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being permitted to abstain from co- perhaps it was projected by the one, operating in any act of injustice, he and executed by the other. Howrested his continuance in the service ever this may be, the structure of the of Gregory*. In the mean time, he bridge is very magnificent, and it is occupied many of his leisure hours, highly decorated with marble. The in investigating the antiquities of the piers are four feet deep in the water, city of Rimini, of which we find the supporting four arches. The bridge . following interesting account in a is sufficiently broad to allow two letter to Niccolo Niccoli:
carriages moving in opposite direc“ You have been impelled by your tions casily to pass each other, and ardent curiosity, on the subject of on each side there is an elevated pathantiquities, to request me to give you way for foot passengers. The battleinformation by letter, should I find ments are made of marble, in single any monuments of ancient art at | slabs placed upright, and resting Rimini. Though I had already made each on its own base, and rounded the requisite researches on my own at the top. The most remarkable account, for the gratification of your circumstance which I observed in wishes, I renewed my investigations this magnificent bridge, is, that it is with all possible diligence and mi-extended in exquisite and corresponnuteness. Rimini, as I suppose you dent workmanship, beyond each bank are well aware, was a very ancient of the river, so as to obviate those and celebrated colony of the Roman changes of the course of the stream people. But it has shared the fate of which might be the effect of a sudden other ancient cities. It contains mo- rise of its current. The highway connuments of very ancient works, but nected with it was formed of the same so ruined and worn by time, that it kind of stones, with which the highis next to impossible to ascertain ways about Rome were formerly con. their original plan, or the uses to structed. Of this there still remain which they were destined. There some vestiges, and many stones of are, however, two remarkable and the kind to which I have alluded are excellent specimens of antique work-to be found in various places, scattermanship, still almost entire, well ed in the vicinity of the road. From worthy of observation, and distin- these two monuments of antiquity, it guished by their beauty, which I will may be determined with sufficient describe to the best of my ability. certainty, that this city was not in
“The first is a lofty and magnificent times of old, of greater, but rather of Gate, built with squared stones, and somewhat less extent than it is at prehighly finished and ornamented, the sent ; for on the side which looks antiquity of which is evinced by the towards Pesaro and the Temple of inscription by which it is surmounted. Fortune, there is the ancient gate which For although some of the letters of I have just described, and, on the opthe inscription in question, are lost in posite side, looking towards Ravenna, consequence of the dilapidation of there is the bridge of Augustus and the edifice, the name of the consul Tiberius, extending over the river under whose auspices it was erected which washes the walls of the town, is still legible, and the dipthongs are In other parts, as well towards the sea exhibited in the antique fashion of as towards the land, are seen the vesthe Greeks. This gate was originally I tiges of the ancient fortifications, which flanked by two towers; but these were formerly surrounded by an open being built, not with stone, but brick, space called the Pomærium, and upon are almost entirely fallen into decay. the inspection of which it is evident, Thus much as to the first relic of an- | that in modern times the town has tiquity. The second is a most beau- been considerably enlarged.”+ tiful and clegant Bridge, which, as In the fourteenth century, a repu. appears by the inscriptions engraven | tation for literary attainments was, on its battlements, was a gift pre-| throughout the whole of Italy, a sure sented to the city by Augustus and I passport to the favour of the great. Tiberius. In all probability it was The accomplished scholar was deemed begun by the former of those empe entitled to familiar intercourse with rors, and finished by the latter ; or sovereign princes. It is not, then,
matter of surpri se, that, during his why should I dwell on such topics as residence at Rimini, Leonardo should the splendour of his family, when, in have been honoured with the friendly whatever station he bad been born, he notice of Carlo Malatesta, lord of would have acquired nobility, glory, that place, and of the surrounding dis- and honour, by his extraordinary virtrict, and that he should, as he him- tues? I will only briefly say thu's self declares, have been admitted to much, that by the munificence of the his table, and allowed to partake of Divine Providence all the virtues of his amusements, to share in his stu- a long line of illustrious ancestry are dies, and freely to discuss with him all so united in him, that whosoever of the current topics of disputation 1. his predecessors was distinguished by Leonardo was no flatterer; we may magnanimity, by wisdom, by valour, therefore give a considerable degree or by justice, all their noble endowof credit to the eulogium on his newly ments are exemplified in him, as being acquired friend, with which he closes their legitimate successor. It is inbis letter to Niccolo Niccoli, on the deed altogether wonderful in how antiquities of Rimini.
