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"She, for her humble sphere by nature fit,
With little understanding, and no wit,
Just knows, and knows no more, her Bible

the historical pathway till they could lay their hands on the authenticity of the books of the New Testament, by the certainty of the narrative conA truth the brilliant Frenchman never tained in it? If these people have


faith at all they have a reason for And in that charter reads with sparkling their faith. They do see the truth of

the gospel, and the question is, whether they see it immediately in the light of scripture doctrine, or mediately in the light of historical demonstration. When you enter the house of one of your cottage patriarchs and examine the library which lies in a little room upon its shelves, you may there find what that is which has begun and which still manifests his Christianity. Let me speak at least with confidence of the state of matters in our own land. Such books often met with even in the lowest hovels of our peasantry, are not books on the external history of the Bible

II. Having now said all that we can afford on the subject of the manifestation spoken of in the text, we now pass on to the SECOND head of the discourse, under which we proposed that we should at least assert, and, as far as we could, establish the assertion that THE EVIDENCE ADDRESSED TO THE CONSCIENCE WAS THE GREAT, IF they are the Bible itself, and books on the internal substance and contents of the Bible; they are the Flavels and the Guthries and the Richard Baxters of the patriarchal age which are his favourites-men who say little or nothing on the ar

CHRISTENDOM. Here we think it must
be quite palpable that it is at least to
some such evidence we owe the great
bulk of our home Christianity. We
on this subject make a confident ap-gumentative evidence of Scripture,

peal to the ministers of the gospel
who are now present, and bid them
tell what that is which originates
and which fashions the Christianity
of their own people. Was it a series
of lectures on the Deistical contro-
versy ?
Was it the arguments of
Paley, or of Leslie, or of Butler, that
germinated their faith? Was it the
doctrine in the book, or the history of
the book that was the instrument of
their conversion? That they might
see the truth of the gospel had you to
plant an historical ladder, ascending
from the present age to that of the
apostles, or by the light of criticism
and erudition? Had you to guide
them by a series of indices along

but who unfold the subject-matter, and
who urge, and urge most impressively,
on the consciousness of the readers of
the lessons of Scripture. In a word,
it is by a perpetual interchange be-
tween their consciences and the Bible
that their Christianity is upholden by
a light struck out between the sayings
of the one and the findings of the
other. It is not a light which is out
of this book, but a light which is
within the book that commences and
sustains the Christianity of our land,
the Christianity of our ploughmen,
our artisans, our men of handicraft
and hard labour. Yet not the Chris-
tianity either of deceitful imagi-
nation or of implicit deference to


Her title to a treasure in the skies.
O, happy peasant! O, unhappy bard!
His the mere tinsel-hers the sure reward!
He praised, perhaps, for ages yet to come;
She never heard of half a mile from home!
He, lost in errors, his vain heart prefers;
She, safe in the simplicity of hers."

We now begin to feel ourselves on firm vantage ground for the maintenance of our cause, and on which the reasonableness, I would say, the philosophy, of missions might be vindicated. It is an axiom in philosophy that we should look for the like effect from like causes, and like manufacture from like materials. In the work of conversion, the materials on which we operate are the same, whether at home or in India-the identical human nature that is characteristic,-I say the identical human nature that is characteristic, not of tribes, or nations, but is characteristic of the species. The instrument by which we operate is the same, the identical doctrine of the Bible, the identical message from heaven, to all the people that be upon the earth. The power which gives the instrument its efficacy is the same, even that spirit which bloweth where he listeth, and who, with but the Bible to pioneer his way, disowns all the distinctions of savage or civilized life, and all the barriers of geography. In the prosecution of the cause we transfer to other lands the very machinery that is at work in our own

