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more to Shiikiir Kopri, or the Bridge of Thanks (over the same river), so called because travellers having passed the woods between Varna and Shiikiir Kopri, are supposed to return thanks to Allah for having escaped being plundered or murdered.

From this bridge a difficult ascending track leads, in 1 hour, through thick forest, chiefly oak, to Avren, a central point on the Liusum mountain ridge, whence roads branch off by Sultanler to Yovan Dervish and Aivachik.

Though living in a fertile spot, on a rich soil, cleared in the forest for agricultural purposes, the Bulgarians of this hamlet had not rebuilt their houses since the war, but were living on in poor mud-plastered wicker-work hovels and huts, through fear of having their houses again destroyed in another war.

Men and women seemed otherwise to be well off, and many of the latter wore in this secluded retreat fine and tasteful silver armlets and wristbands.

From Avren the mountainous nature of the country nearly obliged us to turn back in order to reach the village of Yenibekje, on the western Devne lake. It is fordable during its whole length. One hour and a half having taken us to the borders of the eastern Devne lake (nearly opposite Buyuk Aladin), 3 hours more along its banks, through forest and brushwood, brought us to Varna.

Sunday, October 2ith, 1847.—I spent this day in reconnoitring the environs of Varna, as far as Buyuk Aladin, viz.:—

Varna to Kadi-Koi i hours.

„ Yenijd-Koi 1± „

Buyuk Aladin 3

This road, along the northern shore of the lake of Devne, is the lower or summer road to Paravati; the upper or winter road to the same place runs nearly parallel to it at £ or f of a mile's distance, making some windings on account of the higher undulations of the ground. Both roads start from the same gate in Varna, and reunite at some distance beyond Buyuk Aladin.

Close to Varna the direct high road to Silistria strikes off through the mountains, which run parallel to the Lake of Devne (Devno), and another road to Silistria through these same mountains branches off from the upper Paravati road, between and just above the villages of Kadi-Koi and Yenije-Koi.

From Buyuk Aladin (N. of the Devne lake) a road leads in one hour to Yenibekje-Koi, on the southern banks of the lake, passing two mills on the principal branch of the Paravati river, which connects the western and eastern lakes of Devne, and inundates the marshy ground between them, to a greater or less extent, according to the dry or wet season. The main stream of the river, and a lateral branch which falls into the eastern Devne lake just below the village of Buyuk Aladin, form an island, which is mentioned in the action between Alexander the Great and the Triballians in his march towards the Danube.

The Paravati River has its head-waters in the mountains N. of Shumla, and falls into the smaller or western lake of Devne, near the village of Yeni-bekje (on its southern shore), traverses the south-eastern angle of the lake, and flows in the dry season by two branches, and during the rainy months by various streamlets, through the low and marshy neck of land which divides the two lakes, into the larger or easternmost, whence it discharges itself by a broad stream into the Black Sea, along the foot of the southern walls of the fortress of Varna.

The distance from the eastern shore of the lake to the Black Sea is about half an English mile, and the breadth of land between the two lakes, according to the heights of the floods in the dry or wet season, from 1 mile to H mile.

The Paravati River flows nearly parallel to the Haemus and to the Danube; and considering that from Varna, as well as from Paravati, the distance to Silistria is computed at 24 hours, or 3 days' march, there can be no doubt but that the Paravati River is the Lyginos described by Arrian thus :—" distat id ab Istro, si quis Aernum versus proficiscatur, itinere tridui."*

From the description given by the historian, it is evident that he speaks of a river running in the same direction with the Danube at a distance of three days from it, and not falling into the Ister or Danube, as the Lyginos is represented to do by some authorities as well as by the great Austrian map, where this ancient river is made to fall into the Danube at Zibra Palanka, between Nikopolis and Viddin, opposite to some small islands.

It is this collateral circumstance of the existence of islands at the mouth of the river at Zibra Palanka which most likely has caused the error, for Arrian speaks of an island of the Lyginosf {vide the French translations of that author), whereas river islands, in this part of the country, are only to be found in the Danube.

To avoid this apparent difficulty the German translators have altogether omitted the passage- referring to the island,^ and say that after the action with the Thracians, which I have described as having taken place at the defiles of Boghaz or Haramdere :—

"Alexander ascended the heights, advanced against the Triballians across the Hsemus, and arrived at the Lyginos, which is distant from the Danube three days' journey, in the direction of the Haemus.

