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: OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, & PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.
Monthly Observations, with a Catalogue,
| are not often led to complain of (including the Linnean names) of all
1 really British Plants, as they come
The different changes which tako
place in the air, are caused by alterainto flower, each month throughout
tions in its electric state. When well the year.
charged with the electric fluid, the air
dissolves, and holds much moisture ; JANUARY.
but having received as much as it is The ever varying seasons bring with capable of containing, as some other them new and interesting scenes in body in nature must in the same pronature ; but from not having these ap- portion be reduced below its proper pearances pointed out to us, many of standard, a transfer takes place; and them pass by unnoticed, and many that moisture which was before inviare misunderstood. A calendar of sible, appears in the form of a cloud, nature is intended to supply these defi- which swims at a higher or lower eleciencies, and, by enlarging our mentalvation, according to its gravity, as views, to lead us through nature up to compared with that of the atmosphere nature's God. But these scenes and in which it floats. When high it is a occurrences differ in different regions, cloud, when low it is denominated a and in some instances in those which mist. But a cloud may have sufficient are not very remote from each other ; electricity to suspend it in the air for it is necessary, therefore, to remark, | a long time, though the air is not cathat we confine ourselves to our native I pable of dissolving it; when this quanisland, in which the following obser-tity also is parted with, the aqueous vations, to be eontinued regularly particles, left to obey their own attracthrough the different months of the tions, assume the figure of globular year, have been chiefly drawn from a drops, and fall by their own gravity to careful observation of nature itself. the earth,, carrying with them nearly
January, in all northern latitudes, all that electric fluid which the atmomay be considered as the chief winter sphere received from the earth during month; the weather, which has been the dry weather of summer. of a very fluctuating description before, 1 Hail is nothing more than globules now setting in with rigour. This, how- of frozen rain; but certain circumever, is not always very considerable; stances, not yet well ascertained, are it consists sometimes of snow and necessary to its production. Hail, at frost, and sometimes of hail, or floods least in the western counties, comes of rain. It is well known, that the with winds between N. W. and W., atmosphere always contains a very and sometimes from the S. W. When considerable portion of moisture ; and, the wind has been at north, we have what appears very much of the nature seen a dense cloud rise in the S.W. of a paradox, it is frequently the case with a rapid and violently whirling that there is more in dry weather than motion; and when it has reached the in wet: but the difference of these zenith, and covered half the horizon, states, consists rather in the manner in a violent rushing noise has been heard which the moisture exists, than in its for about a quarter of a minute before quantity. In dry weather it is in a the descent of the hail. Whirling state of solution, like salt in water; in clouds often bring hail; and it most wet weather, in a state of mere mix- generally happens that a brisk squall ture, and consequently visible. Rain attends it, even when the air before usually comes in this country with has been very still. It appears, that winds between S. E. and N.W.; and the fluid drops form at a considerable as these are of very fréquent occur-degree of elevation, and in their des rence, it follows, that in England we scent meet with a counter current of
No. 23.–VOL, III.
cold air, which congeals them before the expansion of water in freezing, they reach the ground.. Hail is some- may be ascribed to two causes; first, times found of very large size; in this to the disengagement of numerous case the globules are formed of many bubbles of air, which were before in smaller ones united together, which a state of solution in the fluid, or at causes them usually to be of very irre- least of intimate union with it ;-but gular figures.
