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the rivers Madera and Para present great obstacles to uninterrupted navigation. There are twenty-two very dangerous "cachuelas," or rapids. The experienced native pilots will conduct the traveller safely through, in very large canoes or embarcaciones; but hitherto all those bound up the river have had to be tracked a great distance overland. It is said that the most powerful American steamers could surmount these difficulties: but, at any rate, it could be only after a number of years' intercourse, the investment of large capital, and a certainty of commercial profits, that such appliances could be employed.
In conclusion I would beg to remark, that to arrive either at * Peru or Bolivia, a water distance of some 2000 to 2500 miles at least would have to be traversed through an inhospitable country, and through a hot and pestilential climate. Unlike the Mississippi, where a change in the seasons purifies the atmosphere and invigorates the human frame, winter and summer are only varied by more or less rain in one or other of the intertropical zones. The air is almost darkened by insects, whose attacks render life nearly insupportable. The waters, even close up to Chimore, swarm with large alligators; and the banks of the rivers are overrun by savage Indians, who seek every opportunity of injuring a stranger or a white man, whom they fear so much that the almost trackless paths known to them in the forest are rigidly kept secret.
In my journey to the interior, from Coehabamba, I took with me a young Englishman, a naturalist born in Moxos, two servants of the country, the chief arriero (a trader with the Indians and Chimore), and two muleteers. When I departed from Coehabamba I left the naturalist and the arriero dying of complicated tertiana; one of the servants, an Argentine negro, and the two arrieros, were laid up helpless with the same fever, and the remaining two were afterwards attacked.
Note 1.—Mr. Lloyd forwarded with his Memoir a sketch of the route he had followed, made on the principle of a military reconnaissance, the distances of objects being estimated by the eye, and the angular direction determined by a compass. Such reconnaissances have lately been undertaken by officers of the United States Engineers in various parts of America, and are without doubt most valuable illustrations of the narrative or journal of the explorer.—Ed.
Note 2.—In the fifth volume of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, at pages 70 and 90, will be found some further accounts of the upper affluents of the Madera, &c, with a map, to illustrate papers by Mr. Pentland and Sir Woodbine Parish. See also Lieutenants Herndon and Gibbon's late works.—Ed.
Note 3.—Information has since arrived of the death, by cholera, of this enterprising traveller, who had joined the expedition to the Crimea, previous to his proceeding to the Caucasus.—Ed.
XIV.—Notice of a Caravan Journey from the East to the West Coast of Africa.
Communicated by Vice-Consul Brand, F.r.g.s., through the Foreign Office. With Remarks by Mr. W. D. Cooley.
Read January 24, 1853.
On the 3rd of April three Moors (Mohamedan Arabs) arrived at Benguela, accompanied by a caravan of forty carriers, who were conducting ivory and slaves to exchange for merchandise. These bold travellers, who have come from the coast of Zanzibar, crossed the African continent from E. to W., and state that having got into the interior and bartered away in succession all the goods which they had provided, having exchanged them for the above articles, they then found it difficult to retrace their steps from the want of articles to trade with, and resolved on proceeding on their journey in the hopes of meeting with such articles as they had been told they would find farther inland in exchange for ivory. In the Catanga country they came in sight of the Major of Bihe, who was journeying to Benguela with his followers, and who, having persuaded them to accompany him, arrived here as above stated. Anxious to procure information respecting this interesting journey, I had an interview with the said Moors, and learned what follows:—
One of them, named Abdel, who had as a pilot frequented the coasts of India, being a native of Surat, and his parents of Muscat, said that entering into partnership with another Moor called Nassolo, they agreed to go to the island of Zanzibar, where the latter had a relative; they did so, and the three in company resolved on trading to the continent. For this purpose they went to Bocamoio, a native town on the mainland, opposite to Zanzibar, where white men are met with who can write, and who go there to trade. Tbey there obtained carriers to take their goods, exchanging them in succession for ivory and slaves, till they arrived here, which they, did only six months after their departure from the eastern coast, having during this period suffered some privations, and the loss of only three persons who died.
The places which they describe as having visited are the following :—From Bocamoio they went to the Giramo lands; then from Cuto they proceeded to Segora, where they traversed high mountains as far as Gogo. From this point to Mimbo they travelled fifteen days without meeting any habitations, and being in want of water, they afterwards went on to Garganta, and there took a guide, who conducted them to Muga, where the country abounds in cattle. They afterwards came to Nugigi, and here they were stopped by Lake Tanganna, and were forced to construct a boat, in which they crossed the lake: this voyage took them a day and a night. They went on shore at Mauguro, the inhabitants of which place are in the habit of pulling out their teeth. From this they proceeded to Casembe, where one of the Moors, a native of Muscat, by name Said Gerad, remained with two mulattoes to guard the ivory, which they left at this place, while the rest of the party went on to Catanga, where they had the good luck to meet with Major Coimbra's men, with whom they came to Cahava by the Macacoma road, along the course of the Leambege, which appears to be the Cambecis, which runs down to Quillemane. They passed through the towns of Cabita and Bunda, remarking that through the latter flows the river Lunguebundo, a tributary of the Leambege. From this place they proceeded to Luanza, Bihe, and Benguela, and they intend soon to return to their native land, following the same route.
