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Northern Expedition.


trance of Lancaster Sound, on the 1st

of August 1819. On the 7th the ships The long interval which elapsed, from were in the Regent's inlet, (see the the time that the Griper and the Hecla, chart,) and there, in about 90° of long. under the command of captain Parry, the variation of the needle was, we unsailed into the Polar regions, with a derstand, about 120° west. Stopped design to discover the north-west pas- by ice, they left the inlet, which is supsage, and the earliest accounts which posed either to extend to Hudson's were receiyed from them, had created Bay, or trend along the northern shore serious apprehensions for their safety of America, and resumed their proThey have however at length return-gress up Barrow's Straits, leaving beed; and although no official account hind them Croker Bay (the Croker has yet been published of their voyage, mountains of Captain Ross.) They we learn from the few particulars which speedily discovered the group of ishave transpired, that the enterprise has lands, where Lowther Isle is marked, been attended with more success than nine in number, and named the New any similar undertaking which pre- Georgia Isles. Proceeding onward, ceded it. The general outline which they observed, when rather more than follows, we copy chiefly from the Lite- half way to the ultimate point at which rary Gazette.

they arrived, that the variation of the From some accounts which had been needle was above 120° east : thus it appublished, an opinion prevailed, that pears that the magnetic meridian must the mean temperature during twelve' lie between that degree and the degree months at the North Pole was from ten of 90, which we observe from the chart to twelve degrees above zero. This runs through the inlet, where the variaopinion was, however, found to be tion was towards the west. At sea the erroneous, it being ascertained by our compass had been quite useless since adventurous navigators, that even in the 7th August, and it was only on land the latitude where they wintered, the that the needle traversed. The greatmean annual temperature was two de- est dip was above 88° ; and our sciengrees below zero. In consequence of tific readers, putting these data togethis intense cold, they endured great ther, will perhaps agree with us in suphardships ; of which it was no small posing that the nagnetic pole is siaggravation, that for the last nine tuated somewhere on the American months they were upon short allow- continent, between the longitudes we ance of bread, and, during the summer have mentioned, and below the latimonths, of other necessaries; thus add-tude of 70°. ing the cravings of hunger to the pinch- On the 7th of September, after enings of frost.

countering many dangers, the vessels It is nevertheless pleasing to learn, were anchored in Winter Harbour, that amidst these privations and suffer- Melville Island. In the beginning of ings, the sailors bore their situation November their night began, and it not only with resignation and fortitude, lasted till the beginning of February but with cheerfulness and good hu- 1820, when the sun was seen for a few mour. Frequently, when they had re- minutes above the horizon. This luturned from a day of fatiguing and un- minary gradually prolonged the time productive search for game, they wrap- during which it rose, till in June it beped themselves in their blankets, to came constantly visible, circling round try by sleep to forget their exhaustion, and making changeless day. On the and that appetite which they durst not 1st of August the vessels were released satisfy, lest they should, by encroach- from the ice, nearly as suddenly as they ing on their next day's scanty allow- had been overtaken by the winter; and ance, or on their general stock, be in ourhardy countrymen,with the blessing the end confined to these dreary re- of Providence, were enabled to pursue gions, starving and without subsist- a homeward, but still perilous course.

Notwithstanding this, never a Their furthest point was beyond 114° murmur escaped one of them; but for west. The ice all around them in the patience, fortitude, and firmness, they Polar Seawas above 40 feet thick; and displayed a picture unsurpassed even no vessel could by possibility navigate by the noblest examples of English farther in that direction, north, west,

or south. It is probable therefore that The expedition arrived at the en- Regent's Inlet will be more minutely




Northern Expedition.


