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nions and the shores of the lake. In Lacerda's time the Cazembe was completely cut off from the lake, and his commerce with the eastern coast made a great circuit southwards; but his former enemies on that side have now given place to subjects or allies. (See 4 Inner Afr.' pp. 41, 143.) The Aueinba thought to possess themselves of the trade by seizing its ordinary channels; but it is possible that they caught at a shadow, and that the people whom they dispossessed, flying to the N., took their industry with them. Intelligence of this revolution had probably reached the eastern coast, or at least Mardra, and decided the route of our travellers. Perhaps the novelty of their course in a direct line to the Cazembe, may be inferred also from the circumstance that they had to build themselves a boat to cross the lake.

Nothing can be more explicit and unequivocal than the account received by Lacerda from the Musocuma and others respecting the course of the New Zambeze. He was assured that this river flows into the Murisuro, near which stands the Cazembe's town. And, again, the lagoon crossed by Manoel Caetano Pereira (' Inner Afr.' p. 30) was said to be connected on the one side with the Mew Zambeze, and on the other with the Luapula. Many considerations might be urged in favour of this view; but after all, it is at least possible that Lacerda's information was erroneous; and that the New Zambeze, the Luambegi of the Musocuma, and perhaps of the Balobale also (' Inner Afr.' p. 20), is the Liambae of the Bachuana and a branch of the Sesheke. In the popular and current geography of a rude people, the great river is sure to swallow all the less rivers. Now, the great river of the Mucomango tribes is the Murisuro (river or lake, literally water); that of the Balobale and others in the W., the Luambege or Zambeze. The celebrity of the name has no doubt a tendency to multiply the rivers bearing it. Even if the Luapula and New Zambeze be perfectly distinct rivers, yet flowing, as they certainly do, through a low, marshy region, their connection by means of transverse canals is not impossible.

The reason assigned for the journey of the Mohammedan adventurers to the eastern coast is, that by the time they reached the Cazembe they had expended all their goods, or all that was suited for ordinary traffic, and so having no means of returning, they advanced. This is manifestly a very lame story. As they left some of their party in Lucenda to collect ivory, it is obvious that they intended to return eastwards. There exists no natural foundation for a trade between the opposite coasts which have the same wants and like productions. The truth seems to be, that they laid out their goods in the purchase of slaves, the best market for whom they found to be on the W. coast. The ivory, on the other hand, wa3 destined for the E. coast, the chief market for it being in India and China. This conjecture is strengthened by the fact of their not taking the direct road westward by the Lualaba; for in the mountainous district (Lobale), about that river, provisions are all imported and extremely dear, and consequently that district, which is the best for the general merchant who obtains in it the cash of the country, salt and copper, must be avoided by the slavedealers.

It may be presumed that with a little effort it is not yet too late to obtain a full account of the whole journey to Benguela and back again, from the Surat Arab, either in Zanzibar or India. He may be supposed to have staid a couple of months in Benguela. On his return to Lucenda, two or three months would be little enough to spend in higgling for ivory. His descent from the Lake to the sea-coast with the caravan would take four months at the least. Altogether it is highly improbable that his return from Benguela to Zanzibar could be effected in less than a year. Every trade in Africa is slow and dilatory except the slave-trade, which moves rapidly, because so long as a slave is kept he must be fed. Now, a letter to. Zanzibar, addressed to Capt. Hamerton, or to Mohammed bin Khamfs (secretary and interpreter to his highness Seid Sdid) might arrive there in six weeks, if sent through Aden by any one who could reckon on the co-operation of Capt. Haines. *

Note.—The practicability of crossing the African continent from Zanzibar to the West Coast was taken up by an Associate of this Society, Mr. W. Bollaert, in 1834, and a plan of an expedition to be conducted by him was brought before the Royal Geographical Society in 1837. The plan was approved,"instructions were drawn up by Mr. Cooley, and the Society offered to subscribe towards the expenses; but, in the absence of public aid, a sufficient sum could not be raised, and the project was ultimately abandoned.—Ed.

XV.—Extracts from the Letters of an Hungarian Traveller in

Central Africa.

Communicated by Dr. H. Ronat. With Remarks by Mr. W. D. Cooley. Read February 14, 1853.

Ladi8lau8 Magyar, born at Szabadka in Hungary, after having studied in the naval school at Fiume, went to sea in 1844, and served subsequently as lieutenant in the navy of the State of La Plata.

In 1847 he proceeded to the African kingdom Kalahari, whose king, named Trudodati-Dalaber-Almuazor, after two years gave him permission to travel in Central Africa.

On the 15th of January, 1849, he left Benguela, and after a troublesome journey of some days in a dry and desolate country, with scarcely any vegetation except the casonera (a kind of aloe), he came to Kiszagin, the first inhabited place in the kingdom Hambo, near the river Kubale, 2800 feet above the sea.

After 7 days' journey he arrived at Kandala, a larger town, built on a pyramidal mountain, with a fine view around the country.