In this city they lodged and traded with Senr. Jose Luiz da Silva Dianna, who treated them with the greatest kindness, and his example was followed by all the inhabitants, so that if it were not for the great difficulty of the journey, perhaps they might be induced to repeat it, together with some other speculators.
Bernardino Freire F. A. De Castro. Benguela, \Zth April, 1852.
Note.—The arrival of the Arab traders at Benguela from Zanzibar was officially communicated by the governor of Benguela to his chief, the governor-general of the Portuguese province of Angola. The enlightened interest which those officers expressed appears worthy of the best days of Portuguese discovery; and the governor of Benguela was instructed to offer an official appointment, and to use every means in his power to induce Europeans to return overland to Zanzibar with the Arabs.—Ed.
Remarks by Mr. Cooley.
An event, entitled to form an epoch in the history of geographical discovery, was announced in April (1852) in the Official Bulletin of Luanda, the capital of the Portuguese colony of Angola, namely, the arrival in Benguela of a caravan from Zanzibar, at the opposite side of the continent. Native emissaries have crossed more than once from the interior of Angola, on the one side, to the interior of the government of Mosambique on the other. But in this case the chiefs of the expedition (three in number) appear to have been Arabs or Sawahili. one was a native of Surat, of Arab parentage, and a pilot by profession. Having met together in Zanzibar, and agreed to try their fortune on the mainland, they crossed over to
Bocamoio, where they hired carriers and completed their equipment.
In a tracing of that portion of the African coast, communicated to me by the late Mr. Root. Newman Hunt, I find two villages named Bogamoio; one in lat. 5° 55' S., about 20 miles N. of the Ruvu (more commonly called on the coast the Kingani—t. e. Bar-river); the other at the mouth of that river, on its right or southern bank, in lat. 6° 16'.
Leaving the coast, they went through the countries of the Giramo, Cuto, and Sagara, or, as they are written in my map, Zeramu, Ncutu, and Wasagara. The Zeramu occupy both banks of the Ruvu, in the lower part of its course, and are reputed a savage people. They probably include the Wadda, who are said to be cannibals. The Wancutu possess the hills between the rivers Ruvu and Lufiji. The country of the Wasagara is annually inundated by several rivers, of which the Lufiji is the chief. In this country is the town of Mar<5ra (i.e. trade),at which seem to converge all the roads to the interior. The road to Oha, in Monomoezi, continues hence along the left or northern bank of the river; but our travellers crossed to the southern side, and the next place named by them is
Gogo; the Gungo of my map, and the Gugu of Lieut. Hardy, who states that it is 45 days up the Lufiji. Immediately beyond Gungo the road led for 15days through an uninhabited country. This desert tract evidently forms the ascent to the tableland of Monomoezi, and corresponds to the rugged and uninhabited tract between Usanga and Unangwera (the frontier town of Monomoezi) on the other side of the river. On the S. side a transverse mountain-range runs parallel to the general course of the river, and is said to abound in salt and iron. The desert being crossed, the travellers reached
Mimbo, the Ufmbu of my map, which has probably the true reading of the name. Scarcity of water was experienced on the way from Ufmbu to
Garganta. This name does not appear to me to be genuine; perhaps it ought to be Caganda.
Muga, the next place mentioned, abounds in cattle. After this comes
Nugigi. This name is evidently the Uyiyi of my map ; but it ought probably to be written Ujiji (the liquid j of the Sawahili), in which case it would be pronounced Uyiyi or Unjiji. This is the capital of one of the independent kingdoms of Monomoezi, and which probably comprehends Ufmbu. In Ujiji the travellers built a boat, in which they crossed Lake Tanganna (Tangana) in a day and night. The natural day's voyage may be assumed to be 30 miles. The Arabs probably sailed: the natives, paddling in a canoe, and sleeping at night on a stone (as Nasib expressed it), that is, on a rocky islet, take 3 days to cross the lake. The appellation here given to the lake or nyassa, is doubtless descriptive of the active traffic carried on between its opposite shores. The verb cu-tangina is the reciprocal (and, perhaps, also a frequentative) form of cu-tanga, to reckon or pay in cloth or money, which seems to have given a name, as I have elsewhere observed (' Inner Afr.' pp. 36 and 62), to the Moviza country, or principal channel of trade. The travellers found on the western shores of the lake the Mangiiro, who extract their upper front teeth and file the rest to points. These people were formerly among the intruders into the Moviza territory (' Inner Afr.' p. 144), whither they had come probably from the country S. of I£o, being allied in race with the Makiia, whom they resemble in the custom of filing the teeth.
