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Routes from Kano to Nyffe, and from Mozambique to Lake Nyassi. Extracted from Letters from Dr. Barth to Dr. Beke, dated Kano, March 4th, and Kuka, July 25<A, 1851.

1. Kano to Nyffe.

I Now send you the route from Katshna to Nyffi, according to a man who has travelled much, and whom I was about to hire as a servant, Mohammed Annoor.

1st day. About Aser you arrive at Metomati, a large village, after having passed several smaller ones on the road, one of which is called Goiira.

2nd. Before Aser arrive at a place called Gari-n-mu-tum-daea (the place of the single person), because since it was destroyed by the Fellanis it has been entirely deserted. Near the village is a large valley, with constant water in the dry season. The whole day's journey is through forest.

3rd. About half-past one o'clock P.m. you encamp in the middle of the forest, where there is plenty of water.

4th. Between Kaila and noon arrive at Grib Mohammed Diko.

5th. At sunset reach Gabezava, a place surrounded by a mud wall, and the residence of three different chiefs—one of whom is from Gober, one a Kohelan, while the third, who is named Omaru, is a Fellani. Forest; but in the neighbourhood of Gabezava there are villages.

6th. After Aser arrive at Katurkeshi, a place surrounded by a mud wall, in a state of decay. To the right and left you have villages.

7th. About Kaila arrive at a small place surrounded by a hedge, [called Kurmi-uyft. The whole road through forest.

8th. About half-past one o'clock P.m. arrive at a village called Magajia, belonging to the wife of the- governor of Guari. The road lies through a country irrigated by many streamlets. A part only is cultivated, the remainder being covered with forest. To the right and left you pass some villages.

9th. About half-past two o'clock P.m. reach a large place called Fitonguari, surrounded by a wall. On the road there is but little wood, almost the whole country being cultivated. Villages to the right and left.

10th. At half-past one o'clock P.m. arrive at Birni-n-Guari, a large town, governed by Sultan Mahmud. Both the wall and the houses are built of mud. The palace lies in the S. quarter. There is a small stream on the E. side of the town. The country is a little hilly.

11th. About half-past one o'clock P.m. reach Baki'-n-Kogf (the mouth of the stream), a collection of scattered villages situated on the side of a watercourse, running first eastward, but afterwards turning back to the W. There are small barks on the stream. The whole country is cultivated, there being no forest at all. Villages to the right and left.

12th. Informant, after three or four hours' travelling, encamped, early in the morning, in the cultivated lands still belonging to Guari.

13th. At about eleven o'clock A.m. reach Kurmi-n-Womba, a little open place on a small watercourse, which forms the frontier of the province of Katshna.

14th. About the same time encamp at a well, called Kurmi; the road lies through a cultivated country, with but little wood. Villages to the right and left.

15th. About the same time arrive at Womba, a large town surrounded by an earth wall, the residence of a sultan, who is independent, although the country belongs to Gtiari. The town, which is built entirely of hasheesh (the house of the sultan alone being built of earth), has a daily market, which is much frequented. All the inhabitants are Kohelan. The whole country is well cultivated; there is a good deal of rice, and many gonda trees.

16th. About nine o'clock encamp near Gotsi-n-dutsi, a small village belonging to Womba. The whole country is well cultivated. At one place the road passes between two rocks.

17th. About eleven o'clock A.m. reach Matene, a large town, with a governor, belonging to the Kohelari, who pays tribute to the Sultan of Zaria, to which place it is a seven days' journey from M&tene. Here is a small rivulet. The country through which the road lies is hilly, with many trees. Much cotton.

18th. About half-past one o'clock P.m. arrive at Kurmi, belonging to Nyffi, situated on a small stream which runs into the Kaduna. There are villages to the right and left of the road.

19th. About eleven o'clock A.m. arrive on the northern bank of the Kaduna, where you encamp. There are large boats on the river. The country all under cultivation.

20th. Early in the morning informant encamped in the forest.

21st. About half-past one o'clock P.m. arrive at a large place called Debba, with a market much frequented. The houses are built of mud and hasheesh. There is a small rivulet near the village. The country well cultivated, and shaded by many trees, such as the gonda and labuje.

22nd. Early in the morning encamp at Gari-n-baberbere, a large place surrounded by a wall of mud.

23rd. At the same time (about nine o'clock) reach Kurmi-n-kada, a considerable open place with a large pool in the centre, in which there are crocodiles (hence the name of the village); this water is navigated in kaderkos.

24th. About eleven o'clock A.m. reach Yakaji, a large walled place, with a sultan. There is a rivulet here. The road is covered with forest.

