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planted by its side. The Sanjalc-Tepe is the neighbouring mount, where, according to the Turkish war custom, the great imperial standard was displayed. Hence the traditional appellation of the two tumuli. •
Hellert's French translation of M. de Hammer's celebrated • History of the Ottoman Empire' is enriched with a plan of the battle of Varna. The ground laid down is altogether fictitious; in the neighbourhood of Varna there are neither lakes, rivers, nor mountains, like those indicated in that sketch.
Monday, October 25th.— The modern fortifications of Varna, reconstructed since 1828-29, have not strengthened the place. On the contrary, the bastioned "enceinte" has been considerably extended, and although the lines may thus hold a larger garrison, the defences of the northern side have been brought several hundred yards nearer to the heights from whence they can be most effectively battered. The weakest point of the new fortress is now its north-eastern angle, the most exposed to a marine attack, as ships of war can approach it, and enfilade within about 700 yards.
The main attack of the Russians in 1828, against the old fortress, was from the N.; they had also a strong corps established S. of Varna. Their communication was kept up by the fords of the Paravati or Lyginos river (2 feet deep in summer, 3 feet in winter), between the two lakes of Devne (3 hours from Varna). On this point they had also a pontoon bridge, and, besides, an easy communication of 2£ to 3 miles by water for messengers in boats across the lake, beyond the immediate reach of the guns of the fortress.
Formerly a stone bridge was thrown over the Lyginos, near the Fords, and close to the present mills between Buyuk Aladin and Yenibekje-Koi; but the inhabitants of the latter place purposely destroyed the bridge, in order that troops, Government messengers, and travellers might not be induced to go by their village to . Paravati—a road nearer by about a quarter of an hour than the present highway by the northern shore of the upper lake of Devne.
The voluntary destruction of a stone bridge by the neighbouring villagers, with the view of obstructing and avoiding the daily and, in well regulated countries, most profitable, intercourse between such important places as Varna and Shumla (via, Paravati) is the strongest testimony of the present misrule on the part of the Government in these provinces.
On the arrival of the Austrian steamer from Galatz we embarked, in the afternoon of the 25th of October, for Constantinople, and a pleasant run, with a smooth sea, brought us to the Bosphorus and Golden Horn early the next day.
III.—Extracts from a Journal up the Koladyn River, Aracan, in 1851. By Capt. S. R. Tickell, B.N.L
Communicated through the Secbktarv.
[the province of Aracan is divided into four districts:—1. Akyab (the principal one); 2. Aeng, or Kyuk-phu; 3. Ramree; and, 4. Thandowy. The whole province is governed by a commissioner, who exercises the powers and duties of a civil and sessions judge, and commissioner of revenue, together with a general superintendence over matters connected with the marine department in the province. Under this officer, and at the head of each district, is placed a principal assistant commissioner, who performs the functions of civil judge, magistrate, and collector of revenue within his jurisdiction. In the exercise of these duties the political assistant has to visit, during the cool and healthy part of the year, the interior of his district; and it was during a tour of this nature, made in 1850-51, that the notes and remarks on the scenery, topography, inhabitants and products of the principal river of the country were made, and are now offered to the Royal Geographical Society. The, at the time, irremediable want of proper instruments incapacitated the author from recording such data as to the heights of mountains, latitudes of places, temperature and humidity of the air, &c. as are essential to the completeness of a traveller's diary. The hill-pcople described are one of a great number of tribes inhabiting the vast ranges of the Ilimmalaya mountains and their offshoots, most of whom, from Assam northward and westward, have been already described, but nothing has been published yet, the author believes, on the mountaineers or aborigines of Aracan; and the following crude observations will, he trusts, fill up in some measure this hiatus in ethnology.—S. R. T.]