From the country of the Mangiiro, on the western shore of the lake, the travellers proceeded to the Casembe (Cazembe), at whose town three of the party remained to collect ivory, while the rest continued their journey to the western coast. They first went to
Catanga, and thence to
Cahava, where, they inform us, is the road to the Macacoma (Macacoma, the Musocuma of my map), in whose country is the rive'- Luambezi or Cambecis (9amb. or Zambe'ze). The names Tanga, Catanga, and Tangana, all occur in the accounts of the Portuguese expeditions given in the 'Annaes Marftimos,' but without any clue to the position of the countries or places so entitled. I believe Tanga to be the country of the Movfza, which is now N. of the New Zambe'ze, as will be explained lower down; Catanga to be the particular or individual form of the same name, and to mean the town or chiefs residence; Tangana, the reciprocal form, is applied, as we have seen, to a portion of the lake. Cahava is probably the same frontier town which in Lacerda's time was ruled by Chipaco, and which accordingly bears in my map the latter name.
Of Cabita, the next place occurring in the route, we know nothing.
Bunda, however, which follows, is plainly indicated in the accounts of the route from Benguela to Loval (Lobale) (' Inner Afr.' p. 21). The Bamaponda of Livingston's map are evidently the people of this district. Here, according to our travellers, is the great river Langebongo, which flows into the Luambegi. It is to be feared, however, that they confounded the large rivers flowing from Bunda in opposite directions, viz., the Lulua arid the Seshe'ke. The Bachuana say that the Langebongo flows to the N.N.W.; and their testimony in such a matter is obviously preponderant. (See 'Inner Afr.' p. 138.) By the Langebongo they mean the Lulua, traced down the Luena from Bunda, through the territory of Quiboque; but the Langebongo of our travellers, flowing into the Luambegi, appears to be the Sesheke itself, the course of which is to the S.S.E. In Bunda the travellers met with a commercial agent of the Portuguese, whom they accompanied to
Bihe\ a state under Portuguese control; and thence to
St. Felipe de Benguela, where they arrived in the beginning of April. The whole journey across is said to have been completed in 6 months.
This narrative affords a very striking confirmation of my map. With respect to the bearing and latitude of Monomoezi, and of the details of the interior generally, I had but little guidance; and yet it appears that the route of rapid travellers from Zanzibar to Marora, and thence by Gungo, Ui'mbu, and Ujiji, to the Cazembe, when traced on my map, forms nearly a straight line, whence it may be inferred that the map is tolerably correct. The Cazembe's town (Lucenda) being but 7 good marches (90 or 100 miles) from Moiro Achinto (10° 20' 35" S.), where Lacerda observed, both for longitude and latitude, cannot be far wrong. This route entered Monomoezi (at Uimbu), in about lat. 8° S. Uranga, also in Monomoezi, and further S., probably extends to the 10th parallel.
The tribes on the western side of the lake are represented on the map as they stood at the time of Lacerda's expedition (1798-9); but from Major Gamitto, who accompanied the expedition of 1831, we learn that previous to that date the Auemba had dispossessed the Movi'za (' Inner Afr.' p. 144); and now the narrative before us seems to prove that the migration of the Auemba was followed, as might be expected, by a general movement of the tribes. The Musocuma went southwards into the country abandoned by their neighbours, as far, perhaps, as the banks of the New Zambe'ze. The Movfza probably sought refuge N. of that river, in the dominions of their ally the Cazembe,* while the Manguro, intruders from the S.E. into the Movi'za country, were driven furthest northward in the general circulation, and took the place of the Musocuma on the shores of the lake. The names Tanga and Catanga, I suppose to have moved with the Moviza to the northern side of the New Zambeze. It seems certain that our travellers went southwards from the Cazembe to Catanga and Cahriva. Had they gone westwards, they must have passed through Lobale. Besides, it was from Cahava that the road went to the Musocuma on the Luambegi (Zambeze). This circuit in their route may be ascribed to the extensive marshes S.W. of Lucenda. (' Inner Afr.'
It would appear that the migrations and circular movement of tribes just
described have opened the direct communication between the Cazembe's domi
* This conjecture is now confirmed by Gamitto's narrative of the Portuguese expedition.