authority, but a Christianity of deep, | parishes. We translate the sacred I will even say of rational belief, volume and circulate it amongst them. thoroughly and profoundly seated on We send schoolmasters who might the principles of our moral nature, teach them to read their vernacular and nobly accredited by the virtues Bible. We send ministers who exof our well conditioned peasantry. pound it. We knock at the door of In the olden time of Presbytery, that heaven's sanctuary that a virtue may time of scripture Christianity in our descend from on high-that GOD pulpits and of psalmody in all our may add the grace of his spirit to the cottages, these men grew and multi- testimony of his word. You cannot plied in our land, and though derided overthrow the efficiency of this proin the heartless literature, and dis- cess but by an argument that will countenanced and disowned in the nullify all the Christianizing process earthly politics of other days, it is of our own land. You cannot pull their remnant which acts as a pre- down our cause without passing senserving salt among our people, and tence of extinction on the religious which constitutes the real strength light of all Christendom. You canand glory of the Scottish nation. not rightfully charge the work of missionaries, with fanaticism and folly, without fastening the brand of these very imputations on the work of ministers within. If no Christianity can be formed there without the power of working present miracles or the power of evincing to the belief of savages, the reality of past miracles, then no Christianity can be formed here throughout the mass or great majority of our own population. But if Christianity can be formed here by the simple power of truth upon the conscience, this is the principle which opens the world to the enterprise of missionaries. Whereever there is a human being there is a conscience, and on this ground alone the message of salvation might circulate around the globe, and be carried with acceptance through all its nations, and tribes, and families. And if it were not so, if there were no such evidence as that for which we are contending, by what practical avenue could the faith of the gospel be made to find an entrance and an establishment amongst the great mass of our population? Take away from us the self evidencing power of the Bible, and you lay an interdict on the

Christianity of workshops, on the Christianity of crowded and industrious establishments, on the Christianity of nearly all our cities and all our parishes. That the hope which is in us may have the property of endurance there must be a reason for the hope, and where, we ask, in the whole field of their habitual contemplation, are the toil-worn children of poverty to find it? Are they to search for the reason among the archives of history? Are they to gather it out of the mouldering erudition of other days?-Are they to fetch it up from the profound and puzzling obscurity of argumentation? -Are they to encounter the toil of scholarship, and ere the light of revelation can guide or gladden them, think you that they must learn to number, and to balance, and to confront the testimony of former generations?


Refuse the evidence that we have been insisting on, and in doing so you pass oblivion on nearly all the Christianity that is in our own land. It may still continue to be talked of in the cloistered retirements of literary debate and speculation, but the mighty host of our people could take no more rational interest in its questions than they would in any controversy of the schools; and if the authority of this volume be not legibly stamped upon all its own pages, if all the evidence by which we can affirm it to be most thoroughly and visibly impregnated, be a delusion, if all the varied points of accordancy between the book of revelation and the book of human experience be not sufficient to attest the divinity that formed it, or if this attestation be far beyond the understanding of an ordinary peasant, then must Christianity be ever shut up from a vast majority of our species, nor

do we see one possible way of causing it to circulate at large among the families of our land.

On this subject, therefore, we again with confidence appeal to the experience of any Christian minister within the limits of his own parish, did he ever witness the conversion of one of his own people, and more especially in the humble classes of society, and where then, we ask, was the instrument or cause in that conversion. Did it lie, we ask, in any thing external to the subject matter of the Gospel, or did it lie within the subject matter of the Gospel itself. Did the light lie in that history which the documents of antiquity enabled him to give of the book, or did it lie in that doctrine and information which stands engraven upon its pages? Did it lie in the exhibition he made of the proof of the communication, or did it lie in the exhibition he made of the substance of the communication? Let him tell us the argument of that awakening Sermon under which he remembers some secure hold of infidelity to have been stormed? was it in combatting the hostility of nature's blindness? was it in the act of combatting the hostility of literature, when in all pride of erudition he demonstrated the faithful conveyance of the Scriptures of truth from the first ages of Christianity; or was it in the act of combatting the hostility of nature's blindness and nature's opposition, when he opened the Scriptures and made the truth itself manifest to the consciences of men? This last, we imagine to be the only way of converting the human soul. It is not done by descending into the depth of the earth, and there fighting the battle of the truth against the dark and visionary spectres of theology; it is not done by ascending up into the heavens,

regions some sublime illustration. It is done by bringing the word nigh unto them, by entering with it into the warm, and well known chambers of their own consciences, by making them feel the full force of its adjustment to all their wants and experiences, by telling them of that sin, under a conviction of which, nature tries to forget GOD, or would flee affrighted from his presence, and of that Saviour, who alone can hush the alarms of nature's philosophy.

and fetching from those wondrous and the attributes, and the love of GOD. The Greenlanders did not comprehend them, and the missionaries were mortified to find that after years of labour they had not gained a single proselyte to the faith. On this they resolved to change their measures, and, as a last desperate experiment, they gave up all preparatory instruction, and made one great and decisive step onward in the peculiar doctrines, and these too couched in the peculiar phraseology of the Gospel. When simply told in Scriptural words, of sin, and of the Saviour, the effect was instantaneous; there was something in the hearts of these unlettered men which responded to the truths and tidings of the New Testament. The demonstration of natural religion fell fruitless and unintelligible on their ears; but they felt the burden of sin, and of death, and listened attentively to the preacher's voice when it told, that "unto them a Saviour was born." They live on the very outskirts of population, and beyond them there is nothing seen but a wilderness of snow, and nothing heard but the angry howling of the elements.