"Byrmus, the King of the Triballians, inlormed long before of Alexander's

*t* Arrian says nothing about an island in the Lyginos. The author has apparently been misled by the French translation.—W. J. H. X Dr. Borheck, Frankfort-o.-M. Edit. 1790, and others. VOL. XXIV. G

expedition, had sent the women and the children of the Triballians to the Ister, ordering them to be conveyed across to one of the islands of the river. Its name is Peuke.* In this same island the Thracians, neighbours of the Triballians, had also taken refuge on the approach of Alexander, and Syrmus himself, with his own people, had also fled thither."

From the knowledge that I have now acquired by personal examination of the ground, I prefer following the French translators, who say :—

"Cependant un grand nombre de Triballiens fuit en arriere et se porte vers une autre Ile du fleuve qu'Alexandre avait abandonne la veille " (the Lyginos river, "unde Alexander pridie profectus erat—Tst^ov, iitmh-f Ts

"Inform^ du detour celui-ci revient sur ses pas et surprend leur camp; les barbares en desordre se rallient dans un bois voisin du fleuve."

Arrian then goes on to relate how Alexander succeeded in drawing the Triballians out of this wood, how he defeated them in the open ground beyond it, and—

"they fled through the forest towards the river. Three thousand perished in the flight; few prisoners were made, because not only the thickness of the wood which lay before the river, but also the approaching night, impeded the pursuit on the part of the Macedonians.

"On the third day after this battle Alexander arrived at the Ister." t

From a careful inspection of the country, I am persuaded that the isthmus between the two lakes of Devne is the ground of Alexander's action. It is formed into an island by the two principal streams of the Paravati, or Lyginos river. The southern shore of the Lyginos is still covered by thick primaeval forest, and although the northern bank, where the battle was fought, is now open ground, it bears evident marks of having been formerly covered with wood.

Arrian may now be read without omissions or transpositions, and 1 hold that I have shown in the annexed sketch, Alexander marched from "Amphipolis" (Emboli), leaving "Philippi" (Ruins of Filibe) and "Mount Orbelus " on his Jeft, crossed the "Nesus " (Karasu), and, following the high road by the present Ferejik, Demotika, Kirk-kelesia, and A'idos, arrived at the foot of Mount Haemus, which he reached " on the tenth day."

Here he fought the action with "the Thracians" at Boghazdere, or Haramdere, forced those defiles, and crossed the Hsemus (Balkan) by the main road to Paravati" on the Lyginos."

From Paravati Alexander moved by the present high road towards Silistria, but, hearing of the retreat of the main body of the Triballians towards "the island of the river (Lyginos),^ whence Alexander had departed the previous day," he counter

* Near Silistria, according to Barbie du Bocage. See German translation of Arrian by Professor Tafel, Edit. Stuttgard, 1829. f Arriani Expedit., lib. i., cap. 2, 3.

j " Ingens vero Triballorum multitudo per fiumen ad aliam quandam insulam in lstro sitam sese contulerat, unde Alexander pridie solverat."—Ed.

marched also, in search of the enemy, whom he met with and defeated on the grounds between the two lakes of Devne. Thence he arrived, "in 3 days," on the Danube (at Silistria), crossed that mighty river, defeated the Getse,* repassed the Danube, and undertook his expedition against the Agriani and Paeoni.f

By referring to the annexed sketch, it will be seen that Alexander passed, in his march on Silistria, the Kamchik at Kopri-Koi, and the Lyginos at Paravati, at the same points chosen by Marshal Diebitch in his inverse operation from Silistria against the defiles of the Balkan, after the battle of Kulefcha and he capture of Silistria. Arrived at Kopri-Koi, the Russian army struck off to the E., and forced the passes of the Hsemus, as was done by Darius, because it was the plan of the Russians—as formerly in that of the Persians—to occupy first the "sea towns" before continuing their operations: Darius from S. to N., Marshal Diebitch frorti N. to S. Nature has so strongly marked the best amongst the many difficult passes of the Hsemus, that at the distance of thousands of years the three great commanders are found to have operated by the same lines.

