains, those im- of making these Barrows, which wa mense downs, where the stranger, to dig up the turf for a great way without a guide, would be bewildered. round till the Barrow was brouge We drove to the spot where stands to its intended bulk, then, with Stonehenge, the most singular curio- | chalk dug out of the surrounding sity in the kingdom. Here, quitting | ditch, they powdered it all ove the carriage, we gazed at The Pile | At the centre was found a skelet with astonishment! Whence these perfect, of a reasonable size, why vast stones were brought lither? | the head lying northward. On opes

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789 Interesting Particulars respecting Stonehenge. ing a double Barrow, the composition | Moan'd in his lifted locks ;-thou, Night, was thus : after the turf was taken

the while, off, there appeared a layer of chalk,

halk Dost listen to his sad harp's wild complaint,

Mother of shadows, as to thee he pours and then fine garden mould. About The broken strain, and plaintively deplores' three feet below the surface, was a The fall of Druid fame! Hark? murmurs layer of flints humouring the convex

faint ity of the Barrows. This, being a Breathe on the weary air; and now more loud foot thick, rested on a layer of soft

Swells the deep dirge, accustomed to complain

Of holy rites unpaid, and of the crowd mould, in which was inclosed an

Whose careless steps these sacred haunts urn full of bones! The urn was of profane. unbaked clay of a dark reddish colour, O'er the wild plain the hurrying tempest flies, and crumbled into pieces. It had | And 'mid the storm unheard, the song of sorbeen rudely wrought with small mould

row dies !

LOVELL. ings round the verge, and other cir “ The architectural phenomenon of eular channels on the outside. The Stonehenge is confessedly the most bones had been burnt, though the interesting relic of antiquity by which collar bone and one side of the under

Britain stands distinguished.” jaw were entire. There was a large Dr. E. D. Clarke, in his truly clasquantity of female ornaments mixed sical Travels through various countries with the bones, as beads of divers of Europe, Asia, and Africa, has colours, many of them amber, with this paragraph still further explanatory holes to string them, and many of of the subject. Speaking of Russia, the button sort were covered with (vol. I. octavo edition, page 276) this metal.

distinguished travellersays, “Through“Stonehenge has lately undergone out the whole of the country are seen, an alteration, part of it having about dispersed over IMMENSE PLAINS, three years ago fallen to the earth. mounds of earth, covered with a fine We saw and conversed with some turf, the sepulchres of the world shepherd boys, who were loitering common to almost every habitable around the pile, and from whom we country! If there exist any thing of learned, that the fall occasioned a former times, which may afford moconcussion of the ground! This must numents of primeval manners, it is have been expected, and it excited this mode of burial. They seem to among persons in its vicinity no small mark the progress of mankind, in astonishment. The following sonnet the first ages after the

the first ages after the dispersions, hath interwoven the sentiments of rising wherever the posterity of Noah the learned on the subject, written at came. Stonehenge:

" Whether under the form of a Thou noblest monument of ALBION's isle,

Mound, in Scandinavia, in Russia, Whether by Merlin's aid from Scythia's shore,

| or in North America; a Barrow, in To Amber's fatal plain Pendragon bore,

England; a Cairn, in Wales, in ScotHuge frame of giant-hands, "THE MIGHTY | land, and in Ireland; or of those Pile,

heaps which the modern Greeks and T'entomb bis Britons, slain by Hengist's guile; | Turks call Tepe; or, lastly, in the Or DRUID PRIESTS sprinkled with human

more artificial shape of Pyramid, in gore, Taught?mid thy massy maze, their mystic lore;

Egypt; they had universally the same Or Danish chiefs, enrich'd with savage spoil, origin. They present the simplest To Victory's idol vast, an unknown shrine, and sublimest monuments that any Rear’d the rude heap; or in thy hallowed round generation of men could raise over Repose the kings of Brutus' genuine line; Or here those kings in solemn state were

the bodies of their forefathers, being crown'd,

calculated for almost endless duraStudious to trace thy wondrous origin, tion, and speaking a language more We muse on many an ancient tale renown'd. impressive than the most studied

WARTON. | epitaph upon Parian marble. When These ruins are in their appearance beheld in a distant evening horizon, peculiarly solemn, and their isolated skirted by the rays of the setting situation in the midst of an immense

sun, and, as it were, touching the plain heightens the sensations with

clouds that hover over them,-ima' which they are contemplated.

gination represents the spirits of Was it a spirit on"YON SHAPELÉSS PILE?

