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hot, and consequently that the hemp pro- Canadas are perhaps the most imduced there is too fine for large cordage. portant and the most neglected. They This may probably be the cause of failure are what mathematicians would call in that quarter ; but no such deteriorating a conjugate portion of the empire, effects are produced by the heat of the little less vitally requisite to its perCanadian climate. The Society for the fect integrity than if they were all Encouragement of Arts say, in the Preface contained within the one boundary. to the 21st volume of their Transactions. The question respecting

the utility of that they have ascertained by actual experiment, that Canada can furnish hemp for colonies may be disputable in some the use of the navy, equal in quality to

cases; in this it is not. Our Canathat which is imported from the Baltic. dian empire is a curb in the mouth of Monsieur Vondervelden, in a letter to the the most arrogant and ambitious peoSociety, attributes the bad success in Ca- ple on the face of the earth ; a people nada to the attachment which the Canadians who would swallow us if they could, have always evinced to old customs, and to and with whom we shall, one day or the opposition and prejudice of their priests, other, have to contend in a deathwho would derive no advantage from the struggle,-a struggle not for glory or cultivation of hemp, as it is not, agreeably dominion, but for life. That day is to the existing laws, a tytheable article distant, but it is inevitable: we should The seigneurs and merchants also considerable opposition; the one from a

be prepared for it. Canada is the first conviction that it would destroy the profits of morsel which the Western Leviathan their wheat-mills, from which their greatest will attempt to gulp; and it must be revenues are derived ; and the other, be- rendered such as shall choke him: cause they were apprehensive, it would if not, it will be but as a whet to his have a powerful tendency to set aside that appetite. Prompt, bold, and wise system of barter which they had long found measures should be taken to convert to be more profitable than a ready money that country into one bulwark. trade.

By “ martello towers,” fortifications, Only some of these difficulties exist at fleets, and soldiers ? No! Not by present in the Lower Province; and, I these alone, nor by these chiefly; but think, the principal among them might be obviated by making hemp a tytheable article. by manning it with subjects, loyal But in Upper Canada, which, on account

because they are well governed, brave of the superiority of its soil and climate, because they are free, and powerful is much better 'adapted to the growth of because they are prosperous. Let hemp, a still smaller number of obstacles their manufactories be encouraged, would be experienced than in the Lower their internal commerce facilitated, Province; and it is the opinion of the their agriculture promoted, and, above best-informed men in the country, that if a all, their local government purified, plan like that which I have now described invigorated, and rendered acceptable were pursued, a sufficient quantity of hemp to the people. This is the only means might be reared, in less than five years, to render the British Government completely done, or not done at all. To do less

of doing well that which should be so independent of foreign supplies, and to save

than this is to do worse than nothing. us from the humiliating necessity of annually paying the sum of a million and a It would be only cultivating a future half to a foreign power, for an article, province for the Union, fostering anwhich, by a little encouragement on one other head for the hydra. Never let hand, and by industry and perseverance on this be left out of sight: Canada is the other, we might raise in our own colo- either as one for us, or, lost to the nies, to the great benefit of Canadian set. States, much more than as two tlers.

against us. Not like Hanover lost

to Russia, where, both from its disThe people of Canada annually pay to

tance and situation amongst other the Republican Americans upwards of kingdoms, its resources would be of 100,000 dollars in specie for SALT alone, - little avail to the gainer; not even every shilling of which might be kept in the Province

(taking into consideration the relative i. e. if the smallest encouragement land lost to France; but rather like

force of the two provinces) like Irewere extended to its manufacture Normandy, when it was wrested from there, by the government,


us by the latter kingdom, adding country abounding in saline springs.

the weight of another member to the Of all British dependencies, the force of a consolidated body. We


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583 talk of Greece as a bridle for the Cos- Its natural advantages are fully as sack; but where is the foot-lock for great as those of the opposite shore. the Yankee ? --It is Florida! * Why has it not been equalized ? It