principally to the solid crystals assumFrom what has been said of rain ing an angular arrangement, by which and hail, the nature of snow may be numerous interstices are left in the pretty well understood. It consists of ice, that render it of less specific grafrozen particles of moisture, that were vity than water, and consequently congealed before they had time to cause it to swim on the surface; a form into drops; and consequently circumstance, without which the inone of these two circumstances is habitants of the waters must speedily necessary to its existence; it must perish, for the rivers would soon behave formed near the ground, or if at come a body of ice. Whereas when a considerable height, the air near the a sheet of ice covers the surface, it earth must be at such a low tempera protects what is below from the accesture, that the flakes may not be dis-sion of cold, and consequently mainsolved in their descent: when this is tains its fluidity. Fishes, however, the case it forms sleet. If hail is seen are not exempted from the sufferings when the under current of air is warm, of the season, though in a different it is to be accounted for from the way from land animals. Air is necesswiftness of its fall. In this country, sary to their existence, and water consnow appears of two sorts: large tains but a definite portion of it, which flakes, consisting of particles that be- when deteriorated by having passed fore they were fully congealed have thro' their gills, the ice prevents from caused other particles to adhere to being renewed. Aware of this circumthem, and therefore indicate a less stance, the inhabitants of the northern severe degree of cold; the other is a regions make use of a stratagem to supfine and dusty snow, which is seen ply themselves with fish; they break a chiefly in more northern regions, but hole in the ice, and take with nets of which the heavy snow that covered those of the finny tribe that crowd to all England in Jan. 1814, consisted. the spot as to a place of safety. But
Frost consists of water deprived of if ice is capable of affording proteca large portion of its heat, by which it tion from great extremes of cold, snow becomes crystallized; for it must be does this in a much more effectual observed, that water does not simply manner; for being a very bad conducbecome solid by freezing, but its par tor of heat, vegetables, and sometimes ticles assume a regular form, as dif animals, are clothed by it as with a ferent kinds of salts when deposited garment; and hence it was that plants by water or the fluids in which they which bore without injury the rigours have been dissolved, are found to do, of a Lapland climate, perished in the and from the same cause. It is a winter, when transplanted to the more general law of nature, that bodies in a southern latitude of Stockholm, solely fluid state become more concentrated from being without their usual coveras they grow colder ; but an excep-ing of snow. tion to this, calculated to be of the It may be regarded as an establishutmost service in the economy of ed fact, that the coldness of a country divine providence, occurs in the in- is as the quantity of snow that falls in stance of water, which, when cool- it; for in order to its liquefaction it ing, contracts indeed like other bodies, absorbs so much matter of heat (cabut when it reaches the freezing point, loric) as reduces surrounding bodies or 32°, it expands with irresistible vio- to its own standard, and thus proves lence, and becomes solid. It is, how the cause of long-continued frost. At ever, possible to cool water below 32° | this season, domestic cattle require without its freezing; but when placed the constant attention of the farmer, in circumstances that allow of its and thus are paid the wages of their consolidation, it immediately rises to toil in summer. Wild animals are 22°, a sufficient proof that something driven hard between the extremes of de the abstraction of heat is ne- hunger and fear. Hares enter garY to the formation of ice.
dens and plantations, and devour the
Envy and Candour, a Dialogue.
bark of trees as high as they can is mostly torpid: yet a few make their reach ; but are traced in the snow, and appearance, and gnats are found often fall a prey to those who follow sporting in the sunbeams, when the the healthful exercise of shooting. ground is thickly covered with snow. They seem at this time to be sensible How they live is hard to say, but they of the peculiar danger of leaving the resist the stupifying effects of cold tracks of their footsteps in the snow; more completely than animals of a for when about to enter their form, much larger size are found to do. they are seen to leap about in various How dead the vegetable kingdom directions, in order to confound the lies! yet, having now the full enjoymarks, and at last with one great ment of air and light, this is the chief effort they spring from a distance at time for the vegetation of mosses; and once into their retreat.
even a few of Flora's higher orders The woodcock tribe quits the woods, shew their flowers, as the daisy, black where, in mild weather, they found hellebore, winter aconite, and furze ; both food and safety; and betake but they give pain rather than pleathemselves to the open springs that sure, when viewed in connection with are near the sea coast; where they whistling winds and icy skies. Severe feed both by day and night, and fly frost is found to kill turnips in the chiefly in the morning and evening. field, and thus materially injure the Birds of the Thrush kind feel the property of the farmer. severity of the season, and the Red Towards the end of the month, the wing in a very especial manner. This catkins of the hazel begin to appear in bird, though a native of a northern the hedges; and the buds of gooseberry clime, and of a wild and timid na- bushes, which are beginning to swell, ture, becomes more tame from cold are often devoured by Bullfinches, and hunger, than those of its genus which thus make great havock in which reside with us, and numbers of gardens. These birds are sometimes them perish. The Redbreast and Wren so stuffed with this food, as to appear almost cease their song. The former not to have room for a particle more. visits houses in the country, and is The Groundsel is very generally in considered by the children as a friend flower, and is a favourite food with whom at this severe season they are many birds, at a time when scarcely bound to feed and protect. Birds of any thing beside is to be obtained by the finch tribe find it their interest to them. keep near farm-yards; and the domes- Come into flower this month, comtic Sparrow, particularly, will share in mon Groundsel, Senecio Vulgaristhe housewife's allowance to her poul- Daisy, Bellis perennis-Furz, Ulex try, in defiance of all her vigilance. Of Europæus.--Catkins of the Hazel all large birds the gull tribe seem to appear. soffer the most severe privations; the trembling waves prevent their getting much supply from the sea shore, ENVY AND CANDOUR, -A DIALOGUE and the fry of fish, and water insects, BETWEEN TWO YOUNG LADIES. have sought the shelter of deep water; they are therefore often seen following the plough in numbers, like a Envy.-What do you think of this swarm of bees, where they are of Miss H- - that is come among us? great service to the husbandman by Candour.— I think her a very beautidevouring insects that are thus ex- |ful, elegant, and accomplished young posed to light. In some instances it woman. has been known, that distress has Envy. That I am convinced is predriven them to devour such small cisely her own opinion. birds as they have been able to over Candour.-I am at a loss to know, come.
