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821 Ilistorical Observations respecting Liverpool. 822 backney-coachmen, chairmen, porters, newals. In 1798, the gross income of boatmen, cartmen, and to the lighting the corporation was 27,0481., the net and watching of the town.

income 1,110l. ; in 1814, the gross inThe borough of Liverpool sends come was 48,4001., the net, 24,4451. ; two members to parliament, who are in 1818, the gross was 73,3431. the chosen by the votes of all the free net, 53,4641., since which period these burgesses of the place, not receiving sums have considerably increased. In alms. The number of these amounts 1798, the gross expenditure was to above two thousand. The freemen 13,841l.; in 1814, 23,343l. ; and in of Liverpool are also free of Bristol, 1818, 39,0121. and of Waterford and Wexford in Among the various instance of pubIreland.

lic accommodation which the corporaThe corporation of Liverpool, though tion of Liverpool have been anxious at present much in debt, is one of the to promote, the names of the streets richest in the kingdom, and there is clearly and conspicuously painted, scarcely one that can boast of a more deserve particular notice. At stated exalted or respectable credit. But periods these names are regularly revast as its resources are, they have newed. They have undergone their been most liberally employed in the periodical renovation during the preimprovement of the town, and this is sent summer, and they exhibit to the done to an extent of which a stranger travelling stranger a mark which he can scarcely form an adequate concep- always beholds with peculiar gratifition. The widening of Dale-street, cation. These names of the streets the erection of the new Infirmary, are not merely placed at their extrethe enlargement of the Haymarket, mities; wherever they are intersected the new road leading through this by others, or, in short, wherever a area, the enclosure and pleasing de- turning is to be perceived, the names corations of Abercrombie-square, the are again repeated. There is scarcely building of the new market house, an angle in any of the streets in Liand the flagging of the streets with verpool, on which the name of every stones brought from a considerable street that reaches the point is not distance, will furnish an eulogium conspicuously entered. The doing of more convincing than the language of this, during the present summer, is

said to have cost the corporation 5001. The township and manor of Livcr

On this point Liverpool holds out pool formerly belonged to the family an example worthy the imitation of of Molyneux, and the corporation every town and city throughout the were only lessees of the manor ; but kingdom. Even the metropolis itself about forty years since, they pur- is not placed beyond the necessity of chased the reversion of the estate, emendation. In passing through many and, by this act, consolidated the fee streets, the names are so nearly obliin themselves. Possessed thus of terated by the smoke and filth which the entire dominion over the property, obscure the letters, that it is not althey grant leases for three lives, and ways they strike the stranger's eye; a term of twenty-one years certain, and even when the discovery is made, after the death of all. On this secu

the name is sometimes scarcely legible. rity the inhabitants expend large sums

In addition to this, many long streets of money in buildings, full of con- have their names no where inserted but fidence that the corporation will re

at the extremities, on which account new the lease on the death of the the stranger travels on without a regulives, by the nomination of others. It lar guide, and when in the same line of is on this tenure that a considerable continuation, the streets change their portion of the corporation lands are names, should he be so unfortunate held, and few instances have occurred as not to catch the new appellation, he in which the builders have had reason passes on without knowing the alterto complain that their confidence has ation that has taken place, and fre

quently wanders from the object which Noris the interest of the corporation, he has in view. Those who are about in this particular, detached from their to exhibit the names of streets for honour, since a considerable portion public accommodation, might, with no of their large revenues arises from small advantage, visit Liverpool. the fines which are paid on these re- (To be concluded in our next.)

letters can express.

been betrayed.

823

On Fear, Rashmess, Anger, 8e.

824

Of Fear: 'the Vanity of it, and how to upon the gridiron, and braved the tyMaster it. Rashneys to be avoided; rant. The virgin Appollonia leaped and something more on Anger.

into the fire, Anaxarchus was cheer

ful in the mortar, under the stroke of (Communicated by Almagro.)