If the view which we have here moves, not the envy, but the anguish taken of the ultimate importance of of a good subject to hear and read the Canadas be correct, nothing can the different accounts which travelbe easily imagined more worthy of lers give of the American and the our serious attention than the affair British side of the St. Lawrence: of Emigration. It is well known activity, enterprize, public spirit,that the majority of the Canadian power, on the one; inertia, timidity, population are French in their pedi- public spiritlessness,—debility on the gree and in their manners: we sus- other. Wherefore, -why is this? pect moreover that they are French Shall the democrat tell us to our face in their hearts.t Now to correct this that it arises solely from the different lurking anti-British feeling, Emigra- forms of government prevailing on tion from Great Britain is the only the opposite shores? Shall he not means which can be devised. In- only tell, but seem to prove it to our deed, whether it exists or not, our face? O let it not be said! Let not conduct should be the same. By a form of government which all hisEmigration we could man the soil torians from Herodotus to Sismondi with such a tenantry as would, in tacitly unite to condemn, have this process of time under a liberal form practical evidence of its superiority of government, render the north bank over that which Cicero praised as a of the St. Lawrence impregnable to beautiful vision, and Montesquieu the Yankee, and throw him back a realized dream !-Or shall we have with ruin and disgrace on his own to confess that Puritanism sketched boundary if he attempted to trans- out a mighty empire which a more

Here then is a necessity orthodox creed has been unable to turned into a possible advantage: we imitate even in miniature? Whichmust get rid of our superfluous po- ever ground we take, whether we pulation, and we may not only do stand forth as the reprobators of dethis by encouraging its emigration to mocracy or sectarianism,-tell us to Canada, but, by rendering its settle- look across the St. Lawrence, and we ment there commodious and happy, must be dumb. The sincere lovers convert that which was a burthen to of monarchy and episcopacy should oppress, into a bulwark to defend, us. be furnished with a practical answer But by its very nature this super- to a practical argument. fluous population, being in a great In this national point of view the measure the scum not the cream of question of Emigration is of mosociety, will require the more wisdom mentous significance. As it regards and ability in the local authorities individuals also, if not as universally, to exalt and purify its debased con- it is more immediately important. dition, till it becomes eventually that The eventual prosperity of the emwhich we would make of it, and pire, the present happiness of a great which might be made of it. The many of our countrymen, are deeply Union itself was a scion from such involved in it. For the double puranother rascal stock; yet what a pose of affording the Emigrating and goodly tree it is already !-Why the permanent population (amongst then might not Canada, by means of which ministers may find some beemigration, be equalized, for its di- nefit in enrolling themselves) of the mensions, with the United States ? three United Kingdoms some infor

* The supine indifference with which we beheld Florida ceded to the Union, marks with a most expressive character, either the want of public spirit or of common political foresight, which allowed that measure to take place almost without regretting it. How many men-of-war frigates will the ports of Florida fit out in the next twenty years, to take our honest “ fifties” in tow after a broadside ?

+ In this suspicion, which (all circumstances considered) is not a very rash one to indulge, we are countenanced by the opinion of an intelligent friend who resided many years in the Canadas. His experience leads him to conclude that although the inhabitants would rather remain under our government than that of the Bostonois as they usually designate the subjects of the United States, they would decidedly prefer reverting to the dominion of France.

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mation upon this subject, we will as soon as the Council have determined on quote a few paragraphs relating to it the quantity of land to which the applicant from the volumes lying on our table. is entitled: The Second, on filing a They may furnish matter of reflec- certificate of settlement-duty: And the tion to both parties, some reasons Every British subject, of what stamp soever