25th. About eleven o'clock A.m. arrive at a large walled place called Makua. The houses generally are built of mud and hasheesh; and there is a tank in the village. There is plenty of gonda and ayeba.

26th. About nine o'clock arrive at Raba, a place now in ruins.

Lede\ the present capital of Nyffi, is two days from Makua.
From Gotsi-n-dutsi a road branches off in a more westerly direction,
leading to Gorji, one of the most important places of Nyffi.

1st day. About Aser reach Bere; the road lying through a country covered with forest.

2nd. About Aser reach Kurremi, an open village.

3rd. About eleven o'clock A.m. reach Sabo-n-gari, a large place surrounded by a mud wall.

(4th. About nine o'clock reach Ungoi-karama, a place situate on a mountain ; the whole country being hilly. Farther off is Ungoi-bab&, also upon the mountain. This is not in the direct line; the traveller returning to Sab<5-ngarf, and thence pursuing the direct road.)

4th. About nine o'clock A.m. arrive at Gari-n-maiyaki, a large walled place in the plain.

5th. About the same time reach Baki-n-kogf, a small village situated on a river which unites with the Kaduna.

6th. About ten o'clock reach Gorji, a large walled town with a considerable market, lying upon a hill over the river called Baki-n-kogf, but identical with the Kaduna. Much tobacco. Lede is 4 days' journey from Gorji.

Going from the E. towards Raba:—Jangaru, Gorji, Ak&re, Yakaji, Jemagu, Rafi-n-kada (with many crocodiles), Makera, Bakinne (one of the most considerable places), Makua, Raba.

Coming from the N.:—Tshedia, Daba, Karofi, Gotomeji, Bullada, Je"ngi (the native town of Sultan Masaba), Raba.

Going S. from Raba:—Lemii, Za (situated in the river Egga).

To these I may add Kafeto, a place of importance.

2. Mozambique to Lake Nyassi.

Earlier than I expected I have been forced to return from my journey to Adamaua, Mohammed Loel, the governor of that region, having suspected my objects in exploring his country.

At Yola a prospect opened to me of alluring magnitude. I there met a very amiable Arab, Sherff Mohammed ben Ahmedu, a native of Mokha in Yeman, who had travelled all over the eastern shores of the African continent, from Jard Hafun as far down as Sofiila, and had penetrated from Mozambique to Lake Nyassi, and who, being well acquainted with the English, declared himself ready, for a sum of 300 dollars, to be paid at Zanzibar, to penetrate with me across the continent in the direction of that magnificent lake. Nyassi being the great centre of the commerce of an immense part of Central Africa, I am _sure we should have to go scarcely a month's journey from Baia in that direction, before we fell in with the frequented road to that market. I must satisfy myself, however, with giving you my friend's itinerary from Mozambique to Nyassi, which, as far as I know, is quite new. I should have been able to give many corrections for that part of the continent, if the order of the gdvernor had not driven me away from Yola. But I entertain strong hopes to see my Sherif again.


1st day. Sleep in Sembe, the landing-place on the coast after having crossed the channel.

2nd. Mesoka, a place paying tribute to the Portuguese, and on friendly terms with them.

4th. Muguru, the first place of the Mokkua or M£kua, with a governor of the name of Mosir. All the houses are of gesh.

6th. .Encamp on the banks of the Mezizima, a small rivulet, but containing water at all seasons of the year. The whole country is flat.

8th. Inati, a large place of the Mokkua (with a governor of the name of Namakoma), situated at the southern foot of a mountain, which is visible at four days' distance.

10th. Encamp at a part, full of trees, on the banks of the river Lori, which, though not navigable, is of considerable size.

14th. Alter a four days' journey through a level country, reach, in the evening of the fourth day, Marabazi, a pretty village of the Mokkua, situated on the river.

15th. Between one and two o'clock P.m. arrive at Meto, the residence of Malia, the powerful chief of the Mdkkua, situated in a valley enclosed by low mountain ranges. The country is hilly, but cultivated.

16th. After a journey of about 8 hours, pass the night.

18th. Sleep on the banks of a river enclosed by rocky heights.

21st. Sleep in a village situated at the foot of a large mountain, after having on the second day passed a rivulet running towards the sea, like all the abovementioned watercourses.

22nd. Sleep on the banks of the river Luvuma, containing water at all seasons of the year.

23rd. Between one and two o'clock P.m. enter the territory dependent on the tribe of the Mohiau, commencing at the village Mokoiyaiha, situated beyond a chain of almost isolated mountains. Beyond this village, where you pass the night, the entire country is cultivated.