explored by the next expedition, sent returned, though with his throat all into these parts, and that hardly any mangled. There were no fish, and no other attempt will be made to the west-game of any kind till the summer came, ward of Liddon's Gulf (so named from when those birds and animals we the commander of the Griper, not have mentioned made their appearSeddon, as has been erroneously print- ance. Grass, saxafragium, and poped.) The ships were roofed over dur- pies, formed the herbage, in patches ing the winter, and the crews did not, and tufts, which looked green and gay as reported, erect huts on shore. Mel at a distance, but was very thinly scatville's Island was bowever explored by tered over the marly surface of the hunting parties, and Capt. Parry cross- earth. In geology, limestone, sanded it, and was absent for three weeks stone, and slate, were most prominent; together. It is reckoned about 150 coarse granite was found in round demiles long, and from 30 to 40 broad. tached pieces in the ravines, and other It is also supposed that the whole sea, mineral specimens were picked up. north of the American continent, is Some of the isles were amazingly prebroken into Islands.

cipitous, rising from 3 to 800 feet above It does not appear that natural the water. From the entrance of Lanhistory has been much enriched thus caster's Sound to Melville Island, the far by the objects obtained. Only one land gradually declined, till, from Bear was seen during their stay at towering and pointed rocks, it became Melville Island. This came smelling gently undulated. up to the Hecla, when Captain Parry The distance between Winter Hardirected some of his men to shoot it. bour and Copper-mine River may be Unfortunately, through some miscon- about 150 or 200 miles. The whole ception of the directions given, they distance which the expedition went fired in platoon, and only wounded the from the mouth of Lancaster's Sound, shaggy monster, which retired growl was about 500 miles. There were ing and bloody. The crews of both traces of old Esquimaux huts on Melvessels immediately gave chase, and ville Island. The lowest temperature continued the pursuit two or three was 55° below zero. miles, when Bruin found security in These are the chief facts which we crossing some ice, and the sailors were have gathered respecting this truly compelled to return, disappointed. gratifying expedition, which not only

The wolves were large, and were reflects honour on all concerned in it, heard nightly howling in a most dis- but on the country. Mr. Barrow's preagreeable manner. The other quadru- science is happily illustrated by its repeds found, when the summer returned, sults, which have so completely estawere the musk-ox, of which several blished all that he predicated. Nor were killed, the deer, the fox, and the is Captain Parry's eulogy to be lightly mouse; the latter remained through spoken: his whole conduct has been the winter, were numerous, and chang- admirable; and we imagine that this ed from brown to white. The fowls sketch will greatly increase the public were chiefly the arctic gull, the glaucus, anxiety to see the precise details of a the ptarmigan (which bas been called voyage which has opened a new sea to the partridge), and a singularly beauti- British navigation, and gone far to inful duck denominated the king-duck. dicate the very seat of one of the great

The owl, in full beauty of feather, est wonders in nature. Upon this subseemed to inhabit this inhospitable re- ject, we have heard that Sir H. Davy gion throughout the year.

has made some important discoveries A curious circumstance in natural by experiments with the galvanic bathistory has been mentioned to us. It is tery at home; and we look with prostated that one of the she-wolves of the found curiosity to the further developecountry where the vessels were laid up, ment of the principles of magnetism, formed an intimacy with a ship dog, electricity, and attraction, to which and almost daily visited him for some these circumstances will stimulate and time, as if he had belonged to the same help the scientific world. The tables species. At last the dog, a setter, be- and other data in Captain Parry's work, longing to one of the officers of the must be of immense consequence. Griper, followed his wild companion, It would appear from the hardihood and was never seen more. Another with which our countrymen bore the dog from the Hecla also went off, but excessive cold to which they were ex

Northern Expedition.

