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887
On the Boiling of Potatoes.

888 minute weeds and refuse.” Coleridge, for preparing this valuable article of in his “Friend,"owns bim as apoet life. who has received the harp with reve- Select the potatoes as nearly of one rence, and struck it with the hand of size as possible, pare of the skins, power;"_and, lastly, Hazlitt, in his and wash them very well, then put * Table Talk," lately published, eulo- them into an iron pot, and cover them gizes the poetry of Wordsworth, “ in with cold water; place the pot on the comparison of which,” says he, “ all fire, and cause them to boil as soon as that Lord Byron has written is but possible. Care, bowever, must be EXAGERATED COMMONPLACE." taken, that after they begin to boil, they I am, yours, &c. be not suffered to boil quick, but rather

G. M. slow. In about ten or fifteen minutes Bridge-street, Derby, Sept. 6th, 1821. after they begin to boil, try them care

fully with a fork ; and as soon as they

receive the fork very easily, and ON THE BOILING OF POTATOES. appear to be breaking on the surface

, take them off the fire, and be particuMR. EDITOR.

larly careful to pour from them all the Sir,--I was very much pleased with water, and then putting the pot on the the historical observations which you fire for about five minutes, continue to published, (col. 797,) respecting the shake the pot so as to move the bulk Potato. To this root no one can of the potatoes, and the steam will evaattach a greater value than myself.porate, and the potatoes will assume But while I feel thankful to Divine a pleasant and dry surface. Care Providence for this simple but useful must be taken in this latter process vegetable, I cannot but regret that it that they do not burn at the bottom of should be so seriously injured in the the pot. You have only then to take dressing as it frequently is, by those to a clean napkin, and putting it over and whom the management of cooking is pressing it down on the potatoes in consigned. In Lancashire and Che- the pot, place them at some little disshire, the Potato is brought to the tance from the fire, and they will keep table in the highest state of perfection for an hour, if necessary, good looking of which its nature has hitherto been and good tasted. Some persons, after found to be susceptible, but in most the water is poured off, sprinkle a other parts of the kingdom the inha- little salt on the potatoes while shaking bitants have a lesson yet to learn. them, which is said to heighten their

Having been brought up in Lanca- flavour; but this is an experiment shire, and accustomed to this vegeta- which I never tried. ble, where it is served up both in ap

I. G. pearance and taste remarkably good, August 11, 1821. I was greatly disappointed on leaving the country, to find it brought to the table in a manner no way inviting. MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND TIMES OF Sometimes it has been saturated with water, and at other times hard and clammy, which rendered its look bad

( Continued from col. 689.) and its taste still worse.

The refractory Cardinals, on quitting On making inquiries, the people, in Lucca, repaired to Pisa, where they some places, wondered at my dissatis- took the bold step of constituting faction, and in others they ascribed themselves a general council, in which the defect to the bad quality of the capacity they summoned the principal Potato, and to the uncongenial soil. ecclesiastical dignitaries of the variBut so far as I have been able to ex- ous countries in Europe to assist tend my observations, not one appear-them in the task of composing the ed conscious that the preparation was distractions of the Church. In this defective, and that a Potato, but in- crisis of his affairs, Leonardo still addifferent in quality, might be much hered to the fortunes of Gregory, improved by good management in whom he accompanied on his return dressing it. Satisfied of this defi- from Lucca to Siena, in the month of ciency, allow me, Sir, to forward for July 1408. But wearied and disgustyour insertion, in your valuable and ed by the unsettled life which he bad widely extended miscellany, a recipe of late been compelled to lead, and

LEONARDO ARETINO.

sur

889
Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.

890 scandalized by the intrigues and attention of your friend and yourself dissensions of which he was the daily that with respect to promotions of this witness, he began to envy the tran- kind, the ground ought to be well laid quillity enjoyed by his friend Poggio, by careful and diligent previous meawho had retired from the pontifical sures, so that they, who have the court to Florence, where he devoted power may also be inspired with the himself to the intercourses of friend will to bestow them. These previous ship and the prosecution of his stu- measures, without which all expectadies. He therefore requested the tions are futile and vain, your friend kind interposition of Poggio and of seems totally to have neglected. ReNiccolo Niccoli, to procure for him, in member that this court is crowded by bis native republic, some official sta- our countrymen, whose opposition tion, which might justify him in quit- must be silenced, or whose interest ting the service of the Pontiff.' In must be conciliated, by a bribe. If this wish, however, he was for the you imagine that I can effect this present disappointed ; and after pay- business by a simple application, you ing a visit to the baths of Petrioli, are egregiously mistaken. As Juvenal he went to his native city Arezzo on says, the first of December 1408 ; and from To rise to power, commit some daring erime; thence proceeded to rejoin his mas- For probity is praised, and left to starve. ter, who, in the course of his wander- “I write my sentiments freely on this ings, had fixed his abode at Rimini. ß point, in order that you may under

Individuals who have familiar ac- stand, that if you would attain your cess to the great, are ever troubled object, you must change your meawith the importunities of those who sures. As to myself, I am ready to hunger and thirst after places of pro- serve you to the utmost of my ability; fit and trust.