26th. After about 2 hours' journey, enter the mountains (all the country, on the 24th and 25th days, being flat), and reach a village of the Mohiau, called Murinde, situated at the foot of a mountain.

28th. Arrive on the banks of the rivulet Lyyinde, issuing from a lake called Killua and joining the Luvuma. Both days the country passed is flat.

29th. Chania, a settlement of the Mohiau.

30th. Enter a large mountain-chain, containing numerous springs; and sleep in a village situated in the midst of the mountains.

31st. Reach Menlmam, a small village situated beyond the mountains, on a rivulet running E.

32nd. Sleep in a village situated in another mountain-chain, after having, about noon, passed a broad ancient road which has the appearance of a dry watercourse, and which avoids the mountains and runs from S. to N. This road, respecting which my informant was quite full of astonishment, and which is the common talk of the people of all the country round, as being a monument of former ages, is called Mulfla.

33rd. A steep descent from the village where the last night was passed brings you about noon down to the shore of Lake Nyassi. You sleep in the village of Mo£la, where a market is held, though the great market-place of Nyassi is Ngombo, 3 days N. of Modla. A white rock rises in the fake not far from Moilla.

In crossing the lake from Ngombo to its western side, where the capital of the sultan of Nyassi is situated, you pass one night on an island.

The lake neither rises nor falls at any season of the year. My informant thinks it most probable that the Nile takes its origin from this lake, though he did not visit its northern part.

To the W., or rather to the W.N.W., of Nyassi, he heard of another extensive lake, called Timbdze, distant about a month's journey.

XVIII.— The Limpopo, its Origin, Course, and Tributaries. By Mr. Thomas Baines.

Read January 9, 1854.

On the northern side of the Vaal river, dividing the waters that flow into it from those that swell the streams to the northward, lies a tract of high land, from 60 to 100 miles in breadth. The northern side of this high land is called the Witte Water's Raandt; and farther west, where the Mariqua rises, it is named the Zwart Ruggens.

Opposite to the Witte Water's Raandt, and nearly parallel to it, is the Mag&lie's-berg, or Cashan Mountains, leaving a valley of 6 or 7 miles in width, and 60 or 80 in length, between them.

Out of the Raandt springs the Oori or Krokodil river, forming the main source of the Limpopo, which, after traversing the valley, passes through a neck in the Mag&lie's-berg, within £ mile of the dwelling of the late Andries Pretorius, the commandant of the Dutch emigrant boers.

On the western side it receives through other necks or poorts in the mountain, the waters of the Masuquaana, near which, on the N. side of the mountain, stands the village of Rustenberg and the Klikling or Eland river.

To the N. of this, in ahout 25° S. latitude, lies Pilan's-berg, with the kraal of the chief, from whom it is named, under its eastern face.

Near the junction of the Masuquaana with the Oori, or as it may now be called the Limpopo, the combined streams pass through the Fly-poort at the southern extremity of the Waterherg, or Mural Mountains of Captain Harris. The river then taking a N. or N.N.E. course, receives the Mariqua; the Notuang; the Malaphi; the Luitzanie; the Zoquiene, a small brackish river; the Paqua; the Macloutse, a large river disappearing at intervals in the sand; and the Shash or Shazie. The main stream turns gradually more eastward, and from this point runs directly towards the rising sun in June or mid-winter. What course it takes afterwards I am unable to say; but that it does not run into Delagoa Bay seems, from the testimony of Mr. Coqui, who has crossed the sources of all the rivers flowing into that bay, tolerably certain.

From the high land between the Macloutse and the Shash, Mr. M'Cabe informed me that to the W.N.W. appeared a mountainrange, dim and indistinct in the blue distance; but his hunters, though they rode 50 miles or more in that direction, were obliged to return for want of water. To the S.E. and across the Limpopo, were seen the Blue-berg; and farther E., the point of Zoutpan'sberg, the residence of the old commandant, Hendrik Potgieter.

Let us now take up the stream again at its source, and enumerate its tributaries on the eastern side. One of these, the Jeukskei, or Yoke-key river, so named from a broken yoke's key having been found on its bank, possesses an interest, from the probability of its having been the hunting-ground of Captain Harris, and the key possibly a memento of one of the mishaps occasioned by his mutinous waggon-driver.

Farther E. are the Apie and the Pienaar rivers, which, after passing through the Mag£lie's-berg by the Wonderboom and Derde poorts, join the Limpopo near the Fly-poort. From thence

Vol. xxiv. u

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