how you came to be convinced, from Herrings are at this season taken her manner of conversation, that she in vast quantities; but not in such thinks so highly of herself. . numbers in the west, as on the shores Envy.--0, it is quite evident, the of the more eastern counties; those of men have turn'd the girl's head ; they the west are however esteemed as the tell every woman, as you know very larger and better fish, and sell at a well, my dear, that she is elegant, much higher price. The insect tribe beautiful, and accomplished.
On the Alteration in Times. Crnanerererererererererererereremooncroconcerncoronararanevererererere
Candour. It is not then surprising, Envy.-No, not in the least, that I that they should hold the same language know of. I dare say she is a good to Miss H-- whom they must think enough sort of a girl ; but as for beauty, so in the highest degree. Don't you her pretensions to that are very moremember how all the gentlemen were derate indeed. in her praise?
Envy.-Well, for my part, I do not think the men half so good judges of
ON THE ALTERATION IN TIMES. female beauty as the women. Miss H has too great a quantity of There is a cynical principle in human hair considering how small her head is. / nature, which always leads us to com
Candour.-- What fault do you find plain of the days in which we live. with her person.
We generally think, that the moment Envy.-She is too tall.
which is passing over us, is fraught Candour.-She is not above an inch with more evils than any that preceded taller than yourself.
it; and foolishly imagine that the caEuvy.—I do not pretend to say, she lamities which await us in futurity, is a great deal too tall.
cannot surpass in magnitude, those Candour.-Can you pretend to say which we have already experienced. she is too short.
Similar thoughts have been our comEnvy.-She is neither one thing nor panions through the whole course the other; one does not know what to of our remembrance; and it but rarely make of her.
| happens, that we perceive the advanCandour.-That settles the point of tages which we have enjoyed, until her height; let us now proceed to her they have departed from us, and some face. Do you not find something very unexpected disaster has appeared to engaging in her countenance ?
awaken recollection. Envy. - Engaging, do you call it? The case seems to have been much
Candour.–Yes, I call it engaging. the same with our ancestors; and in What do you call it?
proportion to the distance of the peEnvy.-She is apt, indeed, to smile, riod in which they lived, our astonishbut that is to shew her teeth.
ment is excited at the unreasonableCandour.-She would not smile for ness of their complaints. The world that purpose, however, unless she had is in a state of incessant fluctuation; good fine teeth ; and they are certain nor can the most penetrating genius ly the finest I ever saw.
any more anticipate the events and Envy.What signifies teeth? concomitants of life, which are lodg
Candour.--Well, let us come to her ed in futurity, than our ancestors who eyes. What do you think of them? lived three centuries since, were able Envy.—They are not black.
to discern the condition of civilized Candour.-No; but they are the society in the age which we call our sweetest blue in nature.
own. We look back with astonishEnvy.-Blue eyes have been long ment upon the subjects and causes of out of fashion; black are now all the | their complaints: and, making a mode.
comparison between their condition Candour.-Blue ones are coming and our own, smile at their simpliround again ; for those of Miss - city, and envy their situation. Anaare much admired.
logy tells us, that it is not unreasonEnvy.--Her fortune would procure able to suppose, the period will arrive her admirers among men, although she a few centuries hence, when our suchad no eyes at all.
cessors may reflect on our present Candour.--That stroke lights en state, in a similar manner, and wish tirely on the men, and misses the person against whom it was aimed.
