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off in both directions, N. and S., and where, too, we obtained our first extensive view northwards. The fountain of Lebweh is as large apparently as that of'Anjar. It rises out of a tract of gravel at the foot of a ledge of limestone rocks, and several streams are carried off from it in various directions. One of them is conducted along the hard and barren slope northwards for a great distance. The main bed of the stream runs off N.W., and keeps along not far from the western mountain. Farther north the desert slope extends quite across the whole valley; and the stream finds its way through it by a deep and narrow chasm. At least, this is its character in the neighbourhood of the fountains of the Orontes.

We passed next morning for some time along the canal from the Lebweh, and then turned more to the right, between still another line of hills and Anti-Lebanon. Ras Ba'albek lies near the northern extremity of these hills. In it are the remains of two ancient churches, showing it to have been once a place of importance, under a name now probably lost. Here the eastern mountain begins to retire, and sweeps round in a curve on the E. of Ribleh and the plain.

From this place we took a course about N. by W., and crossed the Buka'a obliquely to the fountains of the Orontes, and the monument of Hurmul. from the moment we left the gardens of er-Ras until we reached the said fountains every step of the way was a rocky desert. We crossed the canal from the Lebweh, here as large as at first, and driving three mills; but the soil was too hard and stony to be affected by the water, and not a trace of verdure clothed even its banks. It runs on to the vicinity of el-Ka'a. We followed the road to Hurmul, and after 2 hours turned more to the left, without a path, for half an hour, and so came to the chasm of the Lebweh and the fountains of the Orontes.

These burst forth within the chasm from under its eastern wall. The Lebweh is here no mean stream. It seemed to us larger than at its source, and may receive accessions from fountains in its course under Lebanon. But here the size of the stream becomes at least three-fold greater. From the largest fountain it sweeps round a high rocky point. In the precipice on the other side of this high point, on the S. side of the stream, and looking northwards, is the excavated convent of Mar Marou, now deserted. The river continues in its rugged chasm northwards for a considerable distance, then sweeps round eastwards into the lower plain, and passes near Ribleh.

We took a direct course, without a path, to the monument, an hour distant. It is a remarkable structure, square and solid, terminating above in a pyramid, the whole being from 60 to 70 feet high. On the four sides hunting scenes are sculptured in relief, of which the drawing borders on the grotesque. Thev are too much defaced to be fully made out. We looked for some inscriptions, but not a trace of any exists. The monument stands here on a lone projecting hill, far out in front of the western mountain; but its founder, and the event it was intended to commemorate, are alike unknown. From the monument, we struck a direct course, without any road, and through a region of trap, for Ribleh, which we reached after dark. It is a poor village, on the S. bank of the Orontes, here running E.

From Ribleh we would gladly have extended our journey northwards to Hums, Hamah, and even to Antioch. But the season of heat was already at hand, and, under existing circumstances, it was advisable for me to leave Beirut by the steamer of June 22nd. Very reluctantly, therefore, on my part, we turned next day towards the coast by way of the great fortress el-Hiisn, bearing from Ribleh about N. 30° W.

Having crossed the great plain of the Orontes, we ascended • very gradually the low, broad slope here running down northwards from the end of Lebanon. Further N., about opposite the lake of Hums, the ground is much lower. We struck at length the right bank of Wady Khalid, a deep ravine coming down on our left from the S. W., with a stream, the remotest source of Nahr el-KeMr. Following down this valley, it brought us to the south-eastern part of the beautiful oval basin, called el-Bukei'a, 3 hours or more in length from N.E. to S.W., and an hour and a half in breadth. It is skirted on the S.E. by the last low points of Lebanon and the west side of the great slope we had crossed, and on its N.W. side by a ridge running S.W. from the Ansariyeh mountains. At its S.W. end, this ridge sinks to low hills; and here the river el-KeWr breaks through into the western plain. In the northern part of this ridge there is a gap formed by two Wadies running out, one on each side, with a low watershed between, affording a very convenient and easy passage for a road. Here is still the road from Hamah to Tripoly and the S.; and it must always have been a pass of much importance. Above it, on the S. side, stands the fortress el-Husn, completely commanding it. The castle has no very definite mark of high antiquity, yet we can hardly doubt that so important a position was very early occupied. From the castle there is a view of the waters on both sides—the lake of Hums on the E. and the Mediterranean on the W.

A little more than half an hour down the western valley stands the great Greek convent of Mar Jirjis (St. George), where we stopped for a few minutes, and were very courteously received. Twenty minutes further westward down the valley is the great intermitting fountain. This is unquestionably the Sabbatical river described by Josephus, which Titus saw on his march from Arka

VOh. xxiv. D

II.—Notes on a Journey into th'e Balkan, or Mount Hcemus, rBf!11
in 1847. By Lieut-General A. Jochmus.
Communicated by Sir Roderick I. Murchison.
Read November 28, 1858. .

Equipped for light travelling, on account of the known difficulty
of procuring a sufficient number of baggage animals on several
points of our projected tour into the Balkan (Haemus), we left -
Constantinople on the 28th September, en route for Kirk-kelesia
and Aidos.

For myself, for my orderly Soliman, a sabtieh or police-soldier, a suruji or post-guide, and for the baggage, five horses were required from the general post-office at Constantinople.

The horses at this establishment are notoriously bad. In most parts of the empire the rate of travelling post on the principal lines of communication is 6 or 7 miles an hour, stoppages included. With the Constantinople post-horses it is generally impossible to travel faster than 3 miles an hour.

With these wretched animals we only reached the first day's station after 9 hours' march, although Chatalcha is computed to be scarcely 8 hours distant from Constantinople.

Constantinople to Chatalcha.

Distances:—

Constantinople to Buyiikderbend .... 3 hours.

