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811 Vindication of Lord Byron's Poetry.-On Anger. 812 as he “ traverses out of the record,” , and he has not belied the description. in order to traduce the greatest poet His mind, like the swallow, always of the age, silence would be criminal, sweeps the ground, and as it might be mistaken for approbation. “ All who view the idiot in his glory,'

When G. M. assures us that “the Conceive the Bard the hero of the story.”, name of Byron is losing ground,” hope Should G.M.again write in favour of has told him a flattering tale, but which

This mild apostate from poetic rule, is any thing rather than truc. lf G. M.

Who chimes his childish verse,' will inquire of his lordship’s bookseller, I would remind him, that it is possible Mr. Murray, he will find that the re

to defend a hovel, without attempting verse of his assertion is the fact. The

to storm a castle; while, for his conenormous sums paid for Lord Byron's solation, I would assure him, that, productions, the high price at which though’Britain they are sold, the eagerness with which

“ Feels a Homer's fire in Byron's straips," they are bought, and the avidity and interest with which they are read, de- yet that Wordsworth will be read when

Homer, and Virgil, and Byron, are monstrate, beyond the shadow of a doubt, that his muse is very highly

forgotten-but not till then.

ARISTARCAUS. estimated, and his poetry justly appreciated.

G. M.'s comparison of Lord Byron to “ the fabled phoenix, kindling the

MR. Editor, flame that will consume him,” is pret- remarks on Anger suitable for the Im

SIR, -Should you deem the following ty; but unfortunately it has one trifling defect,-it is not true. Surely G. M. perial Magazine, your insertion of knows that a comparison is no proof;

them will oblige and wbile facts are against him, his

Your obedient servant,

I. H-N. prediction of Lord Byron's declension resembles those of Baal's prophets,

London, August 9th, 1821. made only to be frustrated, and to recoil with ignominy on the seer. Ad- Anger is a passion of the most viomitting, however, that a dire eclipse of the worst effects on the individual

lent and irregular kind, and productive should overspread the nations, and a worse than Gothic darkness return, and on society. Like the other passo that even a Byron should feel a sions, when released from the control temporary obscuration, his muse would of reason, it is fierce and impetuous, then (according to G. M.'s own com

disturbing the quiet of the soul, deparison,) resemble the phoenix ; but ranging those parts which ought to it would be to rise from its ashes in harmonize together, and introducing order to be viewed with yet greater

into it universal disorder and confurapture, and to be hailed with stillsion. Although where it exists, it increasing delight.

does not always indicate so great a For the brilliancy of Lord Byron's degree of mental depravity, as those diction, for the corruscations of his feelings which are of a sterner and

genius, for the fire of his poetry, and more vindictive nature, still, by a occasionally for the flashes of his wit, it exerts a no less baneful influence

frequent submission to its impulses, as well as the mordacity of his sarcasm, within. It is a common remark, that his lordship has been justly termed by G. M's “master spirits of the times,"

the passionate man, inimical as he is in the greatest poet of the present age,

his social capacity, is still more an eneand of almost every other; and surely my to himself; for while he is inflictit is not in the power of any petty as- ing pain on the breasts of others

, he sailant to pluck the laurels from his is doubly wounding his own. No one brow.

from whose mind right principles are G. M. tells us that“much has been not entirely obliterated, can give way said to little purpose upon Words- to an irritable disposition, without at worth;

and certainly G. M.'s letter the very same time feeling uneasy; forms an illustration of his remark. and subsequently, when the inward The character of Wordsworth was,

tumult has subsided, and reason resome years ago, comprehensively sum

sumes her proper position, being filled med up in the following line,

with shame and remorse. *The simple Wordsworth, pretty-spoken youtb;' | ductions to evil, the power of the

Besides, as is the case with all se



Anger.-Origin and Nature of Human Knowledge. 814 temptation to irritability increases, by, in the breast, it is impossible to affix not being at first firmly and vigorously a limit to its destructive operation, resisted ; till what appeared only in which, like the resistless sweep of the light of an occasional infirmity, ac- a mountain torrent, bears away all quires all the force and frequency of that opposes its progress, and spreads a confirmed habit. The moral energies devastation and dismay all around. of the soul are hereby weakened, its This is no exaggerated picture of this means of resistance diminished, and unhappy temper; and although we accordingly, a total unfitness ensues readily admit its frequent prevalence for a proper and uniform course of in such as are not altogether destitute action. The evils which the exhibi- of virtuous sentiments, but, on the contion of this temper creates in society trary, possess many amiable traits of are exceedingly obvious. The ma- character, still it must be confessed, lignity and extent of its effects will be that wherever its existence can be proportioned to the rank and power traced, it is of itself sufficient to throw of the man who is under its influence; a veil of obscurity over the fairest nafor the place he holds in the scale of tural and acquired graces. Much may society, the more extended will be the be done to subdue the risings 'of animpression arising from his example, ger, by exercising a vigorous and conand the greater his facilities for afford- stant habit of self-government, and by ing vent to his passions. The world yielding to the sober suggestions of has often groaned under the sad scenes