Akyab, Feb. 3rd, Monday.—Weighed at 7 A.m., in the H. C. schooner Petrel, with a fresh breeze from the N.E., and, after running large to clear the shipping above us, braced up on the larboard tack and stood across the estuary of the Koladyn, here about 5 miles wide. The cold north-easterly monsoon blowing freshly against a flowing spring-tide made a "bit of a sea," and we cracked on merrily, the waves sparkling with blue and silver, and sending their spray over the decks of our little craft. The view of the station and town of Akyab was exceedingly pretty. The bungalas of the residents peeping from the trees—the smooth, regularly-planned roads, avenued by noble casuarinas—the few white-washed "pukka " bridges and edifices—all sparkled cheerily in the sun; and even the interminable masses of mat huts and houses, composing the town and bazaar, assumed a gay air in the lovely morning. The beach was crowded with busy multitudes, occupied in the grand staple commerce of the place—loading, husking, piling, measuring, and packing rice. The mass of the crowd was composed of Chittagong coolies (who come in shiploads during the working season), but amongst them might be seen groups of other nations in their various costumes—Arabs, Madrassies, Malays, Javanese, Chinese, and Mongols, mixed with the "Mughs" (the natives of Aracan); while, in more familiar garbs, English, Americans, French, Danes, Spaniards, and Dutch, might be seen strolling about or shouldering their way through the chattering crowds. Near the shore, and ranged in long lines, lay anchored ships of all the above nations, of every class and size from 800 tons downwards—from the taunt-sparred, clipping "Yankee" to the unwieldy Chinese junk; busily engaged in taking in rice from fleets of country boats around them: while between them and the shore passed and repassed small craft of every descriptionclumsy burs managed by Chittagong coolies, Aracanese canoes, Malay sampans, Chinese affairs, looking like huge troughs, and here and there the well-appointed quarter-boat of some European ship, with its clean white awning, bearing her master to his breakfast on shore. All was hurry-scurry, toil, and clamour.
The town of Akyab, viewed from the harbour, extends in a mass of mat houses, with a background of densely foliaged trees, for about 2^ miles, when it is bounded by the Charigia creek, though straggling clusters of buildings continue beyond, along the shore, which trends N.N.E. About midway the town is traversed by the Julliapara creek, which is smaller than the former, and passed by a substantial wooden bridge. Both are full of Burmese and Aracanese godoos, or native ships, boats, and canoes of every description; and the Charigia, which is about 100 yards broad, and very deep, admits ships of 300 tons for a mile or more within it. The mouths of these creeks are busy spots, being crowded with sheds for storing rice, and temporary wharfs, thronged with boats incessantly filling with freight for the shipping ; and up them for a considerable distance may be seen a forest of masts of Burmese and Aracanese godoos, which chiefly bring timber from the interior, and here and there an ugly, mangy-looking Chittagong sloop, with its grotesque Anglo-Indian rigging, a fishing-net triced up to the gaff-peak, and a starveling crew of coolies. How these vessels manage to find their way from Chittagong, or preserve their existence in the most ordinary state of the sea in the bay, was matter to me of great musing and wonderment as we swept past the suburbs of the town. The country ships from Masulipatam, Coringa, and other ports on the Madras coast are of a somewhat better description; but still, with Gonzalo in the 'Tempest,' I would prefer "an acre of barren ground, long heath, brown furze—anything" to "a thousand furlongs of sea" in one of them.
North of the Charigia, houses continue thinly scattered, and patches of green grass and jungle begin to mingle with them along the low muddy shore, with tall dead trees ringed and decaying in places where clearings have been commenced; until the whole length of bank presents a line of unbroken jungle close down to the water's edge, save where the ebb tide leaves a space of oozy mud between. The opposite or eastern side of the harbour is hemmed in by small rocky islets, with precipitous hills densely clothed in jungle, and with a steep, hard beach; some of the rocks crowning their summits start out in fanciful shapes, and one of them, "Tumble-down Dick "—a high slanting cone of sandstone projecting from a wooded ridge—is a well-known landmark in the estuary. Between these islands deep broad creeks afford safe inland passages to Kyuk-phu; and the N. of the harbour is bounded by Flat Island, a low tract of marshy jungle which divides the Koladyn into two broad streams, through which channels the tides rush with great strength, and, if the wind be fresh and contrary, a high rolling sea. Looking back to the S., low ridges of rocks, stretching out from the Bolongo Island, almost encircle the harbour, leaving a deep passage of about three-fourths of a mile in width for vessels entering or leaving; and from this reef rises Savage Island, a mass of steep rocks crowned by an excellent stone light house, facing another smaller one built on the most southerly point of Akyab Island itself.