THIRD, on receipt of the fiat for a patent. perhaps for change of opinion re

his creed, is entitled, on his arrival at the specting Emigration, and some mo

seat of government for Upper Canada, to tives for change of conduct in prin- receive any quantity of land, within the ciple or in detail. The subject has provincial limit of 1,200 acres, which he been hitherto much misrepresented may possess the means of cultivating, and and of course much misunderstood. for which he is willing to pay the required

fees. In the first settlement of the country, as

I do not question the right of the Gomight naturally be expected, the shores of the St. Lawrence, and of the Lakes On

vernment to charge such enormous fees on tario, Erie, and St. Claire, became the lands which it has fairly purchased, and is choice and the property of those persons and manner as may most effectually ac

of course entitled to dispose of in such way who first arrived in the Province. The banks of the rivers which empty themselves complish the objects which it has in view. into these lakes, and all the circumjacent But if it be the wish of England to increase country, have, since the termination of the the population of Canada, and thus render war, become entirely settled : So that it is it of some value to the parent-country, I now impossible to procure land, except by very much doubt the policy of those mean

sures which the Canadian Government is purchase, in any part of Upper Canada in which the various great advantages of si

now pursuing. Since the increase of the tuation are attainable. But this is of little fees, I have known many cmigrants, who consequence to any, except to the poorest in the country, but who, on finding that

came here with a determination of settling class of emigrants : For those who carry the Government, instead of freely GRANT“ their friend in their pocket,” may pur

ING land to the unfortunate among its chase land in the finest and most eligible townships, with less than is paid for a Go- subjects, was actually in the habit of sellvernment GRANT in the midst of inter

ING IT at an extravagant rate, turned

their backs on the British Colonies, and minable forests. This is an assertion immediately went over to the United States, which may surprise persons who are unacquainted with the country, an offend the

to add strength and numbers to our already chaste ears of others who are well enough state, that, since the new scale of fees was

formidable rivals. I can very confidently acquainted with it. But it is not a mere assertion; it is a stubborn fact, the validity adopted, there have not been five hundredof which I shall be able to substantiate by dred which were previously granted. The

acre lots of land taken up for the one hun. arguments that may bid defiance to refuta. tion, and that present themselves incidents object of increasing the fees, whatever it ally in the discussion of emigration.

might have been, must therefore have de

feated itself; unless, indeed, it were to This matter of Government grants is retard the settlement of the country. Some important to be made known. Before persons, perhaps, in the plenitude of their the year 1819, the fees on obtaining loyalty, may, for the honour of the thing, such grants were: for 200 acres the prefer dealing with government on these sum of 8l. 8s. 9d., to which was to be terms to dealing with private individuals added 4l. 45. 46. for every hundred on much more advantageous terms: But acres more. Äfter the same period, plainness of speech, have much more money

these persons, if I may be allowed such the fee for 200 acres was augmented than wit. For land, in townships which to 16). 178. 6d., and the additional have been long settled, and whose confee for every additional hundred acres tiguity to navigable rivers gives them a was increased to 77. 14s. 1d.

decided superiority over government-lands, And now that unfortunate emigrants can now be purchased for less money than procure money more easily than it could be is required in accepting a grant of an equal procured heretofore, the fees are raised to number of acres from Government. the following enormous amount :-Fifty You must not, however, suppose that I acres to pauper emigrants gratis ; for 100 mean to represent the Lieutenant Governor acres, 121. ; for 200, 301.; for 300, 607. ; and Council as a company of land-specufor 400, 751. ; for 500, 1251.; and for lators, who dispose of their forests in the every additional hundred acres up to 1200, sanie manner as private individuals. Far 251. is to be paid.

from it! There is a very particular differThese sums are payable in three equal ence in the method which they adopt. For instalments : The First, on the receipt of instance, if you feel disposed to accommoa location ticket, which is always obtained date the Government with your cash, you





The Canadas.Emigration, must humbly petition for its value in land, grate to this country by the confident hope and be particularly attentive to the manner of obtaining a gratuitous grant of land are in which you receive their munificent gift, too frequent; and, I am sorry to add, they taking especial care, in look and word, to are sometimes treated by the Executive express no other sentiments than those of Government here with a degree of conunfeigned thankfulness.

tempt, for which it is difficult to account. But if your inclination should lead you The Lieutenant Governor and Council seem to trade with private land-owners, you find to think that they, and they only, are the yourself quite differently circumstanced. persons to whom applications for land should Instead of being the suppliant, you become be made, and appear resolved to convince the supplicated. In the one case, you all who have been so presumptuous as to must obtain a royal fiat for the disposal of make application elsewhere, that it would your cash ; in the other, you are presumed have been better for such applications to to possess a legitiinate right to do so of have been deferred until the will and pleayour own accord.

