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sball know, as men that see each at the conduct of the mind in its atothers' face, by intuition. Now we tempts to apprehend them, will conknow but little parts, and outsides, firm the general truth contained in the and accidents of things, and nothing sacred volume. Between language adequately; but then we shall know, and thought there is a close connexion, in the world of spirits, as those spirits and as all our ideas are originally denow know us, which is better than we rived through the medium of the senses, know ourselves.” On this passage, so all primitive terms have a physical Parkhurst is more precise and ex- origin. We have not a double set of pressive. “ Now," says he, “in this terms, one to express natural, and the life, we see by means of a mirror, re- other intellectual objects; and as all flecting the images of heavenly and mental combinations, made in conspiritual things; invisible being re-ceiving of invisible or intangible things, presented by visible; spiritual, by na- have some reference to our original tural; eternal, by temporal: but then, sensations, so the terms primarily used in the eternal world, face to face; as signs of natural objects, and subevery thing being seen in itself, and sequently adapted to spiritual, have, not by means of a representative or in every change they undergo, some similitude.”
allusion to their original appropriation. From the preceding quotations, it And as there is no way to teach that appears, that the scriptures inculcate of which men are ignorant, but by this doctrine, that our knowledge of the means of something already known; heavenly world is not direct, but ana-so, in revealing to them the sublime logical; and our notions of its objects realities of the spiritual world, it was may be very properly denominated necessary to employ terms with which analogical notions. It is the univer: they were already acquainted; and sality of your correspondent's propo- thus by comparing things unseen with sition that is denied. That some of things seen,“ by likening spiritual to our notions of spiritual things are ne- corporeal things, as may express them gative, must be admitted: but the best,” to bring them, in some meagreater part of them are not so; they sure, within the view of dim-sighted belong to the class of notions termed man. This method runs through the by the metaphysicians, general notions. whole of the sacred pages. lo conceiving of spiritual things, the
(To be continued.) mind generally proceeds upon a consciousness or persuasion that they bear a remote analogy to natural things; it
OBSERVATIONS, HISTORICAL AND DEsupposes a resemblance between them in certain points; and hence things
SCRIPTIVE, RESPECTING LIVERPOOL. directly known are employed as repre
(Continued from col. 658.) sentatives or similitudes of objects which lie beyond the narrow 'sphere THE MARKETS of Liverpool are seof tact and vision. And whatever veral; and all are well supplied with degree of imperfection may be sup- every thing necessary for the accomposed to attach to this kind of know- modation of man, and with all the ledge, it is certainly superior to merely luxuries of life. Among the marketknowing things negatively. It is in- places the principal ones are Castledeed the highest kind of knowledge | street, Islington, Cleveland-square, that the human mind, in its present St.James's-place, and Pownal-square. state, is capable of acquiring of spi- Not far from Clayton-square, a new ritual things, as it is sufficient for the market-house is now erecting on an purposes of our present existence. / extensive scale. It is upwards of When this mortal shall have put on feet in length, and of a proportiona immortality, then, indeed, instead of breadth. It is all under cover, is W beholding these things through a dark- / lighted, and is sufficiently airy. 11 ened mirror, with faculties adapted roof, which extends over this to their sublime nature, we shall dis- area, is supported by cast-iron p1! cern them without a medium.
so that those who visit this spot, eithe A partial examination of the lan- / to buy or sell, will be sheltered i guage employed in the sacred writings, I the inclemencies of winter, and to bring spiritual things to the level intense heat of summer. Of of our capacities; and a slight glance market-place, scarcely a town in BD
817 Historical Observations respecting Liverpool. ' 818
nosocorrorocowarówoorso.corrosowanowossosnowwoninansoor land can produce a rival. It is in a feet by 30, covered by a good roof, great state of forwardness, the walls supported by pillars, and commodiand roof being already completed, so ously formed, and situated at the that very shortly it will be opened for head of St. James's-street. Under the accommodation of the public. To this covering, proper bulks, stalls lined the market of Castle-street, it will, no with lead, pumps, and other convenidoubt, do a serious injury, but “pri- | encies, are erected. The principal vate respects to public weal must species of fish brought to this place yield.” Islington-market may also are salmon, cod, herring, flat fish, suffer from this new erection, but its oysters, crabs, shrimps, prawns, and peculiar neatness, and the shelter muscles, Lobsters are rather scarce; which on all sides it affords to those turbot is not plentiful; and mackarėl, who frequent it, will always ensure a unless brought from a considerable due proportion of business. The ex-distance, are rather small and dear. posure of the people in Castle-street, Smelts and fresh-water fish are only rendered the new market absolutely occasionally to be obtained; but turnecessary; and to the public spirit tle may be frequently procured on the which prevails in this large and popu arrival of ships from the West Indies. lous town, this was a sufficient recom- Very lately an additional fish-market mendation.