86 posed, that a good deal of exaggera- We have not many other particution must belong to the accounts pre- lars to state. Captain Parry, when viously given of the sufferings endured out from the ships for three weeks, in frozen regions. We never read of went entirely across Melville Island, human beings existing at 55° below and beheld the sea on the other side. zero, at more than 12° below the point It is evident, that the icy ocean here at which mercury becomes solid ; nor, contains a mighty archipelago of indeed, at any thing like that tempera- islands, of which Greenland is proture, without experiencing far greater bably the greatest. When travelling inconveniences than seem to have at- on land, our gallant countrymen hunttended our navigators. The cold, how-ed, and rested in tents like those of ever, must have been dreadfully in- hucksters at a village fair. They were tense, since the utmost care was ne- formed of boarding pikes, &c. and cessary, to prevent the most fatal con- covered with sails and blankets. sequences. An idea of this may be Sometimes they tried to eat the proformed from the fact, that a servant of duce of their guns; but the foxes were Captain Sabines, on some alarm of very disgusting, and the musk-ox refire being given, ran into the air with sembled the toughest beef stewed in out covering one of his hands; it was a musk sauce. The cause of the immediately frost bitten, and he lost foxes being so much more distasteful three of his fingers. We understand than we have been told they are about also that another man was deprived of Spitzbergen, is, we presume, the want all the extreme joints of one hand of that abundance of food from the Ulcers on the face were the effects of seal, morse, &c. which their species incautious exposure; but we hear of finds in the latter country. no such fatal accidents as are common During their perhiemation, the Aueven in Russia. Our brave fellows rora Borealis was but once or twice stood the extremest weather with muf- slightly visible to the voyagers, toflers up to their noses, and warm caps wards the north. Towards the south descending to their eyes and covering it was more vivid; but about the latitheir ears;

and after a little experience tude of 60°, seems to be the seat of of the climate, they avoided casualties this phenomenon; and its appearance by very simple means. The person is not only much more brilliant from bitten was himself unconscious of the Newfoundland, but from the northern attack; but each“ looking in his Scottish Isles, than from the Arctic neighbour's face" as they went, warn- Circle. Only one flash of lightning ed his companion when he saw his was observed by our sailors. nose grow white in consequence of the When the fine weather set in, sevefrost. Turning from the wind, and a ral of the officers employed themselves few minutes' gentle friction with the in attempting to garden. Forcing band, (or, if very much injured, with under mats, as well as growing in the snow,) invariably restored the circula- free air, was tried. One succeeded tion, and the tone of the part; and un- in getting peas to shoot up eight or less allowed to go too far, no pain ten inches; and these green

stalks were whatever was felt. But when serious the only green peas they devoured as ly affected, the agony of restoring the vegetables. Radishes got to the circulation was dreadful.

second leaf, on the soil of Melville Beer, wine, and spirits, became ice; Island. Onions and leeks refused to the beer was destroyed, but the wine grow. In the ships, small salad was and spirits were tolerably good when produced for invalids; happily, the thawed.

scurvy never got the ascendancy. The ship's timbers were of the tem- Other officers were engaged in erectperature of the surrounding element, ing monuments upon the heights, to and wherever the iron bolts and fasten- commemorate the extraordinary cirings ran through, they became studded cumstances of the expedition. Huge with rosettes of transparent ice. The cairns, by these means, crown the most most comfortable sleep was obtained obvious hills, and remain the rude but by converting the blankets into large proud monuments of British daring, bags drawn at the mouth. Into these with inscriptions to tell the date, and the slumberer crept, and some com- inclosing bottles, in which the princirade, who kept the watch, closed him pal events of the voyage are written in by pulling the strings.

and sealed up.


Poetry-Villager's Lay.

88 It was on their way home, when far With equal joy, his round of labour done, down Davis's Straits, that Captain He hails the setting-hopes the rising sun. Parry fell in with two families of Es- While long and lone the dewy path he treads,

With weary footsteps through the neighbouring quimaux, of whose residence he was

meads; apprized by a whaler. He accordingly Till wreaths of smoke announce the village visited them, and they in turn visited the ships. They betrayed none of the And rustic ev’ning sounds salute his ear. terror which filled the tribe seen by Birthright of Fame,

or heritage of Pride ;