many and how various things this “ But since I have undertaken to prince excels. In the first place, hisdescribe the ancient monuments of glory and skill in war is acknowledged this place, I must not omit to mention by the concurrent testimony of all one specimen of antiquity, to which competent judges. His military exnothing comparable can be found in ploits are great and memorable. VicRome, in Athens, or in Syracuse. Itory has crowned his arms from his speak not of a statue of Parian marble, early youth ; and in the course of his or of Corinthian brass; I speak of campaigns he has evinced a generous nothing mute, the object of childish loftiness of spirit, and an invincible admiration; but of a personage who strength of body, in the encountering • is the express image of those excellent of dangers. If you attend to his conmen of old time, of whom we read with duct in peace, you will find him disfixed admiration, and whose memory tinguished by a maturity of wisdom, we hold in veneration ; I mean Carlo and by a singular prudence, the fruit Malatesta, the lord of this state. You of an excellent understanding, imknow that I am not much given to proved by constant experience in afcommendation; you will therefore the fairs of the highest importance. Add more readily believe me when I say, / to this, what is in my opinion most that as often as I look upon him, I wonderful, that a person who has been seem to myself to behold a Marcus engaged in pursuits which seem to Marcellus, or a Furius Camillus, men preclude all attention to study, has: who were at once invincible in war, attained to an eminence in literature and gentle, and observant of the laws, which has been reached by comparain peace. Trust me, my friend, I nei- tively few of those who have devoted ther deceive you, nor am deceived the whole of their lives to the cultimyself. I never yet saw a man who vation of letters. He is, moreover, more nearly resembled the illustrious endowed with those eminent virtues, men whom I have just mentioned, in without which all other princely ac greatness of mind, in pre-eminence of complishments are instruments of misgenius, and in other virtues worthy of chief, namely, modesty, a high sense a distinguished chief. On this occa of honour, clemency, piety, and insion, I do not deal in oratorical flou-tegrity. Such is the activity of his rishes : let these be applied to indivi- genius, that whether he reads the anduals whose virtues and actions stand cient authors, or composes in verse or in need of being set off by ornament, prose, he seems born for that particuas paint and finery are used to supply lar employment. Another of his quathe want of beauty in women. Be- lifications I should not perhaps have sides, I have neither time nor space, mentioned, had it not been enumeratin the composition of a letter, to write ed amongst the accomplishments of a formal panegyric on his character. | Augustus and Titus, namely, that his I say nothing, then, of his illustrious handwriting is so elegant, that it birth, of the glory of his ancestors, equals, or even surpasses, that of his of his wealth, and of his power. For secretaries. I cannot therefore de
termine, whether he is more powerful Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. vi, ep, 7. or more learned more strong in body
or in mind-more just, or more inge-! For if it be otherwise, and the prenious. Some persons there are who valence be not in a determinate ratio estimate his good fortune by the suc- to the propensity to evil, then one act cess of his enterprises : but this suc-of wickedness may indicate the evil cess I attribute to his industry, his propensity, and not another, which is justice, and his piety; for it is a say- absurd. For since the propensity to ing of Furias Camillas, that pros- evil can never excite vor volition, experity attends the servants, adversity cept it bias the mind in the choice of the contemners, of the gods. It is motives, every act of wickedness must not my intention to institute a compa- indicate the evil propensity; and since rison between Malatesta and any of we cannot do an act of wickedness inthe great men of classic times; but in dependently of our volition, if the complying, with the request wbich you wicked acts be ever so multiplied, have made me, to give you an account they must always have the same deterof the specimens of antiquity which are minate ratio to the propensity to evil. to be found at Rimini, I thought it It therefore follows, that the human my duty not to omit to mention, with mind is more or less propense to evil due praise, his talents and his vir- in the same proportion as vice is more tues.r.
or less prevalent; which demonstrates (To be continued.)
its defectibility, since the mind cannot be propense to evil, and indefectible, at
the same time. AN ATTEMPT TO DEMONSTRATE the Before we apply this reasoning to
DEFECTIBILITY OF THE HUMAN
of human beings, is obvious from this The defectibility of the human mind is argument, that an eternal succession demonstrable from the prevalence of of human beings implies that not one vice.