was established at the northern extreThe supplies of these markets are mity of the Prince's Dock, which was drawn from various parts of Lanca-opened on the day of his majesty's coshire, and also from the Cheshire ropation. This is placed under some shores. The articles brought from the salutary regulations, which will alike latter consist chiefly in poultry, but-tend to prevent monopoly and impoter, fruit, and vegetables, which are sition. brought over in large quantities in the The Inns in Liverpool are both nuferry-boats. Ireland and Scotland merous and respectable; and modes of farnish grain, horned cattle, sheep, conveyance, both for goods and pashogs, bacon, and butter; and from sengers, to all parts of the kingdom, the Isle-of-Man, Anglesea, and many may be easily obtained. The public parts of North Wales, eggs, fresh coaches which pass and repass through butter, and live poultry, are sent in the turnpike-gate between Liverpool great abundance. Potatoes are al and Prescot every day, are said to most always plentiful, cheap, and amount to eighty-seven, besides those good. In addition to the public mar- which pass over Scotland road, and kets, beef, mutton, lamb, veal, and travel to and from the different ferries pork, may be obtained at the butcher's on the opposite side of the harbour. stalls in almost every public street; The inhabitants of Liverpool are and in these, articles of the best qua- amply supplied with excellent Coals, lity may generally be procured. The which are rendered remarkably cheap. beef, in general, with which the mar- These are chiefly brought down from kets of Liverpool are supplied, is not the mines in the canal boats; but vast equal to that which fills the markets of quantities are conveyed by carts from London, and many other towns, but the neighbourhood of Prescot and St. the mutton, veal, and lamb are truly Helen. With carts and waggons laexcellent.
den with various articles, the road beWith vegetables, in a high state of tween Prescot and Liverpool is almost perfection, few markets are better constantly thronged, and in the depth supplied than those of Liverpool, and of winter, when the canals are frozen, in general they are as cheap as can be it has been said that not less than one reasonably expected. During the fruit thousand have been seen daily enterseason, Liverpool abounds with al- ing Liverpool over the London road. most every article within the compass The means of TRAVELLING BY WAof variety; and through the incessant ter are not less accommodating than arrival of ships from distant countries, those which are established by land. vast quantities of foreign fruit are im- From Liverpool to various parts of ported from the various nations with Ireland, there are several steamwhich they trade.
packets. These accomplish their The Fish MARKET of Liverpool is voyages in general in about twelve Well deserving the attention of stran- | or fourteen hours, and return in a gers. It is an oblong building, 90 still shorter time. Between Liverpool
and the Isle-of-Man there are packets George the Second, that the preceding which regularly sail; and one, which mayor should act as justice of the sails for Greenwich every Friday, peace for four years after the expiratouches at the Island both when it tion of his office; and also that the proceeds and when it returns. : four aldermen next to the senior al
The Canals are several. One pre- / derman, while members of the comserves a communication between Li- / mon council, should be justices within verpool and Leeds; another connects the town; and that the recorder should Liverpool and Manchester; another have power to nominate a deputy. opens into the heart of Cheshire; an- | The three junior aldermen for the time other connects the trade of Liverpool being are coroners. By the latest with the Severn and North Wales; charters, it is ordained that the body the Duke of Bridgewater's canal com- corporate shall consist of forty-one municates with Birmingham and Staf persons, composing the common counfordshire, and stretches even to the cil; and that from among these a metropolis of the kingdom. From mayor, recorder, and two bailiffs, sball these canals various branches spread be annually chosen. in almost every direction, connecting, The right of electing the corporate by means of inland navigation, most officers resides in the free burgesses. of the principal towns that stand in The mayor and bailiffs are chosen on the adjacent counties. On several the 18th of October, a few days preof these canals, packets have been ele- vious to which, the ancient custom of gantly fitted up for the accommoda riding round the town, and surveying tion of passengers, who enjoy conve- | its boundaries, is regularly observed. nient apartments, and, at an easy ex The mayor, or one of the aldermen, pense, are wafted to the places of their attends daily at the town-ball to hear destination with considerable expedi- cases, and to transact public business, tion. These packets are drawn by But the general session of the peace horses which have a path on the mar- is held four times in the year by the gin of the canal, and generally pro-justices of the peace for the borough, ceed at a tolerably brisk trot.