In dealing with the sure of the Government were ascertained. former, you must relinquish your own judgment altogether, and allow the Lieu

It is very impolitic, for those who can
tenant Governor and Council to select for afford to pay for land, to pursue the latter
you, in such places as they may deem course-rent cleared farms ; but, in the
expedient, the article which they may be case of poorer emigrants, I consider it
graciously pleased to grant you. Whereas, much better to do so than to accept of a
if you treat with the latter, you are at per- grant of fifty acres from the government.
fect liberty to exercise your own judgment, To persons acquainted with America it
and to make such selection of land as may would be unnecessary to say, that fifty
appear most likely to conduce to your acres are insufficient for the support of a
future welfare and respectability. The moderate family. Allowing twenty acres
honour, however, of an interview with his for fuel, which would only be reserving a
Excellency and the different members of quantity sufficient for the same number of
the Executive Council, and the pleasure of years, and dividing the remaining thirty
contemplating an enormous seal suspended into pasturage, meadow-land, and tillage,
from your deed, with the Royal Arnis it might, if well managed, barely main-
thereon impressed, are considered, by some tain a family. But a man who is in the
persons, advantages sufficiently substantial possession of this small quantity of land, is
to counterbalance the paltry saving which in a situation little superior to that of the
is eftected by dealing with men in the humIrish peasant. Like him, he is compelled
bler walks of life. Who is there so vile, to toil hard all day, and to find at even-
that would not give four or five hundred tide that he has earned what is hardly
dollars more for a deed with half a dozen enough to prolong his existence, a sort of
honourable signatures and the imposing prison-allowance, which prevents him from
seal of Chancery thereto annexed, than for dying of hunger, while at the same time it
a title with the signature of an obscure indi- removes him very far from repletion. Like
vidual, and the simple impression perhaps him, he has no hope of improving his cir-
of a steel-bottomed thimble?

cumstances, or of attaining to that inde.
It is supposed by many persons in pendence for which he braved the dangers
Canada, that the Supreme Government at of the deep. His field is too contracted,
home is wholly ignorant of the amount of and the means of extending it are not with
fees claimed from emigrants on their ob- in his reach.
taining land: But this, I think, is certainly It is admitted by all persons acquainted
an absurd supposition. Surely it is not with the Canadas, that 100 acres of land
possible that his Majesty's Ministers can are as small a quantity as an agriculturist
be so ignorant of the affairs of Canada as should ever consent to cultivate in this
not to know exactly how the Executive country. This may appear very extraordia
Government is exercising its prerogative. nary to English or Irish farmers ; but it
For my part, I cannot entertain an idea so is nevertheless a fact, which could easily
derogatory from their acknowledged vigil- be demonstrated. The severity of the
ance. I believe, nay, I know, they are as winter makes it necessary for every farmer
intimately acquainted with the matter as I to provide a large quantity of forage for
am myself; and I think that persons who his horses and cattle, and the excessive
come to Canada under the impression of heat and drought of the summer render the
being able, on their arrival here, to obtain meadow-lands rather unproductive. The
gratuitous grants of land, take very little high price of labour, and the shortness of
trouble to be rightly informed on the sub- the tillage season, preclude the possibility
ject previous to leaving their native country: of cultivating the lands in that excellent
For, I am well assured that all applicants manner which would render them as pro-
at Earl Bathurst's office for information on ductive as English soils; and these cir-
this subject regularly receive due attention. cumstances united with the low price of
Instances of persons being induced to emic produce, and the exorbitant cost of British

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merchandize, prove the necessity of farm would manifest a spirited desire to improve ing on a large scale, and the difficulty of the internal navigation of the Canadas, and existing on a grant of 50 acres.