To these importunities but at this time I have not power to Leonardo appears to have been ex- compete with the projects of the amposed, in consequence of the interest bitious men by whom I am which it was presumed that he had rounded. Let the candidate then do established with his Holiness, in con- his Holiness some signal service, in sequence of the fidelity of his attach- order that his name may be received ment to him. During his residence with due favour. The Deity proposes at Rimini, he received a letter from the good things of life as prizes; these Niccolo Niccoli, requesting him to prizes, however, are not the meed of exert his influence to advance an the indolent spectator, but of the streaspiring ecclesiastic to a bishopric nuous and aetive champion.”+ which was supposed to be vacant. Though Leonardo thus instructed The reply which he made to this ap- the ecelesiastical aspirant how to plication may afford hints of advice to make his way to preferment in the candidates for the nitre in modern pontifical court, he was too indepentimes.

dent in spirit himself to practise the "Your letter, which I received to lesson which he thus inculcated. day, announces to me the notable Whilst he attended to the routine of cupidity and immature haste of your his duty as one of the secretaries of friend, who, with a view of serving his Holiness, he was careful not to God without the inconveniences of foment the divisions which gave seanpoverty, desires a rich bishopric.- dal to the Christian community, or In replying to this part of your epistle, to assist in drawing up the anathemas not to hold out "delusive hopes to and processes which were fulminated your friend, who may be a good man, against the enemies of Gregory. By but, as I conceive, by no means a man this conduct, his interest at court was of the world, I must inform you that diminished, and he became liable to you are deceived by the reports of invidious animadversion. But in this the deprivation of the bishop whom decline of favour, he consoled himself you mention. You may be assured by the approbation of his conscience; that no such step has been, or is, con- supported by which, he firmly

resolved templated in this court. Besides, you not to quit the onward path of integmust allow me to suggest, what in- rity. It was his earnest wish to do deed ought not to have escaped the no wrong to any one; and on his

Mehi Vita Leon. Aret. p. 37. No. 32,--Vol. III.

+ Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. iii. ep. 7. 3 L

891
Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.

892 being permitted to abstain from co- perhaps it was projected by the one, operating in any act of injustice, he and executed by the other. Howrested his continuance in the service ever this may be, the structure of the of Gregory*. In the mean time, he bridge is very magnificent, and it is occupied many of his leisure hours, highly decorated with marble. The in investigating the antiquities of the piers are four feet deep in the water, city of Rimini, of which we find the supporting four arches. The bridge -following interesting account in ais sufficiently broad to allow two letter to Niccolo Niccoli :

carriages moving in opposite direcYou have been impelled by your tions casily to pass each other, and ardent curiosity, on the subject of on each side there is an elevated pathantiquities, to request me to give you way for foot passengers. The battleinformation by letter, should I find ments are made of marble, in single any monuments of ancient art at slabs placed upright, and resting Rimini. Though I had already made each on its own base, and rounded the requisite researches on my own at the top. The most remarkable account, for the gratification of your circumstance which I observed in wishes, I renewed my investigations this magnificent bridge, is, that it is with all possible diligence and mi-extended in exquisite and corresponnuteness. Rimini, as I suppose you dent workmanship, beyond each bank are well aware, was a very ancient of the river, so as to obviate those and celebrated colony of the Roman changes of the course of the stream people. But it has shared the fate of which might be the effect of a sudden other ancient cities. It contains mo- rise of its current. The highway connuments of very ancient works, but nected with it was formed of the same so ruined and worn by time, that it kind of stones, with which the highis next to impossible to ascertain ways about Rome were formerly contheir original plan, or the uses to structed. Of this there still remain which they were destined. There some vestiges, and many stones of are, however, two remarkable and the kind to which I have alluded are excellent specimens of antique work to be found in various places, scattermanship, still almost entire, well ed in the vicinity of the road. From worthy of observation, and distin- these two monuments of antiquity, it guished by their beauty, which I will may be determined with sufficient describe to the best of my ability. certainty, that this city was not in