It remains to be observed, that whilst the Getae, who, in the time of the expedition of Darius against the Scythae (Herod., lib. iv.), lived S. of the Danube, were found by Alexander already on the left or northern bank of the river (in the fertile plains of Wallachia); the Triballians, on the contrary, held the former territories of the Geta?, as far S.E. as Varna.

It was a short distance, to the westward of the Turkish village of Buyuk Aladin that the action of Alexander % and the Triballians was fought, and, returning from this hamlet to Varna, my guide pointed out the ground N. of the village of Yenije-Koi as the scene of the great modern battle of the 10th of November, 1444.

Two tumuli (marked Y in my sketch) were pointed out to me

* Arriani Expedit., lib. i., cap. 1-5.

f According to Barbie du Bocage, near a place opposite Silistria, where now is the -village of Kornizel.

X "Alexander, the son of Philip, in his campaign against the Thracians beyond Mount Hsemus, is said to have penetrated«as far as this in an incursion into the country of the Triballi, and observed that they occupied the territory as far as the Danube and the island Peuce (Piezina), which is in it; and that the Getaj possessed the country beyond that river; he was, however, unable to pass into the island for want of a sufficient number of ships, and because Syrmus, the king of the Triballi, who had taken refuge in that place, resisted the undertaking; but Alexander crossed over into the country of the Getae and took their city, after which he returned home in haste, carrying with him presents from those nations, and also from Syrmus." See Strabo, by Hamilton and Falconer, vol. i. p. 463.— Again, at p. 469. "Near the mouth of the Danube is the large island of Peuce. This the Bastarnse possessed, and were hence called Peucini. There are also other islands much smaller, some above this, and others nearer the sea. The Danube has seven mouths: the largest is called the Sacred Mouth, the passage by which to Peuce is 120 stadia. At the lower part of this island Darius made his bridge."— by the denomination of Sanjak Tepe and Murad Tepe. They are about the centre of the line which Sultan Murad s army of 40,000 men must have occupied on the slightly undulating ground of one of the last spurs of the mountain ridge which runs nearly E. and W. parallel with the lakes of Devne.

Opposite to the Mussulman line of battle King Vladislav and the Great Hunyades had drawn up their army of about 15,000 men on another easy slope, now occupied on its southern point by the hamlet of Kadi-Koi. The Turks stood in their usual order of battle when fighting in Europe :* the troops of Rumili forming the right, the Janissaries the centre, and the troops of Anatoli the left wing. The right wing was secured by the lake of Devne; the centre was protected by a palisaded ditch, the lines of which are still traceable in some parts near the Sanjak and Murad Te'pes; and the left wing rested on the mountains.

The extent of the Turkish position, from 'the lake to the foot of the mountains, is about 2 English miles, or 3400 yards.

On the other side, the left wing of the Hungarian army was safely flanked by the marshy stream of the lake of Devne; in the centre stood the choice troops, commanded by King Vladislav in person; and the right wing—towards the mountains, but evidently the weakest part of their order of battle—was reclined a little backwards in the direction of Varna.

The position of Kadi-Koi is of an extent of about 2200 yards. The tumulus, or the elevation, marked X, in the rear of their right wing, is, in all probability, the spot where the Hungarians had made their " wagenburg," or fortification of chariots.

The two armies were separated by a very shallow dip of the ground, which is dry, sandy, and well adapted for fighting and manoeuvring. Hammer is evidently mistaken in calling this great action " the battle of the Swamps," for the only swamps near the field are the marshy borders of the lake of Devne, on which rested the right wing of the Turks and the left of the Hungarians.

Notwithstanding, or perhaps on account of, the inferiority of the Christians in numbers, Hunyades had decided to act offensively, and both his wings were for a time victorious, but the general onset was broken by the steady and valorous resistance of the Janissaries.

King Vladislav was killed in his impetuous attack on that body; an old Janissary, Khoja Hisr, cut off his head, and stuck it on a lance by the side of a pike, on which was attached the broken treaty of peace.

I consider the Murad Tepe to be the spot where Sultan Murad had ordered the lance with the treaty to be exposed to the sight of his indignant army, and where King Vladislav's head was

* In Asia, according to the old regulations, the Beglerbeg of Anatoli commanded the right wing, and the Beglerbeg of Rumili the left.

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