“ Like duteous sons, their fathers were more
wise.” Envy.--Aimed! I have no ill-will against Miss —
The abundance or scarcity, as well Candour.-I am glad to hear it. as the cheapness or dearth of every Envy.-Lord, not I, why should I? commodity, is always comparative; Candour.--I am sure I cannot tell. and the good or evil resulting from
Envy.-She never did me any in either, can only be estimated by the j ury.
proportions which articles bear in Candour.-I was afraid she had. their value towards one another. This
On the Alteration in Times.
is the true ground of rational calcula-1 idle, then they assemble in companies, tion; all besides being fallacious and murmur for lack of living, and so
These reflections have been occa- pick one quarrel or other to stir the sioned by the following observations, poor commons, that be as idle as they, which illustrate the ancient manner of to à commotion. And sometimes by thinking in England. They have been occasion of wars, there must needs be taken from a work on Political Eco-some stay of clothes, so as they cannomy, published in 1581, in the reign not have always like sale or vent; at of Elizabeth, and communicated by every which time, if the said clothiers
IPOLPERROC. should take occasion of commotion,
they think it were better that there What 'numbers of trifles come were none of them in the realm at all. hither from beyond sea, that we might (It is to be observed, that the author is either clean spare, or else make them controverting this argumentation.) I within our realm : I mean looking-have read, that in this realm some glasses, drinking-glasses, and glass time there was such a law, as a man for windows, dials, tables, cards, balls, that had trespassed the law of misadpuppets, penners, inkhorns, tooth-venture, might have taken the ploughpicks, gloves, knives, daggers, owches, tail as his sanctuary. brooches, agletts, buttons of silked When I asked a bookseller why we silver, earthen pots, pins, and points, had not white and brown paper made hawk's bells, paper, white and brown, within the realm, as well as they had and a thousand like things.
made beyond the sea ? then he anSome gentlemen seeing, from the swered me, that there was paper made increase of the prices of almost every awhile within the realm ; at the last, thing, that they can no longer stand it, the man perceived that he could (thirty years ago, a pig or goose cost not put forth his paper as good and ing four-pence, that now costs twelve-cheap as it came from beyond the pence, a good capon for three or four sea, and so he was forced to lay down pence, chicken for a penny, a hen for making of paper: and no blame in two-pence, which now cost double the man, for men will give never the and treble the money) either keep a more for his paper because it was made chamber in London, or wait on the here. court uncalled, with a man and a I was once in a Parliament, when lackey after him, where he was wont such a thing was moved, but only for to keep thirty or forty persons daily in caps, that none made beyond sea his house, and to do good in the coun should be sold here within the realm ; try, in keeping good order and rule and then it was answered by a great among his neighbours.
wise man, that it was to be feared lest I think we were in as much dread or it touched the league made between more of our enemies, when our gentle- the Prince's highness and some fomen went simply, and our serving men reign Prince. When there came a plainly, without cuts or gards, bear- certain vessel out of England to Caring their heavy swords and bucklers marthen, in the marches of Wales, all on their thighs, instead of cuts and laden with apples, which aforetime gards and light dancing-swords; and was wont to bring them good corn, when they rode, carrying good spears the town commanded that none should in their hands instead of white rods, buy the said apples upon a great pain, which they carry now, more like ladies and so the boat stood so long in the or gentlewomen than men, all which haven without sale or vent, till the delicacies make our men clean effemi- apples were putrified and lost. And nate, and without strength.
when the owner demanded of the Many a great wise man thinks it bailiff of the town why he had staid bis better that all our wool were sold over sale and vent? the bailiff answered sea unwrought, than any clothiers again, that the said vessel came thither should be set at work withall, within to fetch the best wares they had in the this realm. They take it that all country, as friezes, broad cloths, and insurrections and uproars, for the wool; and instead thereof, he should most part, do rise by occasion of these leave them in their country but apclothiers; for when clothiers lack vent ples, that should be spent and wasted over-sea, there is a great multitude of in less than a week. And said, bring these clothiers idle. And when they be to us corn or malt, as ye were wont to