to encourage the cultivation of hemp and

tobacco, sufficient would be done for pauper This lamentable decrease in the imports emigrants, and particularly for young men, and exports, and consequent deficiency in by landing them on this side of the Atlanthe revenue, are attributed to the altera- tic. Immediate employment might then tions in the laws of England, which regu- be reckoned upon with certainty, and would late the importation of corn, flour, and be easily procured ; and an industrious meal into the United Kingdom. By these man, within the limits of a single year, laws, the grain of the Canadas has been could not fail to obtain a sufficient sum to effectually excluded from the British mar. establish him upon his own lands. If the ket. The Canadians complain, and I Canadas are properly regarded, as a valuathink not without cause, that, whilst they ble portion of the British Empire, surely are compelled to resort almost exclusively something more should be done for them to England for a great variety of her ma- than has ever yet been attempted. Sure I nufactures, for which their staple commo- that if some of those hundreds of dities were formerly taken in exchange, thousands which are almost annually voted they are prevented from sending to foreign away by the Imperial Parliament, for the countries such articles of their own pro- further decoration of buildings already duce as are excluded from the British mar- sufficiently splendid, and the support of kets, where they might obtain in exchange establishments already too munificently enthe merchandize of which they stand in dowed, were devoted to the improvement of need.

this portion of the British Colonies, a great It is not necessary to possess any extra- benefit would speedily devolve on the people ordinary powers of mental vision to per. of England. If the extension of your comceive, that a colony whose imports, amount- merce be desirable, -if the enrichment of ing only to 863,1561. exceed her exports your remotest dependencies be an object by more 350,0001., must inevitably become worthy of regard, if the possession of vabankrupt, unless some

luable territories, capable of receiving and promptly resorted to for her salvation. I sustaining millions of your overgrown pothink, however, the evils here complained pulation, now almost literally perishing for of, which are now becoming daily more want of employment,-if these be advangeneral, might be greatly alleviated, if not tages, and if Canada be worth the

paternal entirely removed, without adopting any care of your Government,-- why has she measures that would have the slightest ten- not experienced greater attention? Why dency to affect the agricultural interests of does she not obtain a portion of that libethe parent state. That it would be highly rality which the Parliament of England so impolitic to admit colonial or any other frequently and laudably displays ? produce into the ports of the United King- The total expense of transporting dom, so long as you are able to grow what is sufficient for your own consumption, is (without servants) from Europe to

a family consisting of eight persons a fact, which every disinterested man will acknowledge. At the same time, it is, in Upper Canada is estimated at about my humble opinion, a great hardship that 6801. The writer is supposing the we, I speak as a Canadian, should be com- case of an Englishman worth 15001. pelled to purchase your manufactures desirous of emigrating to Canada; when you will not accept of our staple com- he goes on to say: modities in exchange. On the very prin- For this sum, viz. 6811., the emigrant will ciples of “ Free Trade," on which you be able to defray his expenses from his naseem inclined to act whenever we, as colo. tive country to Upper Canada, to obtain 500 nists, ask the slightest boon at your hands, ' acres of land, to clear and fence 25 acres, to we certainly ought to be allowed to avail erect a house and barn, and to provide himourselves of the advantages which are to be self with the necessary farming utensils, stock derived from commercial intercourse with and furniturc. For 3001. more, he may foreign markets. Perhaps, if proper en. have 75 acres cleared, which in addition to couragement were given to the culture of the other 25, will make 100,—a quantity hemp and tobacco in Canada, the balance sufficient for any Canadian farmer. of trade, which is at present decidedly I only mention these facts, to show the against us, might be turned in our favour. impolicy of Government in charging such It has been said, that England annually enormous fees on wild and uncultivated pays, to a foreign power, upwards of a mil. land. By the statement which I have lion and-a-half, for the single article of made, and which, you may rest assured, is hemp; every pound of which might be perfectly correct, it appears that 500 acres saved to the British empire, by promoting of land, received from the Government, the culture of that plant in Canada. when improved in the way that has been

described, will cost no less a sum to the If, however, the Supreme Government proprietor than 3151. This land, it should

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