DEPARTED HEROES as descending It wore, methought, an ancient Druid's form. / to irradiate a warrior's grave!” Musing on ancient days! the dying storm The Rev. Mr. Davies, the erudite

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author of Celtic Researches, and bodies, as from the tendency of caloric also of the Mythology of the British to exist every where in what has Druids, is of opinion, that Stonehenge been termed an equality of tension and Silbury Hill are two of the three or repulsion." This assumption, works alluded to in a Welsh Triad, however, appears to be gratuitous. constituting the greatest labours of We have as much reason for suppothe island of Britain, viz. “Lifting the sing that bodies containing a smaller stone of Ketti; Building the work quantity of caloric attract it from of Emrys; and Piling the Mount bodies which contain a larger quanof the Assemblies!” That Stonehenge tity, as we have for supposing that is a Druidical structure, this elabo- there exists in caloric a tendency to rate inquirer entertains no doubt. an equality of tension or repulsion. “ This is evident,” says he, “ from | Some bodies conduct caloric more the language in which it was descri- quickly than others. If a rod of iron bed, and the great veneration in which and a piece of glass of the same diit was held by the primitive bards, mensions be held in the hand, and those immediate descendants and the extremity of each put into the avowed disciples of the British Dru- fire, it will be found that the caloric ids. As the great sanctuary of the will be quickly conducted along the dominion, or metropolitan temple, iron rod, rendering it unfit to be of our heathen ancestors, so complete | handled; whilst the glass may be held in its plan, and constructed upon for any length of time. It may be such a multitude of astronomical calcu laid down as a general rule, that the lations, we find it was not exclusively conducting power of bodies is in the devoted to the sun, the moon, Saturn, direct ratio of their densities. Count or any individual object of supersti- Rumford has observed, that the same tion; but it was a kind of Pantheon, substance, in different states of agin which all the Arkite and Sabiangregation, differ as it regards their divinities of British theology were conducting power. An iron bar, or supposed to have been present; for we | an iron plate, is a better conductor perceive Noe and Hu, the deified pa- | than iron filings, and wood is a better triarch; Elphin and Rheiddin, the conductor than saw-dust. Rickman Sun"; Eseye, Isis ; Ked Ceres, with made some experiments in order to the cell of her sacred fire; Llyvy, determine the relative conducting Proserpine; Gwydien, Hermes; Budd, power of different metals. Brass Victory; and several others."

and copper appeared to have the greatest power of retaining caloric,

and were equal to each other; next ESSAY IV.-ON CALORIC.

to these was iron; then tin; and, (Continued from col. 730.)

lastly, lead. Ingenhouz found silver 3.—The Laws by which Caloric is to be the best conductor; gold held regulated.

the second place; tin and copper were Having considered the effects of next, being about equal; next to Caloric, we intend to take notice of these come platina, steel, iron, and the laws by which it is regulated. lead, which differed but little ; lead, In the first place, we shall treat of however, was found to be the worst the communication and diffusion of conductor. Count Rumford, with the caloric. We have before observed, view of discovering the relative warmth that caloric has a tendency to promote of different articles of clothing, made equilibrium of temperature. If a several experiments upon the subbody be heated, it is impossible to stances from which they are manufacpreserve it in that state when removed tured. Ofthe substances operated upon, from the source of caloric; it inva the best conductor was raw silk; riably emits its heat to surrounding then followed wool, cotton, fine lint, bodies until a balance of temperature beaver fur, hare fur, and lastly eider is produced. This tendency of calo- down. It is conceived, that“ ric is supposed to arise from its re- imperfect conducting power of these pulsive power. “Thus, when a hot substances will be proportioned to body is placed among others that are their sponginess, or the quantity of colder, the excess of caloric in the air they can contain in their interstices, former, leaves it, not so much from and the force of attraction with wh! any attraction exerted to it by other | the air is retained.” By preventing