But I must here restrict myself Who will say that the enterprise to a few gleanings from a now mul- is chimerical now that a Christian tifareous and daily accumulating his- people is formed in a country so untory, and such as may best illustrate promising--that the limits of the the rationale of the missionary enter-Christian church have been pushed prise. When the first missionaries forward to the limits of human exwent to Greenland we may be as-istence, and the tidings of goodwill sured that they had the ignorance to men have been carried with acof a rude and unpromising popula- ceptance to the very last and uttertion to contend with. They thought most of the species. The discovery they would go systematically to work, there made by the Moravians was and before presenting them with the converted by them into a principle Christian message in the terms of which they carried round the globe; the message, that they would give and which ever since has been the them some preparatory ideas as in fertile source of their marvellous natural religion. For this purpose success in the work of evangelizing they expatiated in formal demonstra- the heathen. They now learned that tion on the existence, and the unity, it was impossible to antedate the

These are the lessons which could do to those, my hearers, what they did in the days of the Apostles. They can make the unbelievers, and the unlearned, feel themselves to "be judged of all and convinced of all, and thus can manifest the secrets of their hearts, so that they shall acknowledge GOD to be in them of a truth."

III. We would now come to the THIRD and last head of our discourse, in which, as briefly as possible, we would consider THE LIKELIHOOD OF SUCCESS IN THE MISSIONARY ENTERPRISE, AND MORE ESPECIALLY THE ACTUAL, AND HISTORICAL SUCCESS, WHICH ALREADY HAS ATTENDED IT.


message of the Gospel in any manner, | Their services are every where and they availed themselves of this sought after. It is a most substantial experience in Greenland in all their testimony in their favour that the subsequent operations among the West India planters have found the Exquimaux of Labrador, among the best results from their preaching and Indians of North America, and among discipline in the good order and fidethe negroes of the Danish and Bar- lity of their slaves. When their badoes Islands, and lastly, among accounts were made up at the end the Hottentots of South Africa. As of 1827, they had under Christian the effect of this peculiar, yet pow-instruction, no less than 35,629 neerful moral regimen, villages have arisen in the wilderness, and we now behold men of, before, untamed and savage nature, as if by the touch of a miracle, completely become radically transformed, living in gentleness together, and tutored in the arts and decencies of a civilized people. Many there are who nauseate the peculiar evangelism which lies at the root of this great, moral, and spiritual change, yet are forced to admire the beauteous efflorescence which proceeds from it, just as there are many who can eye with delight the graces of a cultivated landscape, yet have no taste for the operations of husbandry which called it into being. Certain it is that Moravians have become the objects of a popular and sentimental admiration among men who would not tolerate the methodistical flavor, as they may term it, of a Moravian report, a thing just as possible as that they might feel a most exquisite relish for their music along with a thorough distaste for their hymns. The fruit and the flower are both pleasing to the eye of many to whom the culture is offensive; and who could not look upon


This seems to be the best place for the adjustment of the question, whether the first attempt should be to | christianize or to civilize, or which it is of these that takes the precedency of the other. The Moravians themselves have innocently given rise to a delusion upon this subject. The result in these converts has now become so striking and so palpablethey have at length succeeded in raising so beauteous a spectacle as that of christians and well ordered villages, which were before the fruitful haunts of prowling and plundering barbarians - there is something so inexpressibly pleasing in the chapel service, and the well attended school, and the picturesque garden, and the snug habitations and prosperous husbandry of reclaimed Hottentots, that Moravians are now cried up by sentimental travellers and eloquent writers as an example, nay, as a reproach to all other missionaries; and they have supposed, perhaps naturally enough, that what was first in exhibition was also first in time ;— that the christianity in short was a graft upon civilization, and not the civili

it without the revolt of nature's en-zation a graft upon christianity. There

were none more hurt and scandalized by these eulogies than the Moravians themselves, and they have actually penned a vindication of their method, not against the sneer of malignant enemies, but against the praises of mistaken admirers. The whole his

mity to the truth as it is, in Jesus, and, therefore, it is that they look only to the one, and continue to overlook the other. And accordingly Moravians have, of late, become the objects of very general request, as well as of very general admiration.

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