„ Chelenkir-Koi .... 4 j,

„ Natash 6 „

,, Chatalcha 8 ,,

Leaving the suburbs of Khas-Koi, with the fine Jewish burialground on our left, and the Barbyses near the Sultan's summer kiosk at the European Sweet Waters, we took the road of Jebeji-Koi to Buyukderbend, in order to see the aqueduct a little S. of that village,* about half an hour N.N.W. from the Khan, at the western outlet of a long and strong defile of the Ali-Bey-KoiSou (or Kidaris).

The hill above the Khan is crowned by an abandoned redoubt, either thrown up in 1829, when Marshal Die bitch was advancing from Adrianople on Stamboul, or built perhaps in 1811, when swarms of Cossacks are reported to have crossed the Balkan, and to have penetrated as far as Burghas, although in that campaign the great Russian army remained before Shumla.

The military position of Buyukderbend is strong in front and on its right flank; but it can be turned on its left by a force

* The Khan at Buyukderbend, a spacious building to the north of the high road, lies at the foot of a hill overlooking a road to Boghaz-Koi.

the beet span, and 70g on the s. Siderity. Over thises of which

the sources of the Nahr Ibrahîm, the Adonis of the ancients. We came for the night to Afka, situated in the S.E. branch of the basin, in an amphitheatre resembling that of the cedars; not so vast indeed, but verdant and beautiful. Here a fine fountain bursts forth in cascades from a cavern, and directly in front of these are the shapeless ruins of a large temple. This was the temple of Venus at Apheca. In it were two massive columns of Syenite granite ; but how they could ever have been brought to this high part of the mountain is a mystery.

Our route next day was similar, keeping along as high as possible, and crossing a very steep and high ridge into the basin in which are the fountains of the Nahr es-Sülîb, the northern branch of the Nahr el-Kelb. There are two of these fountains, Neba' el-Asal and Neba' el-Leben, both of them large, and sending forth copious streams from under the foot of a ridge close under Jebel Sunnîn. The stream from the latter fountain very soon enters a deep chasm in the table land, the sides of which have almost an architectural regularity. Over this chasm is a natural bridge, having on the S. side a perfect arch of more than 150 feet span, and 70 or 80 feet above the stream. The width of the bridge on the top at the narrowest point is 120 feet. Our road lay across this bridge, and a traveller might easily pass this way without becoming aware of this wonder of nature. ..

We passed on to the ruins of Fukra, situated in another valley which runs to the southern branch of Nahr el-Kelb. Here are the remains of another temple, and also a square tower apparently intended for* a military purpose. The road now led in a very direct course towards the mouth of Nahr el-Kelb. W. of the long straggling village Mizra'ah, we descended into and crossed the very deep chasm of the northern branch es-Sülîb, resembling greatly the gorge of the Lîtâny above Belât. Beyond this chasm, we pitched our tent for the last time in the western part of 'Ajeltûn.

The next morning (June 19th) we continued to descend gradually, till coming out on the high northern bank of the valley of elKelb, we found a very steep and difficult pass, which brought us down to the stream, 5 minutes above the bridge. We reached Beirût soon after noon. On the 22nd of June, I embarked to proceed by way of Smyrna to Trieste.

Such is an outline of the second journey which I have been permitted to make in the Holy Land. I desire it to be distinctly understood, that the one great object of all these investigations has been the historical topography of that country, in its relations especially to the Holy Scriptures, and less directly to the writings of Josephus : to this one object, all our other observations have been only subsidiary.

II.-Notes on a Journey into the Balkan, or Mount Hæmi KENTS

in 1847. By Lieut.-General A. JOCHMUS.
Communicated by Sir RODERICK I. MURCHISON.

Read November 28, 1853.
EQUIPPED for light travelling, on account of the known difficul
of procuring a sufficient number of baggage animals on sever
points of our projected tour into the Balkan (Hæmus), we le
Constantinople on the 28th September, en route for Kirk-kelesi
and Aïdos.

For myself, for my orderly Soliman, a sabtieh or police-soldier a suruji or post-guide, and for the baggage, five horses were required from the general post-office at Constantinople.

The horses at this establishment are notoriously bad. In mos parts of the empire the rate of travelling post on the principal lines of communication is 6 or 7 miles an hour, stoppages in cluded. With the Constantinople post-horses it is generally impossible to travel faster than 3 miles an hour.

With these wretched animals we only reached the first day's station after 9 hours' march, although Chatalcha is computed to be scarcely 8 hours distant from Constantinople.

Constantinople to Chatalcha.
Distances :-
Constantinople to Buyukderbend . . . . 3 hours.

Chelenkir-Koi . . . . 4
Natash . . . . . . 6 ,

Chatalcha . . . . . 8 . Leaving the suburbs of Khas-Koi, with the fine Jewish burial- ja ground on our left, and the Barbyses near the Sultan's summer kiosk at the European Sweet Waters, we took the road of Je- le beji-Koi to Buyukderbend, in order to see the aqueduct a little S. of that village, * about half an hour N.N.W. from the Khan, at the western outlet of a long and strong defile of the Ali-Bey-KoiSou (or Kidaris).

The hill above the Khan is crowned by an abandoned redoubt, either thrown up in 1829, when Marshal Diebitch was advancing from Adrianople on Stamboul, or built perhaps in 1811, when swarms of Cossacks are reported to have crossed the Balkan, and to have penetrated as far as Burghas, although in that campaign the great Russian army remained before Shumla.

The military position of Buyukderbend is strong in front and on its right flank; but it can be turned on its left by a force

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* The Khan at Buyukderbend, a spacious building to the north of the high road, lies at the foot of a hill overlooking a road to Boghaz-Koi.

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