But the most powerful asof slaughter and desolation, occasioned sistances in this point of duty, must by the malice as well as the ambition be derived from religion. Its precept of the great ; and the hopes and com- instilled into the heart, will, through fort of millions have been extinguished divine grace, soften the asperities of through the capricious and lawless human nature, and attune the whole violence of a single individual. round of conflicting passions into unity

It would be happy for mankind, were and love. the indulgence of this odious passion, with its train of disastrous consequences, confined to those who occupy elevated stations; but it is to be la- MAN KNOWLEDGE RESPECTING GOD mented, that it pervades all classes of the community.

It is one of those strong marks of original corruption

(Continued from col. 668.) which characterize the whole species. The passionate man, of a middle or Calvin very justly observes, that“ the inferior condition, becomes, within things that are seen were made to be his narrow sphere, no less tyrannical as a glass or image of the things that than he whose frown inspires whole are unseen.” And the same sentiinultitudes with terror. His family ment has been expressed in a variety circle, which ought to be the seat of of forms by many writers of considermutual harmony and confidence, exhi- able celebrity. The poet seems to have bits little else than trembling distrust had a glimpse of this truth, when he and jarring contention; and that home, inquired, "Say who can tell, but things to which the eye naturally turns with on earth, and things in heaven, are the tenderest and most delightful feel- each to other like, more than on earth ings, is rendered an object repulsive is thought?" It has, however, a highand disgusting. In passing through er origin, it fell from the pen of inspithis world, we must necessarily meet ration. Romans, i. 10. is thus parawith persons and events which de- phrased by the great and good Richard mand from us the exercise of patience Baxter. “For though God and heaand forbcarance ; and he who suffers venly things be invisible, even his not his tranquillity to be ruffled by eternal power and godhead, yet are petty provocations, will be most likely they to be clearly seen in the glass of to meet great injuries and misfortunes his works.” And 1 Corinthians, xiii, with equanimity. Anger in private, 12. he interprets as follows: "For as well as in public life,

has often given our knowledge now in this body is by rise to deeds at which humanity shud- imperfect media, as we see things in ders, and nature recoils. When once a glass, and know by riddles, and pait is permitted to gain the ascendancy rables, or similitudes; but then



815 Human Knowledge.- Observations on Liverpool. 816 shall know, as men that see each at the conduct of the mind in its atothers' face, by intuition. Now we tempts to apprehend them, will conknow but little parts, and outsides, firm the general trath contained in the and accidents of things, and nothing sacred volume. Between language adequately; but then we shall know, and thought there is a close connexion, in the world of spirits, as those spirits and as all our ideas are originally denow know us, which is better than we rived through the medium of the senses, know ourselves." On this passage, so all primitive terms bave a physical Parkhurst is more precise and ex- origin. We have not a double set of pr ssive “ Now,” says he, “in this terms, one to express natural, and the life, we see by means of a mirror, re- other intellectual objects; and as all flecting the images of heavenly and mental combinations, made in conspiritual things; invisible being re-ceiving of invisible or intangible things, presented by visible; spiritual, by na- have some reference to our original tural; eternal, by temporal: but then, sensations, so the terms primarily used in the eternal world, face to face; as signs of natural objects, and subevery thing being seen in itself, and sequently adapted to spiritual, have, not by means of a representative or in every change they undergo, some similitude.”

allusion to their original appropriation. From the preceding quotations, it And as there is no way to teach that appears, that the scriptures inculcate of which men are ignorant, but by this doctrine, that our knowledge of the means of something already known; heavenly world is not direct, but ana- so, in revealing to them the sublime logical; and our notions of its objects realities of the spiritual world, it was may be very properly denominated necessary to employ terms with which analogical notions. It is the univer. they were already acquainted; and sality of your correspondent's propo- thus by comparing things unseen with sition that is denied. That some of things seen, “ by likening spiritual to our notions of spiritual things are ne- corporeal things, as may express them gative, must be admitted: but the best,” to bring them, in some meagreater part of them are not so; they sure, within the view of dim-sighted belong to the class of notions termed man. This method runs through the by the metaphysicians, general notions. whole of the sacred pages. In conceiving of spiritual things, the

