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Duke. O, she, that hath a heart of that fine frame, To pay this debt of love but to a brother, How will she love, when the rich golden shaft Hath kill'd the flock? of all affections else That live in her! when liver, brain, and heart, These sovereign thrones, are all supplied, and fill'd (Her sweet perfections) with one self 9 king!Away before me to sweet beds of flowers; Love-thoughts lie rich, when canopied with bowers.
SCENE II. The Sea Coast.
Enter Viola, Captain, and Sailors.
sailors ? Cap. It is perchance that you yourself were saved. Vio. O my poor brother! and so, perchance, may
he be. Cap. True, madam: and, to comfort you with
chance, Assure yourself, after our ship did split, When you, and that poor number saved with you, Hung on our driving boat, I saw your brother, Most provident in peril, bind himself (Courage and hope both teaching him the practice) To a strong mast, that lived upon the sea. Where, like Arion on the dolphin's back, I saw him hold acquaintance with the waves, So long as I could see.
7 So, in Sidney's Arcadia- 'the flock of unspeakable virtues.'
8 The liver, brain, and heart were then considered the seats of passion, judgment, and sentiments. These are what Shakspeare calls her sweet perfections, though he has not very clearly ex. pressed it.
9 Self king signifies selfsame king, i. e. one and the same king. 1 i. e. 'I wish I might not be made public to the world, with regard to the state of my birth and fortune, till I have gained a ripe opportunity for my design.' Johnson remarks that Viola seems to have formed a deep design with very little premeditation.' In the novel upon which the play is founded, the Duke being driven upon the isle of Cyprus, by a tempest, Silla, the daughter of the governor, falls in love with him, and on his departure goes in pursuit of him. All this Shakspeare knew, and probably in. tended to tell in some future scene, but afterwards forgot it. Viola, in Act. ii. Sc. 4. plainly alludes to her having been secretly, in love with the Duke, but it would have been inconsistent with her delicacy to have made an opeu confession of it to the Captain.
For saying so, there's gold: Mine own escape unfoldeth to my hope, Whereto thy speech serves for authority, The like of him. Know'st thou this country?
Cap. Ay, madam, well; for I was bred and born Not three hours travel from this very place.
Vio. Who governs here?
A noble duke, in nature,
And so is now,
O, that I serv'd that lady:
That were hard to compass; Because she will admit no kind of suit, No, not the duke's.
Vio. There is a fair behaviour in thee, captain; And though that nature with a beauteous wall Doth oft close in pollution, yet of thee I will believe, thou hast a mind that suits With this thy fair and outward character. I pray thee, and I'll pay thee bounteously, Conceal me what I am; and be my aid For such disguise as, haply, shall become The form of my intent. I'll serve this duke; Thou shalt present me as an eunuch to him?, It may be worth thy pains; for I can sing, And speak to him in many sorts of music, That will allow 3 me very worth his service. What else may hap, to time I will commit; Only shape thou thy silence to my wit.
Cap. Be you his eunuch, and your mute I'll be: When my tongue blabs, then let mine eyes not see! Vio. I thank thee: Lead me on. [Ereunt.
A Room in Olivia's House.
Enter Sir Toby Bench and MARIA. Sir To. What a plague means my niece, to take the death of her brother thus? I am sure, care's an enemy to life.
Mar. By my troth, Sir Toby, you must come in earlier o'nights; your cousin, my lady, takes great exceptions to your ill hours.
Sir To. Why, let her except before excepted 1 Mar. Ay, but you must confine yourself within the modest limits of order.
2 This plan of Viola's was not pursued, as it would have been inconsistent with the plot of the play. She was presented as a page not as an eunuch.
Sir To. Confine? I'll confine myself no finer than I am: these clothes are good enough to drink in, and so be these boots too; an they be not, let them hang themselves in their own straps.
Mar. That quaffing and drinking will undo you: I heard my lady talk of it yesterday; and of a foolish knight, that you brought in one night here, to be her wooer. Sir To. Who? Sir Andrew Ague-cheek? Mar. Ay, he. Sir To. He's as tall 2 a man as any's in Illyria. Mar. What's that to the purpose ? Sir To. Why, he has three thousand ducats a year. Mar. Ay, but he'll have but a year in all these ducats; he's a very fool and a prodigal.