We passed Flat Island on its western side, avoiding the long shoal that extends like a tail from its southern extremity, and tacking from shore to shore, drifted rapidly up with the tide; the banks on either side being a monotonous line of jungle, though the country in the interior is entirely open and cultivated. About 4 miles up the channel we passed, to the W., a large creek, the Moungyn, which affords a passage to the Myu river, N.W. One or two rice sheds were observable on its banks; and in the early part of the season pariars put»in here to load. Flat Island appears to be about 5 miles long; and. passing the head of it, we entered a channel of upwards of 2 miles broad, with a considerable sea rolling in the centre. Here we passed an antique looking bark going before the wind, and presently after a brig. The eastern shore continues low, covered with jungle, with here and there a fine open space peering through the trees; but, on the western side, at about twenty miles from Akyab, a ridge of wooded hills runs £ a mile inland parallel to the shore, and on a spur of these, projecting towards the river, is a very large ancient Jedi, or sacred monument of the Budhists, overlooking the village of Ourytung, off which, the tide failing us, we anchored.
The view from the deck of the Petrel here was very pretty: to our right, or E., rolled the broad stream of the Koladyn, now smooth in the calm air of evening. Ahead lay an extensive island meadow, dividing the main river from the Yeokhyung, a broad creek that came smoothly down from the N.N.W., grey with the shadows of overhanging hills that swept along the western shore and rose sharply defined against the fading sky. On our left hand, *'stricken in years," and in the, mute majesty of decay, stood the lone Jedi; and past it, swept a little stream, where lights began to twinkle from boats along the bank ; and above it a path winded away to the village of Ourytung, concealed in trees. Astern, the Koladyn rolled on, its broad waters mingling far off with the harbour, and to the S.E. bounded by ranges of purple hills.
A jedi I have called a Budhist sacred monument. It can' scarcely be called a temple, for it is solid, having no interior receptacle, shrine, or apartment. It is in fact a solid cupola, truncated at the base, which springs sheer from the ground, and with divers convolutions, as if turned in a lathe, ends in a pinnacle, surmounted by iron wire-work, representing the royal fringed Burmese "tee," or state umbrella; the terminating spire of which is not unfrequently crowned with an old soda-water bottle.
Before night set in, observing an alligator asleep on a mud flat near some rocks about \ of a mile up the stream, I set off in the jolly-boat, and after a long pull gained the shelter of the rocks, and, letting the boat drop silently past him within 30 or 40 yards, shot him through the neck, so that he merely opened his mouth, but could not stir from the spot. The boat's crew jumped on shore, up to their thighs in mud, and with a little trouble (giving him an oar to mumble, at which he snapped savagely), tied up his muzzle, and dragged him into the boat. He was about 9 feet long. The Clashies secured his fangs, and the Mughs his body, of which they made some dainty dish. The alligators here are a distinct species from the "mugger," "koomh'ir," or " boach," of Bengal j they are longer in proportion, with a slenderer muzzle, and, like the " gavial" of the Ganges, appear adapted for more rapid swimming. It is notable that in Bengal the largest alligators are found nearest the sea: here it appears to be the reverse; for they tell me the largest are high up the Koladyn, where they frequently seize and devour both children and adults.
At 8 P.m. we weighed, and, in a light air, partly sailed and partly swept up the creek to the N.N.W., the Yeokhyung, anchoring about 1 mile from its mouth, off Prongrhe.
Uh, Tuesday.—Weighed at 8 A.m., a bright clear morning, and tacked up the Yeokhyung with a strong northerly breeze. The keonk, or tuhsildar, of Prongrhe, in the circle (or ke-wyn) of Yeogwyn, came on board to pay his respects, and brought his son, a handsome lad of fourteen or fifteen years. The creek is on an average 200 yards wide, and very winding, with much cultivation on both sides, and pawn gardens at the foot of the hills. These, after bordering the creek for 2 miles, trend off inland to N. W., and disclose other parallel ranges further back; they are densely clothed in hill bamboo and other jungle, and very steep, but not above 500 feet in height. I have been joined by my revenue