the hammer. Socrates took off his cup of poison, as if it had been a fro

lic, and drank a health to Critias, 1. “I HAVE known many people, What is there now.so terrible in the without any visible, or so much as faggot, or the gibbet, or in the train probable danger, run raving up and of executioners, and officers of jusdown, as if they were stark mad, tice that attend it? Under this pomp upon the bare apprehension of some and formality, which serves only to imaginary mischief to befal them. frighten fools, there lies Death ; that The torment they endure is unspeak- which so many thousands of men, woable; what betwixt the impression of men, and children, have not only wela present, and apprehension of a mis. comed but courted. Set aside the chief to come. There are many mis- noise, the hurry, and the disguise in fortunes which we create, and which these cases, and let every thing aphave a being only in the imagination. pear in its own shape, we shall find There are others which threaten us, that there is nothing terrible in the indeed, but afar off, and they will come matter, but the mere apprehension of soon enough of themselves, without it; and that it fares with us great boys being drawn on before their time. as it does with little ones, our very There are some persons so weak'as to nurses and our play-fellows, if they be govern themselves by dreams and idle but dressed up with a wbite sheet, or fancies, without any reasonable ground, a vizard, are enough to put us out of of conjecture at all; and to be startled our senses. Nay, we are the sillier at every foolish rumour. A word mis- children of the two kinds, for we are taken is enough to break their sleep; struck with a panic terror, not only and the apprehension of a great man's at the counterfeit of a reality, but the displeasure puts them directly out of very counterfeit of a counterfeit tortheir wits; not so much for the dis-ments us. pleasure itself as for the consequences 3. Bring every particular to a comof it. But these are vain thoughts, mon cause; and let every man say to and the vainer the more troublesome. himself, I have a frail and mortal Truth has its measure and limits, but body, liable to distempers, sickuess, the imagination is boundless: and and, in the conclusion, to death itself. the main difference I find betwixt the All 'this I have known from a child, suffering of a misfortune, and the ex- and the many ill accidents that pectation of it, is this : the grief for threaten me. What have I now to what hath befallen us, will be over; fear? bodily sickness? My soul will but the fear of what may befal us hath be the better for it. Poverty? My no end.

life will be the safer for it, and the 2. He that would deliver himself sweeter for it. Loss of fortune? Why from the tyranny of fear, let him take then farewell all the cares and dangers for granted that what he fears will that accompany it. Loss of credit come to pass, and then enter into a If I suffer deservedly, I shall detest computation upon the whole matter. the cause, but approve the justice :Upon this deliberation he will certain if wrongfully, my conscience will be ly find, that the things he fears are my comforter. Shall 1 fear a repulse, nothing so terrible in themselves as

or a disappointment? There never in his false opinion of them. 'Tis a was a man but wanted something or hard case for a man to be banished, or other that he desired. Banishment? laid in irons, 'Tis a terrible pain to I'll travel, and banish myself. Loss of be burnt alive. And yet we have my eyes ? 'It will deliver me from many many instances, not only of Christi- temptations. What if'men speak eril ans, but infidels also, that have de- of me? It is but what they are used spised, and triumphed over all this; to do, and what I deserve. Shall I and more indeed than this amounts to fear death? It is the very condition I Stephen suffered death with a quiet came into the world upon. Well! but constancy of mind, and prayed for to die in a strange country? All his persecutors. Lawrence rejoiced countries are alike to him that hath

825
On Anger, Sc.--Soundness of Mind.

826 no abiding place here. But for a man for in all difficulties it is still cheerful, to die before his time! As if a man and in all conflicts victorious. should complain of having his shakles knocked off, and being discharged from a prison, before his time. We ON SOUNDNESS OF MIND. are not to look upon death as banishment, or causes of mourning, as pun

MR. EDITOR. ishments, but only as tributes of mor- Sir, --In the investigation of this most tality. It is a senseless thing to fear interesting subject, it is natural to feel what we cannot shun.

a considerable degree of anxiety to 4. Let us take heed of being over be made acquainted with those works confident, and venturing at things which treat of it in the best way. I beyond our strength; for no man is have never read a work with more more liable to miscarriages than he satisfaction on this subject, than that that presumes too much upon himself. recently published by Dr. Haslam, All our sufficiency and strength come

a work which I would most strongly from above, and we can do nothing of recommend to the attentive perusal of ourselves, without God's assistance: those who feel, with myself, that we our presumption arises from too high are shamefully ignorant of the various a conceit of ourselves, and too mean phenomena of the human mind. a one of our adversaries; together I have read with no small degree of with a rash headiness of nature, that satisfaction the excellent remarks of understands neither reason nor busi- your learned correspondent 0-X,col. ness. The wise man is cautious, and 393, vol. II. “ Onour Ignorance of the adventures upon nothing, without first Human Mind;" and I do hope that they taking the measure of his own abili-will have the effect of inducing the ties; whereas, he that is over hasty various readers of your valuable puband presumptuous, falls on without lication, to commence the study with any consideration; and, after the first diligence and perseverance, effort, when he finds the difliculty Perception is a faculty of the mind greater than he imagined it, his cou- by which we discover surrounding rage falls and faints ; and he comes, at objects. This feature of the mind is last, to an acknowledgment of the va- certainly of considerable-importance, nity and unadvisedness of his mistake. though I believe it has never been Security is the forerunner of calamity. clearly ascertained, how, and by what