Sir To. Fye, that you'll say so! he plays o' the viol-de-gambo, and speaks three or four languages word for word without book, and hath all the good gifts of nature. Mar. He hath, indeed, -almost natural: for, besides that he's a fool, he's a great quarreller; and, but that he hath the gift of a coward to allay the gust he hath in quarrelling, 'tis thought among the prudent, he would quickly have the gift of a grave. Sir To. By this hand they are scoundrels, and substractors, that say so of him. Who are they?
Mar. They that add moreover, he's drunk nightly in your company.
Sir To. With drinking healths to my niece; I'll drink to her, as long as there is a passage in my throat, and drink in Illyria : He's a coward, and a coystril 3, that will not drink to my niece, till his
2 That is as valiant a man, as tall a man, is used here by Sir Toby with more than the usual licence of the word; he was pleased with the equivoque, and banters upon the diminutive stature of poor Sir Andrew, and his utter want of courage.
3 A coystril is a low, mean, or worthless fellow. Holinshed classes coisterels with lacqueys and women, the unwarlike attendants on an army, vol. iii. p. 272. In another passage, speaking of the origin of esquires, he says: “They were at the first costerels, or bearers of the arms of barons and knights, and thereby being instructed in martial knowledgc, had that name (i. e. esquire],
brains turn o' the toe like a parish-top 4. What, wench? Castiliano volto 5; for here comes Sir Andrew Ague-face.
Enter SiR ANDREW AGUE-CHEEK. Sir And. Sir Toby Belch! how now, Sir Toby Belch. Sir To. Sweet Sir Andrew! Sir And. Bless you, fair shrew.
for a dignitie given to distinguish them from common soldiers.' Vol, i. p. 162. The etymology of the word has been variously and erroneously stated. It is evidently from the Low Latin Coetrellus. Cotæ seu tugurii habitator, a peasant: from whence the French Costerauls, or Coteraux; an'association or combination of peasants; or, as Cotgrave says, 'a certain crew of peasantly outlaws, who in old time did much mischief unto the nobility and clergy.' It was also given as a nick-name to the emissaries employed by the Kings of England in their French wars. Nicholas Gilles, in his Chronicle, speaking of our Richard I. says: 'En ce mesmes temps Richard Roy d'Angleterre feit eslever et mettre sur une armée des gens, qu'on appelle Costerauls, dont estoit chef et conducteur de par luy un nommé Mercadier. Ces Costerauls estoient gens de pied, qut servirent les roys d'Anglcterre es guerres qu'ils menerent en France.'-And in another place :— Le dit Richard I. reprint la ville de Tours, et la pluspart des habitans feit par Costerauls et Satellites mettre à occision.' These Costerels were, I presume, “a rout of Brabanters,' under Mercadier, of whom Holinshed observes that they did the French much hurt by robbing and spoiling the country'
We thus see why it was used as a term of contempt. I find in one or two Dictionaries of the last century Coistrel interpreled 'a young lad.' I know not how to account for this ; unless it is because Kastril is the name of a boy in the Alchemist. The term Kestrel, for an inferior and cowardly kind of hawk, was evidently, a corruption of the French Quercelle or Quercerelle, and had originally po connexion with Coystril, though in later times they may have been confounded. The origin of the word Coterie has been traced to the same source, yet how distinct is a rude rabblement from a Coterie.
4 A large top was formerly kept in every village, to be whipped in frosty weather, that the peasants might be kept warm by exercise, and out of mischief when they could not work. "To sleep like a Town-top' is a proverbial expression.
5 The old copy reads Castiliano vulgo. Warburton proposed reading Castiliano volto. In English, put on your Castilian countenance, i. e. 'grave serious looks.' have no doubt that Warburton was right, for that reading is required by the context, and Castiliano vulgo has no meaning: But I' have met with a passage in Hall's Satires, B. iv. S. 2, which I think places it beyond a doubt :
- he can kiss his hand in gree,