“The first is a lofty and magnificent times of old, of greater, but rather of Gate, built with squared stones, and somewhat less extent than it is at prehighly finished and ornamented, the sent; for on the side which looks antiquity of which is evinced by the towards Pesaro and the Temple of inscription by which it is surmounted. Fortune, there is the ancient gate which For although some of the letters of I have just described, and, on the opthe inscription in question, are lost in posite side, looking towards Ravenna, consequence of the dilapidation of there is the bridge of Augustus and the edifice, the name of the consul Tiberius, extending over the river under whose auspices it was erected which washes the walls of the town. is still legible, and the dipthongs are In other parts, as well towards the sea exhibited in the antique fashion of as towards the land, are seen the resthe Greeks. This gate was originally tiges of the ancient fortifications, which flanked by two towers; but these were formerly surrounded by an open being built, not with stone, but brick, space called the Pomærium, and upon are almost entirely fallen into decay. the inspection of which it is evident, Thus much as to the first relic of an- that in modern times the town has tiquity. The second is a most beau- been considerably enlarged.”+ tiful and clegant Bridge, which, as In the fourteenth century, a repu. appears by the inscriptions engraven tation for literary attainments was, on its battlements, was a gift pre- throughout the whole of Italy, a sure sented to the city by Augustus and passport to the favour of the great, Tiberius. In all probability it was The accomplished scholar was deemed begun by the former of those empe- entitled to familiar intercourse with rors, and finished by the latter ; or sovereign princes. It is not, then,

* Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. iii. ep. 8.

+ Leon, Aret. Epist. lib. iii. ep. 9.

893
Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.

894 matter of surpri se, that, during his why should I dwell on such topics as residence at Rimini, Leonardo should the splendour of his family, when, in have been honoured with the friendly whatever station he had been born, he notice of Carlo Malatesta, lord of would have acquired nobility, glory, that place, and of the surrounding dis- and honour, by his extraordinary virtrict, and that he should, as he him- | tues? I will only briefly say thus self declares, have been admitted to much, that by the munificence of the his table, and allowed to partake of Divine Providence all the virtues of his amusements, to share in his stu- a long line of illustrious ancestry are dies, and freely to discuss with him all so united in him, that whosoever of the current topics of disputation 1. his predecessors was distinguished by Leonardo was no flatterer; we may magnanimity, by wisdom, by valour, therefore give a considerable degree or by justice, all their noble endowof credit to the eulogium on his newly ments are exemplified in him, as being acquired friend, with which he closes their legitimate successor. It is inhis letter to Niccolo Niccoli, on the deed altogether wonderful in how antiquities of Rimini.

many and how various things this “ But since I have undertaken to prince excels. In the first place, his describe the ancient monuments of glory and skill in war is acknowledged this place, I must not omit to mention by the concurrent testimony of all one specimen of antiquity, to which competent judges. His military exnothing comparable can be found in ploits are great and memorable. VicRome, in Athens, or in Syracuse. I tory has crowned his arms from his speak not of a statue of Parian marble, early youth ; and in the course of his or of Corinthian brass; I speak of campaigns he has evinced a generous nothing mute, the object of childish loftiness of spirit, and an invincible admiration; but of a personage who strength of body, in the encountering is the express image of those excellent of dangers. If you attend to his conmen of old time, of whom we read with duct in peace, you will find him disfixed admiration, and whose memory tinguished by a maturity of wisdom, we hold in veneration; I mean Carlo and by a singular prudence, the fruit Malatesta, the lord of this state. You of an excellent understanding, imknow that I am not much given to proved by constant experience in afcommendation; you will therefore the fairs of the highest importance. Add more readily believe me when I say, to this, what is in my opinion most that as often as I look upon him, I wonderful, that a person who has been seem to myself to behold a Marcus engaged in pursuits which seem to. Marcellus, or a Furius Camillus, men preclude all attention to study, has who were at once invincible in war, attained to an eminence in literature and gentle, and observant of the laws, which has been reached by comparain peace. Trust me, my friend, I nei- tively few of those who have devoted ther deceive you, nor am deceived the whole of their lives to the cultimyself. I never yet saw a man who vation of letters. He is, moreover, more nearly resembled the illustrious endowed with those eminent virtues, men whom I have just mentioned, in without which all other princely acgreatness of mind, in pre-eminence of complishments are instruments of misgenius, and in other virtues worthy of chief, namely, modesty, a high sense a distinguished chief. On this occa- of honour, clemency, piety, and insion, I do not deal in oratorical flou-tegrity. Such is the activity of his rishes : let these bo applied to indivi- genius, that whether he reads the anduals whose virtues and actions stand cient authors, or composes in verse or in need of being set off by ornament, prose, he seems born for that particuas paint and finery are used to supply lar employment. Another of his quathe want of beauty in women. Be- lifications I should not perhaps have sides, I have neither time nor space, mentioned, had it not been enumeratin the composition of a letter, to write ed amongst the accomplishments of a formal panegyric on his character. Augustus and Titus, namely, that his I say nothing, then, of his illustrious handwriting is so elegant, that it birth, of the glory of his ancestors, equals, or even surpasses, that of his of his wealth, and of his power. For secretaries. I cannot therefore de