-5. He that would govern his anger, means, it is essected. The Supreme must begin with a contempt of the Being, whose knowledge is unboundpretended causes of it; for it is not ed, is alone acquainted with it. We, the supposed injury, but the false opi- however, from observing that the first nion of it, that does us the mischief: efforts of the infant are to educate its we provoke, teaze, and inflame our senses, conclude that the organs of selves, and then cast the blame upon sense are the instruments of percepothers. No man is injured but by tion. The process of the human mind himself. We should do well to coax in acquiring a distinct knowledge of and flatter our minds, as nurses do surrounding objects, is very slow, betheir children:-Be quiet, and thou cause the organs of sense require to shalt have it; be not angry, do not be habituated in the investigation, bestruggle and make a noise, and thou fore even perception can be properly shalt see things will be well enough clear. A superficial sight of an obyet. I would have a man set apartject to which we were utter strangers, some certain days, and say to him would render our perception of it very self, I am resolved that nothing shall uncertain. Without a clear percepmake me angry this day, whatever it tion, which is gradually obtained, be. Let him then proceed from a day there can be no knowledge. Percepto a week, from a week to a month, tion may be considered the foundation and so on; he shall soon grow so of knowledge, and knowledge the much the master of himself, as to make foundation of reason. that his diversion which was formerly There does not appear to be any reahis torment. A gentle and peaceable son why we should make a distinction temper is a very great comfort in so between sensation and perception. ciety; but to him that is endued with To experience a sensation, implies it, incomparably a greater blessing ; consciousness; this is the evidence No. 31,--Vól, III,

3 G

827

On Soundness of Mind.Answer to a Query. 828 of perception. Perception cannot be, animal, and given sufficient attention properly accomplished, unless the per- accurately to perceive its construction, son is perfectly free from external in- so as to have a complete perception of trusion and internal perturbation. If the different parts or members of any of the organs of sense are impair- which it is composed, he would, in ed by fatigue, age, or any accident, the absence of the animal, be enabled perception will be imperfect; wit- to remember it. To recollect, is only ness the case of an aged person,—the a different figure for the same process

, sight is imperfect, the hearing is in- and implies, to re-gather, or collect, distinct; none of the organs of sense those parts which have been scattered perform their office so well in the old in different directions. The percepas they do in the young.

tions we obtain by our different senses We cannot perceive the form or are all capable of being remembered, colour of an object, unless the eye is but in different ways. Those which in a perfect state. We know not the may have been received from sight

, nature of any sound, unless the ear is may be collected by the pictures of in a proper state. We know not how the object which originally induced to perceive the difference between dis- perception, and thus we might make tinct odours, unless the organs of a durable record of our visible persmell are in a healthy state. We ceptions. This does not apply to the know not how to distinguish between other sensations. We can exhibit no the qualities of bitter and sweet, un pictures of odours, taste, sound, or less the organs of taste are in a per- hardness; these admit of no pictufect condition. We know not how to resque representations as their record. distinguish between hard and soft, The memory of animals seems to be heat and cold, except the organs of in a simple state. They have different touch are unimpaired. The internal perceptions through their organs. In senses may be excited spontaneously, many instances, these organs are more such as memory and imagination, al- sensible than they are in the human though I think, if we were to watch species, but they are incapable of rethe proceedings of our mind, we cording their perceptions by any signs should generally find, that recollec- or tokens. Their recollection can only tion, or memory, is not perfect with be awakened from the recurrence of out the intervention of those means the object by which the perception which originally induced perception. was originally excited. Whereas man, If I endeavour to recal to mind the by be possession of speech, and of nature and colour of an object which the characters in which it is recorded, I saw and distinctly understood ten can, at all times, renew his recollecyears ago, it is more than probable tion of the past. that the ideas I may form of it will be

Your's, respectfully, erroneous, because we universally

LEO. LEDBROOK. find that the absence of an object does, August 12, 1821. in a great degree, obliterate its image

(To be continued.) from the mind.