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Essay IV. On Caloric. eranerrassenaroroorronoormen the air, in some measure, from coming the experiments which he made in in contact with a heated body, they order to prove their non-conducting preserve its caloric. It is supposed also, power, are similar to those which were that the imperfect conducting power of made to disprove the existence of snow depends upon this cause, and the same power in fluids. He atin consequence of it, vegetables are tempted to prove, that whatever obpreserved from the prejudicial effects | structed the motion of air, retarded of intense cold. It is upon this prin- | the passage of caloric through it. ciple, also, that ice-houses are con- | Berthollet, however, in opposition to structed. When we wish to produce Count Rumford, has advanced the any high temperatures, we make use opinion, that aëriform substances, of furnaces wbich are coated with so far from being imperfect conclay and sand, these substances be-ductors of caloric, conduct it with ing both imperfect conductors of rapidity: he conceives that the air caloric. If we apply two bodies of thermometer, which quickly indicates the same temperature to the hand, slight changes of temperature, conor any other sentient part, the degree firms his opinion. He brings forward of heat we feel depends entirely upon also the fact of the sudden dilatation the conducting power of the sub- of an air-balloon, which aëronauts stances applied: if the bodies be have experienced upon the appeara piece of iron and of wood, the former ance of the sun's rays: he observes, at high temperatures will feel much that the particles of air. which are hotter than the latter; and at low contained in the balloon, cannot be temperatures, it will feel colder. brought successively to its covering ;

Liquids, as well as solids, possess | nor can the particles at the inferior a conducting power, although some part of the covering be heated in this have endeavoured to establish a con | manner, since the rays of caloric do trary opinion. When liquids are not impinge upon that part. Hence heated, the portion in contact with he infers, that these phenomena indicaloric becomes specifically lighter cate, that the elastic fluids, far from than the remaining part of the fluid, being imperfect conductors of caloric, and ascends to the surface, whilst receive and transmit it with great another portion occupies its place, rapidity. and, becoming heated, rises in the By the agency of fluids, elastic same manner. It was supposed there- and non-elastic, caloric is distributed fore that caloric was propagated by through the atmosphere. When the the motion of the fluid only, and not sun's rays heat a portion of air in by its own conducting power. Dr. | contact with the earth, it becomes Hope made some experiments on specifically lighter than the superinthis subject: in one case, he made cumbent air, and ascends; whilst the use of a vessel 11 inches in diameter, colder air rushes in to supply its place. and on the application of heat to the When the air is much expanded, a surface of the vessel, which was quantity will be forced towards a filled with cold water, caloric was colder climate, where it serves to renconveyed downwards, and was in- | der the extreme cold more tolerable. dicated by a rise of the thermometer. So that there will be a current from Carc was taken to prevent the sides the poles to the equator, and vice versa, of the vessel from conducting the from the equator to the poles. Count heat, by causing a stream of water Rumford supposes that currents exist to circulate around them. Dr. Thomp- in the ocean similar to those which son also found that caloric was con- take place in the atmosphere: the veyed downwards when heat was water which is cooled by a current applied to the surfaces of water and of air passing over it, becoming spequicksilver. Mr. Nicholson, and cifically heavier, sinks; whilst another other chemists, have made experi- portion ascending, and parting with ments of the same kind, and have its caloric, descends in a similar manobtained similar results. The con ner: he supposes that these descending ducting power of fluids is now there- portions, spreading on the bottom of fore fully confirmed.

the ocean, flow towards the equator, Aëriform bodies are also conductors which will produce currents on the of caloric, Count Rumford attempted surface in an opposite direction, so to prove that these are non-conductors: that the ocean may moderate the exNo. 31,Vol. III.

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