termine, whether he is more powerful | Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. vi. ep. 7. or more learned more strong in body

tues.”

AN ATTEMPT TO DEMONSTRATE THE

OF THE

895
Defectibility of the Human Mind.

896 or in mind-more just, or more inge- For if it be otherwise, and the prenious. Some persons there are who valence be not in a determinate ratio estimate his good fortune by the suc- to the propensity to evil, then one act cess of his enterprises : but this suc- of wickedness may indicate the evil cess I attribute to his industry, his propensity, and not another,—which is justice, and his piety ; for it is a say- absurd. For since the propensity to ing of Furias Camillus, that pros- evil can never excite var volition, experity attends the servants, adversity cept it bias the mind in the choice of the contemners, of the gods. It is motives, every act of wickedness must not my intention to institute a compa- indicate the evil propensity; and since rison between Malatesta and any of we cannot do an act of wickedness inthe great men of classic times; but in dependently of our volition, if the complying, with the request wbich you wicked acts be ever so multiplied, have made me, to give you an account they must always have the same deterof the specimens of antiquity which are minate ratio to the propensity to evil. to be found at Rimini, I thought it It therefore follows, that the human my duty not to omit to mention, with mind is more or less propense evil due praise, his talents and his vir- in the same proportion as vice is more

or less prevalent ; which demonstrates (To be continued.)

its defectibility, since the mind cannot be propense to evil, and indefectible, at the same time,

Before we apply this reasoning to DEFECTIBILITY HUMAN the doctrine of the Fall, it

may

be exMIND, AND THE DOCTRINE OF THE pected that we should prove à priori FALL OF MAN, FROM PREMISES UN-the defectibility of the first man. That CONNECTED WITH THE BIBLE. there must be a first link in the chain

of human beings, is obvious from this The defectibility of the human mind is argument, that an eternal succession demonstrable from the prevalence of of human beings implies that not one vice.

individual of the beings of which the For since our volition is not excited succession is made up, is self-existent; without an action of the mind, whereby and it is morally impossible that the we decide upon the motives presented succession can be self-existent, that to our choice, it follows that every act is, eternal, for then the effect must exof wickedness results from a determi- ist before the cause ; for there can be nate action of the mind. And since no succession till one being is passed the prevalence of vice incontrovertibly away, and another stands in his room. proves a propensity to evil, and that But the proof of the defectibility of the propensity can never excite our voli- first man lies within a narrow comtion, except it bias the mind in the pass ; for since the first man was not choice of motives; therefore, as the self-existent, he was not an infinite mind feels repugnant or not in the being, therefore he must owe bis being choice of good or evil motives, so the to another; wherefore he must be a bias of the propensity to evil does or creature, and consequently a finite bedoes not prevail. But since the propen- ing. But to be indefectible, he must sity to evil is incontrovertibly proved possess infinite perfection; which infrom the prevalence of vice, its bias volves this contradiction, that a finite upon the mind must be in the same being must possess infinite perfection, proportion as vice is prevalent. Now, | -- which is absurd. By consequence, a since the propensity and the preva- being that is finite, must also be delence have the same relation as cause fectible. and effect, that relation must be deter- But since the defectibility of the minate ; that is, they must have a de- human mind has been demonstrated terminate ratio to each other. Where from the actual condition in which man fore the inference is just, that, in pro- is found, that is, from the prevalence portion to the prevalence of vice, the of vice; in applying the argument to mind of man is more or less propense the doctrine of the Fall, we are not speto evil, and cannot therefore be inde- culating upon any theory of the origin fectible.

of moral evil, but our proof is ground

ed upon matter of fact, which is ob. * Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. iii. ep. 9.

vious to every one's observation. And

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