If a human being were gifted with his five senses, in a proper state, for Answer to a Query on the Consequence the conveyance of those perceptions which they are destined to receive,

of Adam's Fall. and if he were allowed to exercise them for many years, what would he

MR. EDITOR. be without the power of recollection? SIR -The Quéry proposed by your no better than the walls of Westmin- Huddersfield correspondent s. col. ster Abbey, after the commemoration 650,) has frequently occurred to my of Handel. The nature of memory mind ;-“Will the fall of mankind by has received but little elucidation Adam, and their redemption by Christ, from the aggregate of works which be the means of procuring them greater have been written on the subject. felicity than they would have enjoyed, There are two words, remember and had Adam not transgressed the divine recollect, of a similar meaning with command ?” the word memory, Anglecised from To this question, in a rather differthe Latin word memoria. Thus, if an ent form, an answer in the affirmative individual have seen any particular may, I think, with probability,

be

829 Answer to a Query.--Observations on the Leech Worm. 830 given. Though firmly convinced, that, ed Lord, not only may we regain our through the redemption by Christ, we loss by Adam, but, the cause, or sources, may attain higher degrees of felicity of our love being greater, may rise prothan we otherwise should have done, portionately higher in the scale of had man continued to live in sinless bliss ; yea, whilst angelic beings, obedience to his Maker, yet I can in clothed with holiness, and purity, surno wise conceive that we are warrant- round the eternal throne, and exulted to view the fall of man as a pro- ingly exclaim, curing cause, or mean, of this increase

“Worthy the Lamb that died, of happiness. By sin we became the

To be exalted us,” subjects of misery, wretchedness, and we, in far more animating strains, death; through the redemption by may vie with the celestial hosts, and Christ, we may become the inheritors chant a nobler song ; of happiness and everlasting life : by

Worthy the Lamb, our hearts reply, the fall we became fit objects of the For he was slain for us!Divine mercy; by the love of God in

« Was slain !" O love immense! O Christ, we may be raised from the condescending grace! What cause ruins thereof, and reinstated in that for love, for endless gratitude, is here! holy image wherein man was origi- Say, if 'in the exercise of affections nally created.

such as these, in being the recipients To what degree of happiness our first of such amazing grace, being raised parents, or their posterity, might have from such a depth of misery, in reattained, had sin not entered into the flecting back such wondrous love, we world, must, perhaps, remain a mys- do not derive a greater degree of felitery; being formed in the image of city, than if no such affections had God, in righteousness and true holiness; been called into action, or no such --having the tide of their affections display of the loving kindness of our and desires turned towards Him as God been given ? “ To whom little is their source ;-dwelling in God, and forgiven, the same loveth little.God in them ;-pure from every spe

Id

I am, yours respectfully, cies of defilement ;-loving God with

Aizeos. all their heart, and mind, and soul, and 125, Oxford-street, London, strength, they must have lived inde- August 15, 1821. scribably happy;--formed from such a model, they must have partaken largely of the Divine nature, and con- Observations on the Leech Worm, by a sequently of that felicity which none Gentleman who kept one several years but Deity can impart.

for the purpose of a Weather Glass. These might then have adored their Maker as the great creator and upholder of all things;-they might have A PHIAL of water, containing a leech, viewed him as the God of provi- I kept on the frame of my lower sash dence, imparting, with a liberal hand, chamber window, so that when I lookthe various blessings they enjoyed ;- ed in the morning, I could know what as a God of goodness and love, they would be the weather of the following might have marked his varied opera- day. tions to promote their welfare and If the weather continues serene and comfort; and, in worshipping him as beautiful, the leech lies motionless at such, have derived that satisfaction the bottom of the glass, and rolled and delight which alone result from together in a spiral form. the strict performance of every moral If it rains, either before or after obligation, but they would have been noon, it is found to have crept up to utterly unable to have adored him as the top of its lodging; and there it the God of mercy and forgiving love, remains till the weather is settled. the Saviour of mankind!

If we are to have wind, the poor To us, who are redeemed by Christ's prisoner moves through its limpid hamost precious blo

belongs this bitation with amazing swiftness, and sweeter and more glorious theme; 'tis seldom rests till it begins to blow hard. our's to view the grand display of

If a remarkable storm of thunder those endearing attributes of Deity, and rain is to succeed, for some days and share the glories of redeeming before it lodges almost continually grace. By the inediation of our bless- out of the water, and discovers great

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