individual of the beings of which the For since our volition is not excited succession is made up, is self-existent; without an action of the mind, whereby and it is morally impossible that the we decide upon the motives presented succession can be self-existent, that to our choice, it follows that every act is, eternal, for then the effect must exof wickedness results from a determi- ist before the cause ; for there can be nate action of the mind. And since no succession till one being is passed the prevalence of vice incontrovertibly away, and another stands in his room. proves a propensity to evil, and that But the proof of the defectibility of the propensity can never excite our voli- first man lies within a narrow comtion, except it bias the mind in the pass; for since the first man was not choice of motives; therefore, as the self-existent, he was not an infinite mind feels repugnant or not in the being, therefore he must owe his being choice of good or evil motives, so the to another; wherefore he must be a bias of the propensity to evil does or creature, and consequently a finite bedoes not prevail. But since the propen- / ing. But to be indefectible, he must sity to evil is incontrovertibly proved possess infinite perfection; which infrom the prevalence of vice, its bias volves this contradiction, that a finite upon the mind must be in the same being must possess infinite perfection, proportion as vice is prevalent. Now, I which is absurd. By consequence, a since the propensity and the preva- being that is finite, must also be delence have the same relation as cause fectible. and effect, that relation must be deter- But since the defectibility of the minate ; that is, they must have a de-human mind has been demonstrated terminate ratio to each other. Where- from the actual condition in which man fore the inference is just, that, in pro- is found, that is, from the prevalence portion to the prevalence of vice, the of vice; in applying the argument to mind of man is more or less propense the doctrine of the Fall, we are not speto evil, and cannot therefore be inde | culating upon any theory of the origin fectible.
of moral evil, but our proof is ground
ed upon matter of fact, which is ob. * Leon. Aret. Epist. lib. iii. ep. 9.
| vious to every one's observation. And
Extract from an Old Sermon.
since the defectibility of the human since all men are found in the same mind is demonstrated, man's liability predicament, and their identical conto fall is demonstrated also. This de- dition cannot be accounted for upon fectibility is demonstrated from the any other hypothesis, we are comprevalence of vice; and since the mind pelled to refer it to the apostasy of the of man is propense to evil in the same first man. But it is obvious for the proportion as vice is prevalent, there- same reason, that the deterioration is fore man must either have been created referrible alone to the first man, and propense to evil, or he must have that it must have taken place previ. Japsed into his present condition. But ously to the propagation of his species, it is inconsistent with reason to ima- otherwise some of his progeny must gine that man was created propense have escaped the contamination. to evil, since God, his creator, is infi | Whether this demonstration of the nite in holiness and indefectible. And defectibility of the human mind, and since a propensity to evil must of all of the doctrine of the Fall, from prethings be the most inimical to man's | mises entirely unconnected with the present and eternal happiness, it is in Bible, be satisfactory or not, the arguconsistent to imagine that God, who is ment is not preferred as a matter of infinite in wisdom and goodness, choice : for the demonstration upon should create in him that evil propen the Christian scheme is infinitely more sity.
satisfactory in the author's judgment; Since, therefore, man was not cre- neither is it offered to the Christian as ated propense to evil, he must have the best demonstration of the truth; lapsed into his present condition. This but the design of giving it to the pubis a supposition in which there is no lic is, to convince every thinking man inconsistency: for since man was de- of the unreasonableness of modern infectible, he was liable to fall; which | fidelity. proves his condition to have been con
Pudicus, tingent: and if man was not free to June 23, 1821. stand or fall, then the contingency was not in himself, and he would not be responsible for his actions. If he Extract from an Old Sermon. was created propense to evil, then his condition was not contingent, but absolute; and he could not himself be
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL chargeable with the sin which he com
MAGAZINE, mitted. But what a dreadful dilemma Sir,—The following extract is from an would this hypothesis bring us into ? old sermon, entitled “ The Mean in for if sin be not chargeable upon the Mourning,” preached in 1593,“ by creature, it must be chargeable upon that eloquent divine of famous memothe Creator ; which we have seen to be rie, Thomas Playfere, Doctor in Diinconsistent in the nature of things : vinity,” from Luke xxiii. 28.-"Weep wherefore the conclusion is inevitable, not for me, but weep for yourselves." that man's pristine condition was con- The sermon is divided into eight parts, tingent; that is, that he was free to of wbich the following is the commencestand or fall. Therefore, since man ment of the fourth, and will, it is conin his present condition is propense to ceived, be found by some of your Proevil, and is no longer free to do good, testant readers interesting, as being because the propensity to evil gives a relic of the style in which the people that bias to his mind which excites in those times were instructed in the volitions that have a continual ten mysteries of Christ, by their Catholic dency to evil, he must have lapsed into | divines. this condition: which proves that the “ The fourth part followeth; For nature of man must have suffered de- mee, Weep not too much for my death. terioration, that is, that he must have For the death of Christ is the death of fallen from his pristine condition. Death: the death of the Divell: the life
But this deterioration of the nature of himself: the life of Man. The reaof man is not referrible to any one son of all this is his innocence and branch of the family of human kind righteousnesse, which makes first, exclusively, but fixes upon the whole that as the life of Christ is the life of race ; wherefore the deterioration must Life; so the death of Christ is the have taken place in the first man. For death of Death. Put the case how
Extract from an Old Sermon.
