Smarandache Geometries & Map Theories with Applications (I) [English and Chinese]

Infinite Study, 2007

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Smarandache Geometries as generalizations of Finsler, Riemannian, Weyl, and Kahler Geometries.

A Smarandache geometry (SG) is a geometry which has at least one smarandachely denied axiom (1969).

An axiom is said smarandachely denied (S-denied) if in the same space the axiom behaves differently (i.e., validated and invalided; or only invalidated but in at least two distinct ways).

Thus, as a particular case, Euclidean, Lobachevsky-Bolyai-Gauss, and Riemannian geometries may be united altogether, in the same space, by some SGs. These last geometries can be partially Euclidean and partially non-Euclidean.

The novelty of the SG is the fact that they introduce for the first time the degree of negation in geometry, similarly to the degree of falsehood in fuzzy or neutrosophic logic. For example an axiom can be denied in percentage of 30
Also SG are defined on multispaces, i.e. unions of Euclidean and non-Euclidean subspaces, or unions of distinct non-Euclidean spaces.

As an example of S-denying, a proposition img src="file:///C:\Users\FLOREN~1\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image002.gif" alt="http://planetmath.org/js/jsmath/fonts/cmmi10/alpha/144/char1E.png" height="19" border="0" width="12", which is the conjunction of a set img src="file:///C:\Users\FLOREN~1\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image002.gif" alt="http://planetmath.org/js/jsmath/fonts/cmmi10/alpha/144/char1E.png" height="19" border="0" width="12"i of propositions, can be invalidated in many ways if it is minimally unsatisfiable, that is, such that the conjunction of any proper subset of the img src="file:///C:\Users\FLOREN~1\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image002.gif" alt="http://planetmath.org/js/jsmath/fonts/cmmi10/alpha/144/char1E.png" height="19" border="0" width="12"i is satisfied in a structure, but img src="file:///C:\Users\FLOREN~1\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image002.gif" alt="http://planetmath.org/js/jsmath/fonts/cmmi10/alpha/144/char1E.png" height="19" border="0" width="12"itself is not.

Here it is an example of what it means for an axiom to be invalidated in multiple ways [2] : As a particular axiom let's take Euclid's Fifth Postulate. In Euclidean or parabolic geometry a line has one parallel only through a given point. In Lobacevskian or hyperbolic geometry a line has at least two parallels through a given point. In Riemannian or elliptic geometry a line has no parallel through a given point. Whereas in Smarandache geometries there are lines which have no parallels through a given point and other lines which have one or more parallels through a given point (the fifth postulate is invalidated in many ways).

Therefore, the Euclid's Fifth Postulate (which asserts that there is only one parallel passing through an exterior point to a given line) can be invalidated in many ways, i.e. Smarandachely denied, as follows:

- first invalidation: there is no parallel passing through an exterior point to a given line;

- second invalidation: there is a finite number of parallels passing through an exterior point to a given line;

- third invalidation: there are infinitely many parallels passing through an exterior point to a given line.

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