From this place, after 5 days' journey, he reached the mountains of Kindumbo, which contain mines of metal and mineral springs. He ascended one of the highest mountains, called Lingi-Lingi, the view from which was magnificent, the plain being overspread with many villages and forests.

After travelling through some of these villages, he arrived at Colongo, the second city of the kingdom Hambo. The river lzesze rises in this country (11° lat).

From Colongd, passing over the mountains Dsamba, the rivers

* Col. Sykes has already acted upon Mr. Cooley's suggestion.—Ed.

The Moors are said to have been accompanied on their return from Benguela to the eastern coast by Antonio Francisco Ferreira da Silva Porto, a retired trader, long resident in Bi'he', whose destination was Mosambique, through Tete.—W. D. C. This gentleman is said to have just arrived at Loando from the East coast.—Ed.

Keve and Kutalu, he came to Kimblenge, the first village which he saw in the kingdom of Bihe.

The kingdom of Bihe, situated about 14° lat. and 18° 22' long., is 4500 feet above the sea; the heat is generally 14° to 15° Reaumur. The boundaries of this country are—on the N., Bailundo and Andul; on the S., Kaking and Zambuila; on the W., the mountains of Hambo; on the E., the great river Koanza. The country is generally level; the soil an aluminous and siliceous mixture, and is extremely fertile. The mountains, which are not very high, are covered with beautiful forests. The inhabitants, called Kimbundu, are more civilised than other negroes. Both sexes are tall and well formed; they are hospitable; and in these parts of Africa the only ones who patronise merchants and travellers. They are very fond of ornaments and coloured dresses; are usually armed with spears 6 feet long, short Turkish knives, and some of them with fire-arms. They are polytheists, and have also several wives. The form of government is rather oligarchical, the king being obliged to share his power with the chieftains of the different tribes or families. The whole. population is about 50,000, of whom one-tenth are slaves.

In the kingdom of Bihe, at Maszisikuitu, the Hungarian traveller settled himself, marrying the daughter of a chief- "I received," says the traveller, writing to his father, "no gold with her, but many bold elephant and tiger-hunters."

On the 20th of February, 1850, he left his new home with his wife and 285 armed men, and passing the river Kokema, he proceeded towards the E., and after 7 days' journey he arrived at the river Koanza, along which he marched, and found that it rises near the village Kapeke in about 15° 9' lat., 20° long. The soil, from the river Koanza, a distance of about 300 geographical miles towards the E, is mostly sandy. Zebra, gazelle, wild oxen, horses, and elephants are here found in great numbers.

Passing the rivers Vindika, Kuiva, Karima, and Kambale, having left to the S. the kingdom of Bunda, he arrived in the great forests of Kibokue, which, from the 6th degree of lat., extend from W. to E.

Having visited Kariongo, the last town on the limits of the kingdom of Bunda, he came to an elevation 12 miles in circumference, in 10° 6' lat. and 21° 19' long., and 5200 feet above the sea.

"This country," says the traveller, "might be termed the mother of the greatest rivers of Central Africa." Here rises the river Kaszabi-Kandal, which being in some places several miles in width, and receiving many rivers, after a course of 1500 geographical miles, flows into the Indian Ocean. The rivers LungeBungd, Luena, and Lumegi flow through the kingdoms of Lobar and Kalui, and disappear in the unknown distance. Besides the above-mentioned rivers, the Vindika, Kuiva, Karima, and Kambale rise also here.

After a journey of 33 days, passing the kingdom Kibokue and the river Lumegi, he arrived at Yah-Quilem, in Kalunda.

Yah-Quilem is situated on the shores of the great river Kaszabi, in about 4° 41' lat., 23° 43' long.*

Specimen of a Poem in the original language of the kingdom of Bunda, with Translation.

"Tumbalambendu o peku vi a poszoka. Dongonossi ziagambu mujembe.

Zingaveju ge mungomba.

Dizona raulcla boma.

Ditimbi sumbua ja vihua.

Mazon dani peraba.
Dizulo gue mukongo.
Mubila gue kindele kumbaua.

Tumbalambendu, the pretty girl.

Her beautiful eyes are bright as the stars of heaven.

Her hair and eyebrows are black as the mane of the zebra.

Her full bosom is beautiful as the tooth of the boa.

Her navel resembles the young mush-
room.

Her small teeth are white as paper.
Her mouth is small and round.
Her stature is tall and graceful, as
that of the white man."

"One evening," says the traveller, "before my departure, some of the negroes sang as follows:—

"Kindele vendatu catala poutu, The white man, who came from so far

to us,

Tumboca ovina kanaszuszu utyiti. May he be happy, and without sorrow

on his voyage.

Kiszala cuinue—Son-ange van-angd! His memory is in our heart. God's

blessing be with us!"

Remarks by Mr. Cooler/.