(To be continued.) mind generally proceeds upon a consciousness or persuasion that they bear a remote analogy to natural things; it

OBSERVATIONS, HISTORICAL AND DEsupposes a resemblance between them in certain points; and hence things

SCRIPTIVE, RESPECTING LIVERPOOL. directly known are employed as repre

( Continued from col. 658.) sentatives or similitudes of objects which lie beyond the narrow sphere THE MARKETS of Liverpool are seof tact and vision. And whatever veral; and all are well supplied with degree of imperfection may be sup- every thing necessary for the accomposed to attach to this kind of know- modation of man, and with all the ledge, it is certainly superior to merely luxuries of life. Among the marketknowing things negatively. It is in places the principal ones are Castledeed the highest kind of knowledge street, Islington, Cleveland-square, that the human mind, in its present St. James's-place, and Pownal-square. state, is capable of acquiring of spi- Not far from Clayton-square, ritual things, as it is sufficient for the market-house is now erecting purposes of our present existence. extensive scale. It is upwards of 500 When this mortal shall have put on feet in length, and of a proportionable immortality, then, indeed, instead of breadth. It is all under cover, is well beholding these things through a dark-lighted, and is sufficiently airy. The ened mirror, with faculties adapted roof, which extends over this vast to their sublime nature, we shall dis- area, is supported by cast-iron pillars, cérn them without a medium.

so that those who visit this spot, either A partial examination of the lan- to buy or sell, will be sheltered from guage employed in the sacred writings, the inclemencies of winter, and the to bring spiritual things to the level intense heat of summer. of our capacities; and a slight glancc market-place, scarcely a town in Eps

a new on an

Of this


Historical Observations respecting Liverpool. 818 land can produce a rival. It is in a feet by 30, covered by a good roof, great state of forwardness, the walls supported by pillars, and commodiand roof being already completed, so ously formed, and situated at the that very shortly it will be opened for head of St. James's-street. Under the accommodation of the public. To this covering, proper bulks, stalls lined the market of Castle-street, it will, no with lead, pumps, and other convenidoubt, do a serious injury, but “pri. encies, are erected. The principal vate respects to public weal must species of fish brought to this place yield.” Islington-market may also are salmon, cod, herring, flat fish, suffer from this new erection, but its oysters, crabs, shrimps, prawns, and peculiar neatness, and the shelter muscles, Lobsters are rather scarce; which on all sides it affords to those turbot is not plentiful ; and mackarėl, who frequent it, will always ensure a unless brought from a considerable due proportion of business. The ex- distance, are rather small and dear. posure of the people in Castle-street, Smelts and fresh-water fish are only rendered the new market absolutely occasionally to be obtained; but turnecessary; and to the public spirit tle may be frequently procured on the which prevails in this large and popu- arrival of ships from the West Indies. lous town, this was a sufficient recom- Very lately an additional fish-market mendation.

was established at the northern extreThe supplies of these markets are mity of the Prince's Dock, which was drawn from various parts of Lanca- opened on the day of his majesty's coshire, and also from the Cheshire ropation. This is placed under some shores. The articles brought from the salutary regulations, which will alike latter consist chiefly in poultry, but- tend to prevent monopoly and impoter, fruit, and vegetables, which are sition. brought over in large quantities in the The Inns in Liverpool are both nuferry-boats. Ireland and Scotland merous and respectable; and modes of farnish grain, horned cattle, sheep, conveyance, both for goods and pashogs, bacon, and butter; and from sengers, to all parts of the kingdom, the Isle-of-Man, Anglesea, and many may be easily obtained. The public parts of North Wales, eggs, fresh coaches which pass and repass through butter, and live poultry, are sent in the turnpike-gate between Liverpool great abundance. Potatoes are al- and Prescot every day, are said to most always plentiful, cheap, and amount to eighty-seven, besides those good. In addition to the public mar- which pass over Scotland road, and kets, beef, mutton, lamb, veal, and travel to and from the different ferries pork, may be obtained at the butcher's on the opposite side of the harbour. stalls in almost every public street; The inhabitants of Liverpool are and in these, articles of the best qua- amply supplied with excellent Coals, lity may generally be procured. The which are rendered remarkably cheap. beef, in general, with which the mar- These are chiefly brought down from kets of Liverpool are supplied, is not the mines in the canal boats; but vast equal to that which fills the markets of quantities are conveyed by carts from London, and many other towns, but the neighbourhood of Prescot and St. the mutton, veal, and lamb are truly Helen. With carts and waggons laexcellent.