Go, honest swain? though poverty denied Captain Ross; but accepted the beads Art thou not born in the Eternal's plan? and knives presented to them with in- Heir of both worlds a saint-an honest man! conceivable joy. Indeed their raptures To thee life's true nobility is giy'n, were so excessive, that it was with the The heraldry of worth, the smile of heav'n. utmost difficulty one of them could be O ye who press the silken couch of ease, made to sit still while his portrait was

Till even pleasures lose their power to please; sketched. He was continually start. Turns poison on the lips that drink it up :

Who drug refinement till the cloying cup ing and jumping up, shouting augh! O turn, and view the cottage of the poor, augh! and playing off the most violent Where wealth por luxury ever pass'd the door; contortions of joy; which were parti. Yet there contentment with serene caress, cipated by his comrades, when they Mingle the draught of human happiness ; witnessed the picture. Several of the Which gold and luxury to his lord denied.

There, to your menial see the bliss allied, officers accompanied Captain Parry to Not that the cottage life always prepares their huts, where they saw their wo- Unmingled sweets, nor knows disturbing cares; men and children. The former, in- Not that the tranquil reign and smile of peace structed by their husbands, who had Mark certain empire in retreats like these : learnt from the sailors on their visit to Hopes thwarted-reinless passions-marriage the ships the day before, ran out and And all the train of ills that cling to life,shook hands with the strangers. There Wait on the peasant, as the titled lord, was one pretty looking girl of twelve The rich man's table, and the cotter's board ; or thirteen years of age. The children Dissensions sown with faller nature's seeds, were horribly frightened, and roared Spring 'midst life’s fairest flowers as noxious lustily in spite of beads and toys. The These left uncheck’d, or suffer'd to increase, whole number of natives was about Will choak domestic happiness and peace. twenty. They had probably seen or O if good angels, with supreme delight, heard of Europeans before. No arms Behold on earth, one sweeter-lovelier sight! were observed among them; but one Why not the home where wedded love is giv’n, of the little boys had a miniature bow To typify the blessedness of heav'n? and arrow, which showed their ac- of love and beauty in thy native isle ?

Why not where thou enjoy'st the clement smile quaintance with this weapon. The skins of the animals they had killed The vital air, and life's warm transports knew :

On thy dear lap, O Britain ! first I drew seemed to be pierced with arrows as An English mother's tenderest arts caress’d; well as spears.

I drew the fount of life upon her breast; Taking leave of them about the end And drew with it, the passion, still that reigns, of the first week in September, the ex

Pure as the flood from those maternal veins,

The patriot-love of Home!-though from my pedition steered homeward. The ships

birth, were separated by a tempest, and the I've own'd no narrower heritage than earth : Griper waited seven days for the Hecla -Cradled in tenderness, and nurs’d in love,at the rendezvous in Shetland; but the Forgive this tribute, ye who can't approve : latter suffered so much damage, as to What filial duty owes, my genius pays, be compelled to steer directly for Leith. And only thanks, whom

I might justly praise. The Griper also was nearly lost off of woman born, who hath not felt the same?

Ah, sweet endearment of a Mother's name! Sheerness. They are now both at Cold is the heart-contemptible the manDeptford.

With no fine feelings interwove, his plan;
The thought of feeble infancy, who spurns,

And for solicitude contempt returns ;
THE VILLAGER'S LAY. When pain assail'd, how oft her eye might

Unreckon'd-thankless-unreturn'd by him!

Nurs'd in a mother's arms, who hath not felt, Now day declines in majesty serene,

At childhood's sweet review, his manhood The setting sun imbues the ev’ning scene;

melt ?
Attendant clouds imbibe the glorious dyes, When partial fondness once upon him smild,
Or drest in liveried gold adorn the skies: And saw all beauty centre in her child ?
Welcome sweet hour, and day's expiring smile! 'Tis Nature's voice-and if perfections crown
Welcome sweet respite to the labourer's toil ! One loveliest child 'tis ev'ry mother's owo!


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