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LIFE AND DEATH
KING RICHARD II.
KING RICHARD THE SECOND.
Uncles to the BISHOP OF CARLISLE. JOHN OF GAUNT, Duke of Lan-> King. ABBOT OF WESTMINSTER. caster;
LORD MARSHAL; and another Lord. HENRY, surnamed Bolingbroke, Duke of Here SIR PIERCE of Exton,
ford, Son to John of Gaunt; after
rd Son to John of Gaunt: after. I SIR STEPHEN SCROOP
Captain of a band of Welshmen,
Queen to King Richard.
DUCHESS OF GLOSTER. EARL OF SALISBURY.
DUCHESS OF YORK, EARL BERKLEY.
LADY attending on the Queen. Busny, Bagor, Creatures to King Richard.. Lords, Heralds, Officers, Soldiers, two GarGREEN, )
deners, Keeper, Messenger, Groom, and EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND.
other Attendants. HENRY PERCY, his Son. LORD Ross.
Scene, dispersedly in England and Wales.
| Re-enter Attendants, with BOLINGBROKE and SCENE J.—London.-A Room in the Palace.
FOLK. Enter King RICHARD, attended; John of
Boling. May many years of happy days befall
My gracious sovereign, my most loving liege! GAUNT, and other Nobles, with him.
Nor. Each day still better other's happiness; K. Rich, Old John of Gaunt, time-honour'd Until the heavens, envying earth's good hap, Lancaster,
Add an immortal title to your crown! Hast thou, according to thy oath and band, K. Rich. We thank you both : yet one but Brought hither Henry Hereford thy bold son;
flatters us, Here to make good the boisterous late appeal, As well appeareth by the cause you come; Which then our leisure would not let us hear, Namely, to appeal* each other of high trea. Against the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mow- . son.bray ?
Cousin of Hereford, what dost thou object Gaunt. I have, my liege.
| Against the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mow. K. Rich. Tell me inoreover, bast thou sound
bray? ed him,
| Boling. First, (heaven be the record of my If he appeal the Duke on ancient malice; In the devotion of a subject's love, (speech!) Or worthily as a good subject should,
Tendering the precious safety of my prince, On some known ground of treachery in him? | And free from other misbegotten hate, Gaunt. As near as I could sift him on that Come I appellant to this princely presence. argument,
Now, Thomas Mowbray, do I turn to thee, On some apparent danger seen in him, And mark my greeting well; for what I speak, Aim'd at your highness, no inveterate malice. My body shall make good upon this earth, K. Rich. Then call them to our presence; face Or my divine soul answer it in heaven. to face,
[hear Thou art a traitor, and a miscreant; And frowning brow to brow, ourselves will | Too good to be so, and too bad to live; The accuser, and the aocused, freely speak :--Since, the more fair and crystal is the sky,
[Exeunt some Attendunts. The uglier seem the clouds that in it fly. High-stomach'd are they both, and full of ire, Once more, the more to aggravate the note, In rage deaf as the sea, hasty as fire. | With a foul traitor's name stuff I thy throat; * Bond.
And wish,(so please my sovereign,) ere I move, K. Rich. How high a pitch his resolution What my tongue speaks, my right-drawn sword
soars! may prove.
Thomas of Norfolk, what say'st thou to this? Nor. Let not my cold words here accuse my | Nor. O, let my sovereign turn away his face, 'Tis not the trial of a woman's war, szeal; And bid his ears a little while be deat, The bitter clamour of two eager tongues,.. Till I have told this slander of his blood, Can arbitrate this cause betwixt us twain : | How God, and good men, hate so foul a liar. The blood is hot, that must be cool'd for this, K. Rich. Mowbray, impartial are our eyes, Yet can I not of such tame patience boast,
and ears : As to be hushi and nought at all to say: Were he my brother, nay, my kingdom's heir, First, the fairerence of your highness curbs |(As he is but my father's brother's son,)
Now by my sceptre's awe I make a vow, From giving reins and spurs to my free speech; Such neighbour nearness to our sacred blood Which else would post until it had return'd Should nothing privilege him, nor partialize These termsef treason doubled down his throat, The unstooping firmness of my upright soul; Setting aside his high blood's royalty,
He is our subject, Mowbray, so art thou; And let him be no kinsman to my liege, Free speech, and fearless, I to thee allow. I do defy him, and I spit at him;
Nor. Then, Bolingbroke, as low as to thy Call him-a slanderous coward, and a villain :
[liest! Which to maintain, I would allow him odds; Through the false passage of thy throat, thou And meet him, were I tied to run a-foot | Three parts of that receipt I had for Calais, Even to the frozen ridges of the Alps, Disburs’d I duly to his highness' soldiers : Or any other ground inhabitable
The other part reserv'd I by consent; Where ever Englishman durst set his foot. For that my sovereign liege was in my debt, Mean time, let this defend my loyalty,- Upon remainder of a dear account, .. By all my hopes, most falsely' doth he lie. Since last I went to France to fetch his queen: Boling. Pale trembling coward, there I throw Now swallow down that lie. For Gloster 3 my gage,
death, Disclaiming here the kindred of a king; I slew him not; but to my'own disgrace, And lay aside my high blood's' royalty, Neglected my sworn duty in that case,Which fear, not reverence, makes thee to ex- 'For you, my noble lord of Lancaster, cept:
The honourable father to my foe, If guilty dread hath left thee so much strength, Once did I lay in ambush for your life, As to take up mine honour's pawn, then stoop: A trespass that doth vex my grieved soul : By that, and all the rites of knighthood else, But, ere I last receiv'd the sacrament, Will I make good against thee, arm to arm, I did confess it; and exactly begg'd. What I have spoke, or thou can'st worst de Your grace's pardon, and, I hope, I had it. vise.