and by adjournment every Monday. The Borough Gaol, though a pub- | A Court of Requests for the recovery lic building, sustains, from its name of debts under forty shillings is held and appropriation, a character very every Wednesday over the Bridewell different from that of those edifices near the Town Hall. The number of which have been described, being im its commissioners is seventeen, who mediately connected with crime. It are appointed every month by the stands at the northern extremity of the common-council. A regular Dock town, in Great Howard-street, and is a Police has also been established unlarge and extensive building. It was der the authority of an act of parliaerected on the plan recommended by ment; the magistrates of this departthe benevolent Howard. During the ment attend daily at the Dock office. war, it was, for some time, a recepta. By virtue of their charter, the corcle for French prisoners; the Old poration of Liverpool are enipowered Tower, in Water-street, then contain to enact laws for the better and more ing the culprits who had violated the effectual regulation of the police of laws of their country. But of late the town. Of this power they bave years it has been appropriated to its / made an application that has been intended purpose, and the Old Tower highly advantageous to the inhabihas been demolished. It is an airy tants. The number of useful regulaand well-constructed building, and it's tions which have been introduced, situation is highly favourable to the and the impartial manner in which health of its unfortunate inhabitants. they have been carried into execution,
The GOVERNMENT and Police of entitle the magistrates to the highest Liverpool ought not, in this sketch, praise, and reflect upon them a disto be passed over in silence. By the tinguished honour. Among these recharter of William III. the mayor, / gulations may be enumerated, enact. recorder, senior alderman, and the ments respecting the government ol. preceding mayor, were empowered the port, including the management of to act as magistrates in the town ; / the docks, and the laws respecting but, on the increase of population, pilots and pilotage. These regula. it was ordained, by the charter of I tions also extend to the charges on
backney-coachmen, chairmen, porters, newals. In 1798, the gross income of boatmen, cartmen, and to the lighting | the corporation was 27,048l., the net and watching of the town.
income 1,1101. ; in 1814, the gross inThe borough of Liverpool sends come was 48,4001., the net, 24,4451. ; two members to parliament, who are in 1818, the gross was 73,3431. the chosen by the votes of all the free net, 53,4641., since which period these burgesses of the place, not receiving sums bave considerably increased. In alms. The number of these amounts 1798, the gross expenditure was to above two thousand. The freemen 13,841l.; in 1814, 23,3431.; and in of Liverpool are also free of Bristol, | 1818, 39,0121. and of Waterford and Wexford in | Among the various instance of pubIreland.
lic accommodation which the corporaThe corporation of Liverpool, though tion of Liverpool have been anxious at present much in debt, is one of the to promote, the names of the streets richest in the kingdom, and there is clearly and conspicuously painted, scarcely one that can boast of a more deserve particular notice. At stated exalted or respectable credit. But periods these names are regularly revast as its resources are, they have newed. They have undergone tbeir been most liberally employed in the periodical renovation during the preimprovement of the town, and this is sent summer, and they exhibit to the done to an extent of which a stranger travelling stranger a mark which he can scarcely form an adequate concep always beholds with peculiar gratifition. The widening of Dale-street, cation. These names of the streets the erection of the new Infirmary, are not merely placed at their extrethe enlargement of the Haymarket, mities; wherever they are intersected the new road leading through this by others, or, in short, wherever a area, the enclosure and pleasing de- ) turning is to be perceived, the names corations of Abercrombie-square, the
are again repeated. There is scarcely building of the new market house, an angle in any of the streets in Liand the flagging of the streets with verpool, on which the name of every stones brought from a considerable street that reaches the point is not distance, will furnish an eulogium conspicuously entered. The doing of more convincing than the language of
n the language of this, during the present summer, is letters can express.
said to have cost the corporation 5001. The township and manor of Livcr On this point Liverpool holds out pool formerly belonged to the family an example worthy the imitation of of Molyneux, and the corporation every town and city throughout the were only lessces of the manor ; but
kingdom. Even the metropolis itself about forty years since, they pur
is not placed beyond the necessity of chased the reversion of the estate,
emendation. In passing through many and, by this act, consolidated the fee streets, the names are so nearly obliin themselves. Possessed thus of terated by the smoke and filth which the entire dominion over the property, obscure the letters, that it is not althey grant leases for three lives, and ways they strike the stranger's eye : a term of twenty-one vears certain, and even when the discovery is made. after the death of all. On this secu
the name is sometimes scarcely legible. rity the inhabitants expend large sums
In addition to this, many long streets of money in buildings, full of con
have their names no where inserted but ndence that the corporation will re- at the extremities, on which account new the lease on the death of the the stranger travels on without a regulives, by the nomination of others. Itlar guide, and when in the same line of is on this tenure that a considerable continuation, the streets change their portion of the corporation lands are names, should he be so unfortunate held, and few instances have occurred as not to catch
| as not to catch the new appellation, he in which the builders have had reason
passes on without knowing the alterto complain that their confidence has
ation that has taken place, and frebeen betrayed.