den with various articles, the road beWith vegetables, in a high state of tween Prescot and Liverpool is almost perfection, few markets are better constantly thronged, and in the depth supplied than those of Liverpool, and of winter, when the canals are frozen, in general they are as cheap as can be it has been said that not less than one reasonably expected. During the fruit thousand have been seen daily enterseason, Liverpool abounds with al- ing Liverpool over the London road. most every article within the compass The means of TRAVELLING BY WAof variety; and through the incessant ter are not less accommodating than arrival of ships from distant countries, those which are established by land. vast quantities of foreign fruit are im- From Liverpool to various parts of ported from the various nations with Ireland, there are several steamwhich they trade.

packets. These accomplish their The Fiš h MARKET of Liverpool is voyages in general in about twelve well deserving the attention of stran- or fourteen hours, and return in a gers. It is an oblong building, 90 still shorter time. "Between Liverpool 819 Historical Observations respecting Liverpool. 820 and the Isle-of-Man there are packets | George the Second, that the preceding which regularly sail; and one, which mayor should act as justice of the sails for Greenwich every Friday, peace for four years after the expiratouches at the Island both when it tion of his office; and also that the proceeds and when it returns.

four aldermen next to the senior alThe Canals are several. One pre- derman, while members of the coniserves a communication between Li- mon council, should be justices within verpool and Leeds; another connects the town; and that the recorder should Liverpool and Manchester; another have power to nominate a deputy. opens into the heart of Cheshire; an- The three junior aldermen for the time other connects the trade of Liverpool being are coropers. By the latest with the Severn and North Wales; charters, it is ordained that the body the Duke of Bridgewater's canal com- corporate shall consist of forty-one municates with Birmingham and Staf persons, composing the common counfordshire, and stretches even to the cil; and that from among these a metropolis of the kingdom. From mayor, recorder, and two bailiffs, shall these canals various branches spread be annually chosen. in almost every direction, connecting, The right of electing the corporate by means of inland navigation, most officers resides in the free burgesses. of the principal towns that stand in The mayor and bailiffs are chosen on the adjacent counties. On several the 18th of October, a few days preof these canals, packets have been ele- vious to which, the ancient custom of gantly fitted up for the accommoda- riding round the town, and surveying tion of passengers, who enjoy conve- its boundaries, is regularly observed. nient apartments, and, at an easy ex- The mayor, or one of the aidermen, pense, are wafted to the places of their attends daily at the town-ball to hear destination with considerable expedi- cases, and to transact public business. tion.

These packets are drawn by But the general session of the peace horses which have a path on the mar- is held four times in the year by the gin of the canal, and generally pro-justices of the peace for the borough, ceed at a tolerably brisk trot. and by adjournment every Monday.

The Borough Gaol, though a pub-| A Court of Requests for the recovery lic building, sustains, from its name of debts under forty shillings is held and appropriation, a character very every Wednesday over the Bridewell different from that of those edifices near the Town-Hall. The number of which have been described, being im- its commissioners is seventeen, who mediately connected with crime. It are appointed every month by the stands at the northern extremity of the common-council. town, in Great Howard-street, and is a Police has also been established unlarge and extensive building. It was der the authority of an act of parliaerected on the plan recommended by ment; the magistrates of this departthe benevolent Howard. During the ment attend daily at the Dock office. war, it was, for some time, a recepta- By virtue of their charter, the corcle for French prisoners; the old poration of Liverpool are en powered Tower, in Water-street, then contain to enact laws for the better and more ing the culprits who had violated the effectual regulation of the police of laws of their country. But of late the town. Of this power they base years it has been appropriated to its made an application that has been intended purpose, and the Old Tower highly advantageous to the inhabihas been demolished. It is an airy tants. The number of useful regulaand well-constructed building, and its tions which have been introduced, situation is highly favourable to the and the impartial manner in which health of its unfortunate inhabitants. they have been carried into execution,

The Government and Police of entitle the magistrates to the highest Liverpool ought not, in this sketch, praise, and reflect upon thein a disto be passed over in silence. By the tinguished honour. Among these recharter of William III. the mayor, gulations may be enumerated, enactrecorder, senior alderman, and the ments respecting the government of preceding mayor, were empowered the port, including the inanagement of to act as magistrates in the town; the docks, and the laws respecting but, on the increase of population, pilots and pilotage. it was ordained, by the charter of I tions also extend to the charges

A regular Dock

These regula


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