The Hungarian traveller, on leaving St. Felipe de Benguela, directed his course south-eastwards to the elevated land called Namno or Nano, whence rivers flow in all directions. Hambo or Huambo, on the northern side of this table-land, lies N.E. of the Portuguese fort of Caconda. The river to which the traveller here alludes was undoubtedly the Catombe'la, the name which he gives it, Kubale, being probably borrowed from the Mucobdle, called by the Portuguese Cobaes, who occupy the country round Nano on the W. and N.W. In 12 days more he reached the mountains of Kindumbo on the eastern side of Nano, and here, as he remarks, rises the river Isesze. The river thus indicated is probably the main branch of the Cunene; for this latter name, which merely signifies great, is properly given only to the stream

* From this city the Hungarian traveller wrote, on the 20th of April, 1851, these letters to his father, suggesting that the Government of Hungary might assist him in publishing his maps and the geographical description of his travels, or in sending to Europe some specimens of the vegetable productions of the country, skins, etc. "From the Portuguese Government," he says, "I might hope for support, but I give the preference to my own country."

These letters were sent to Dr. Rdnay by B. Szemere, late minister of Hungary, with the request to communicate them to the Royal Geographical Society.

VOL. XXIV. T

lower down after it has united numerous rivers from Nano, and we know that the Cunene rises on the Eastern boundary of Hambo in the territory of the Sova Candumbo, evidently the Kindumbo of our traveller.*

From Colongo (perhaps the Galangue of the Portuguese) Ladislaus crossed the mountains of Dsamba—the Samba or Sambos of Portuguese accounts —and entered the country of Bfhe\ On subsequently leaving this country, to proceed into the interior, he crossed the river Kokema, and in 7 days arrived at the Quanza. It is remarkable that among the scattered particulars learned from the Bachuina and set down as memorandums in the margin of Livingston's map, the river Kokema occurs in the neighbourhood of the Kuanja or Quanza. The Balojeza also of the same map may be conjectured to be the people dwelling on the left bank of the Isesze. The distance from Bfhe' to the Quanza has been found to be 30 leagues, or about 70 geographical miles, in a straight line, so that the Hungarian marched direct about 10 miles a day. He then traced the Quanza some distance up, till, as he says, he ascertained the position of its sources, which lie, according to his calculations, about 90 miles S.E. of Bihe. This statement refutes the opinion of M. Josd Lopez de Lima,f according to whom the Quanza flows from a great distance in the interior; and it confirms the account of Jose Botelho de Vasconcellos, a traveller in those countries, who places the sources of the Quanza on the confines of Galangue and Bfhe', in the territory of Samba Catenda,J a name which calls to mind the Dsamba Mountains crossed by our traveller on his way from Candumbo to Bfhe.

On his march from the Quanza to the interior, Ladislaus crossed four rivers, which, as he assigns their sources to the central highland, may be conjectured to belong to the basin of the Luliia. He then came to the forests of Kibokue (Quiboque), extending E. and W., Bunda being on his right hand, that is, to the S. It is evident that these two countries, Quiboque and Bunda, lie, the former on the northern, the latter on the southern slope of the ridge that separates the basin of the Luliia from that of the Seshe'ke. Leaving Quiboque, he crossed that ridge to the southern side, and passing through Kariongo, a village of Bunda, he came to what he calls "the Highest land of Middle Africa, and the mother of the waters." The great rivers mentioned by him as flowing from this elevated tract are the Kaszabi Randal,§ that is to say, " the Cazembe river, flowing in the opposite direction " (from Benguela); the Langebongo and Luefia both belonging to the Luliia; and the Lumegi, which is the Luambegi of preceding travellers, and the Liambae of the Bachuana—the main branch of the Sesheke. These rivers flow, he says, through the kingdoms Lobar and Kalui—the Lobale and Luy of my map.

Continuing his march from Bunda, Ladislaus crossed the Lumegi, and consequently his route lay to the S. of the Lualaba. Thence he proceeded to the kingdom of Kalunda, that is, the country of the Alunda, and arrived at Yah Quilem on the river Kaszabi. By this we are to understand that he came to the residence or village of the local chief, Libata ya Quilembe, situate on the Luapula, or, as he calls it, the Kaszabi (Cazembe) river. Quilembe is a Benguelan term of official rank, and would be naturally employed by a traveller speaking the dialect of Benguela ; but it is possibly used also by the Alunda, for the Angolan, Pombeiro PedroBaptista, relates that the Cazembe appointed Quilembes and Quilolos to conduct him to Tete.|| There is reason to suspect that the Quilembe is the officer who collects toll or tribute,!! and therefore

* Annaes Maritimos, 1844, p. 160.

f Ensaios sobre a Statislica dos Possessors Portuguezas, &c. 1846. % Ann. Marit. ibidem.

§ The adverbial form (Quiandale) of this word is given by Cannecattim in his Dictionary of the Bunda language, under Ao contrario, Ao detraz, Ao travez. || Annaes Man'timos, 1843, p. 432. ^ Rilemba means toll or tribute.

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