quently wanders from the object which Noris the interest of the corporation, he has in view. Those who are about i this particular, detached from their 1 to exhibit the names of streets for onour, since a considerable portion public accommodation, might, with no
their large revenues arises from small advantage, visit Liverpool. the fines which are paid on these re
(To be concluded in our next.)
Of Fear: 'the Vanity of it, and how to | upon the gridiron, and braved the ty
Master it. Rashness to be avoided : rant. The virgin Appollonia leaped and something more on Anger.
into the fire, Anaxarchus was cheer
ful in the mortar, under the stroke of (Coinmunicated by Almagro.)
the hammer. Socrates took off his cup of poison, as if it had been a fro
lic, and drank a health to Critias. 1. “I have known many people, What is there now so terrible in the without any visible, or so much as faggot, or the gibbet, or in the train probable danger, run raying up and of executioners, and officers of jusdown, as if they were stark mad, tice that attend it? Under this pomp upon the bare apprehension of some and formality, which serves oaly to imaginary mischief to befal them. frighten fools, there lies Death ; that The torment they endure is unspeak-which so many thousands of men, woable; what betwixt the impression of men, and children, have not only wca present, and apprehension of a mis-comed but courted. Set aside the chief to come. There are many mis-noise, the hurry, and the disguise in fortunes which we create, and which these cases, and let every thing aphave a being only in the imagination. pear in its own shape, we shall find There are others which threaten us, that there is nothing terrible in the indeed, but afar off, and they will come matter, but the mere apprehension of soon enough of themselves, without it; and that it fares with us great boys being drawn on before their time. as it does with little ones, our very There are some persons so weak'as to : nurses and our play-fellows, if they be govern themselves by dreams and idle but dressed up with a white sheet, or fancies, without any reasonable ground a vizard, are enough to put us out of of conjecture at all; and to be startled our senses. Nay, we are the sillier at every foolish rumour. A word mis- children of the two kinds, for we are taken is enough to break their sleep; struck with a panic terror, not only and the apprehension of a great man's at the counterfeit of a reality, but the displeasure puts them directly out of very counterfeit of a counterfeit tortheir wits; not so much for the dis-ments us.
9513?':vorbyt 131 pleasure itself as for the consequences 3. Bring every particular to a comof it. But these are vain thoughts, mon cause; and let every man say to and the vainer the more troublesome. himself, I have a' frail and mortal Truth has its measure and limits, but body, liable to distempers, sickness, the imagination is boundless : and and, in the conclusion, to death itself. the main difference I find betwixt the All this I have known from a child, suffering of a misfortune, and the ex- and the many ill accidents that pectation of it, is this : the grief for threaten me.' What have I now to what hath befallen us, will be over; fear? bodily sickness? My soul will but the fear of what may befal us hath be the better for it. Poverty! My no end.
' . ' . life will be the safer for it, and the 2. He that would deliver himself sweeter for it. Loss of fortune? Why from the tyranny of fear, let him take then farewell all the cares and dangers for granted that what he fears will that accompany it. Loss of credit? come to pass, and then enter into a If I suffer deservedly, I shall detest computation upon the whole matter. | the cause, but approve the justices Upon this deliberation he will certain- if wrongfully, my conscience will be ly find, that the things he fears are my comforter. Shall 1 fear a repulse, nothing so terrible in themselves as or a disappointment? There never in his false opinion of them. 'Tis a was a man but wanted something or hard case for a man to be banished, or other that he desired. Banishment? laid in irons, 'Tis a terrible pain to l'll travel, and banish myself. Loss of be burnt alive. And yet we have my eyes? It will deliver me from many many instances, not only of Christi- temptations. What if men speak evil ans, but infidels also, that have de- of me? It is but what they are used spised, and triumphed over all this; I to do, and what I deserve. Shall ] and more indeed than this amounts to. | fear death? It is the very condition Stephen suffered death with a quiet came into the world upon. Welt! but constancy of mind, and prayed for to die in a strange country?, A bis persecutors. Lawrence rejoiced countries are alike to him that has