you please, this is a most certaine ljetting up and downe in a lyon's skinne, truth, that the gate of life had never did for a time terrifie his master; but bin opened unto us, if Christ, who is afterwards being descried, did benefit the death of Death, had not by his him very much ; semblably death death overcome death. Therefore both stands now like a silly asse, having before his death he threateneth and his lyon's skinne pulled over his eares, challengeth death, saying, O Death, / and is so farre from terrifying any, that I will bee thy death: and also after it benefits all true Christians, because his death, hee derideth and scorneth | by it they rest from their labour, and if death, saying, O Death, thou art but they be oppressed with troubles or a drone, where is now thy sting? Ask cares, when they come to death, they death, any of you, I pray, and say, are discharged; death as an asse doth Death, how hast thou lost thy sting? | bear these burthens for them. How hast thou lost thy strength? What “O blessed, blessed be our Lord, which is the matter that virgins and very hath so disarmed death, that it can not children do now contemn thee, where- | do us any hurt, no more than a bee as kings and even tyrants did before can which hath no sting ; nay rather it feare thee? Death, I warrant, will an- doth us much good, as the brazen serswer you, that the only cause of this pent did the Israelites : which hath so is, the death of Christ. Even as a bee dismasked death that it cannot make stinging a dead body takes no hurt, us afraid, no more than a scar-bug can but stinging a live body many times, which hath no vizard; nay rather, as loozes both sting and life together; in an asse beareth his master's burthens, like manner death, so long as it stung so death easeth and refresheth us. mortal men only, which were dead in Hee that felleth a tree upon which the sin, was never a wit the worse : but sun shineth, may well cut down the when it stung Christ once, who is life tree, but cannot hurt the syn. He itself, by and by it lost both sting and that powreth water upon iron which strength.
is red hot, may well quench the heate, “Therefore as the brazen serpent was but he cannot hurt the iron. And so so far from hurting the Israelites, that Christ the sun of righteousnesse did contrarywise it healed them; after the drive away the shadow of death; and same sort, death is now so far from as glowing iron, was too hot and too hurting any true Israelite, that one the hard a morsell to digest. other side, if affliction, as a fiery ser- “All the while Adam did eat any other pent. sting us, or any thing else hurt | fruit which God gave him leave to eate, us, presently it is helped and redress- he was nourished by it: but when he ed by death. Those which will needs had tasted of the forbidden tree, he play the hobgoblins, or the night perished. Right so death had free walking spirits (as we call them,) all leave to devour any other man, Christ the wile they speak under a hollow only excepted, but when it went about vault, or leap forth with an ugly vizard to destroy Christ, then it was destroyupon their faces, they are so terrible, ed itself. Those barbarous people that he which thinketh himself no small called Cannibals, which feed only upon man, may perhaps be affrighted with raw flesh, especially of men, if they them. But if some lusty fellow chance | happen to eate a piece of roasted meat, to steppe into one of these, and cud commonly they surfit of it, and die. gell him well-favouredly, and pull the Even so the right Cannibal, the only vizard from his face, then every boy devourer of all mankind, death! laughs him to scorne. So is it in this
meane, tasting of Christ's flesh, and matter. Death was a terrible bulbeg- | finding it not to be raw, (such as it ger, and made every man afraid of
was used to eat) but wholsome and him a great while ; but Christ dying, heavenly meate indeede, presently buckled with this bulbegger, and con- tooke a surfit of it, and within three jured him (as I may say out of his days died. For even as when Judus hollow vault, when as the dead com- had received a sop at Christ's hand, ming out of the graves, were seen in anon after his bowels gushed out; in Jerusalem, and puld the vizard from | like sort death being so saucie as to his face, when as he himself rising, left snotch a sop (as it were) of Christ's the linning clothes, which were the flesh, and a little bit of his body, was vizard of death, behind him. There- / by and by, like Judas, choaked an! fore as that asse called Cumanus Asinus, strapgled with it, and faine to yiel