This is my fault: As for the rest appeal'd,t Nor. I take it up; and, by that sword 1 It issues from the rancour of a villain, swear,
[der, A recreant and most degenerate traitor: Which gently laid my knighthood on my shoul" | Which in myself I boldly will defend; I'll answer thee in any fair degree,
And interchangeably hurl down my gage Or chivalrous design of knightly trial : |_Upon this overweeningt traitor's foot, And, when I mount, alive may I not light. To prove myself a loyal gentleman
To prove If I be traitor, or unjustly fight!
Even in the best blood chamber'd in his bosom: K. Rich. What doth our cousin lay to Mow. In haste whereof, most heartily I pray bray's charge?
Your highness to assign our trial day... It must be great, that can inheritt'us
K. Rich. Wrath-kindled gentlemen, be rulu So much as of a thought of ill in him.
by me; Boling. Look, what I speak my life shall Let's purge this choler without letting blood: prove it true;
(nobles, | This we prescribe though no physician; That Mowbray hath receiv'd eight thousand Deep malice makes too deep incision : In name of lendings for your highness' soldiers; Forget, forgive; conclude, and be agreed; The which he hath detain'd for lewdt employ. Our doctors say, this is no time to bleed.-ments,
Good uncle, let this end where it begun; Like a false traitor, and injurious villain. We'll calm the duke of Norfolk, you your son. Besides I say, and will in battle prove, | Gaunt. To be a make-peace shall become my Or here, or elsewhere, to the furthest verge
(gage: That ever was survey'd by English eye, Throw down, my son, the duke of Norfolk's That all the treasons, for these eighteen years K. Rich. And, Norfolk, throw down his. Complotted and contrived in this land,
Gaunt. When, Harry? when?. . Fetch from false Mowbray their first head and Obedience bids, I should not bid again. w. spring
| K. Rich. Norfolk, throw down; we bid; Further I say, and further will maintain I there is no boot. $ Upon his bad life, to make all this good,
Nor. Myself, I throw, dread sovereign, at That he did plot the Duke of Gloster's death; 1. thy foot; Suggests his soon-believing adversaries; My life thou shalt command, but not my shame; And, consequently, like a traitor coward, The one my duty owes ; but my fair name, Sluic'd out his innocent soul through streams (Despite of death, that lives upon my grave,) of blood :
To dark dishonour's use thou shalt not have. Which blood, like sacrificing Abel's, cries, I any disgrac'd, impeach'd, and bafiled here Even from the tongueless caverns of the earth, Pierc'd to the soul with slander's venom To me, for justice, and rougb chastisement;
[blood And, by the glorious worth of my descent, The which no balm can cure, but his heartThis arm shall do it, or this life be spent.' Which breath'd this poison.
* Reproach to his ancestry. + Charge. Uninhabitablc. + Possest. Wicked. | Prompt. | Arrogant.
I No advantage in delay.
869 K. Rich. Rage must be withstood : | Yet art thou slain in him: Thou dost consent* Give me his gage :-Lions make leopards tame. In some large measure to thy father's death. Nor. Yea, but not change their spots : take In that thou seest thy wretched brother die. but my shame,
Who was the model of thy father's life. And I resign my gage. My dear dear lord, Call it not patience, Gaunt, it is despair: The purest treasure mortal times afford, In suffering thus thy brother to be slaughter'd, Is--spotless reputation; that away,
Thou show st the naked pathway to thy life, Men are but gilded loam, or painted clay. Teaching sterni murder how to butcher thee : A jewel in a ten-times-barr'd-up chest
That which in mean men we entitle-patience, Is- a bold spirit in a loyal breast.
Is pale cold cowardice in noble breasts. Mine honour is my life; both grow in one; What shall I say? to safeguard thine own life, Take honour from me, and my life is done: The best way is—to 'venge my Gloster's death. Then, dear my liege, mine honour let me try; Gaunt. Heaven's is the quarrel; for heaven's In that I live, and for that will I die.
substitute, K. Rich. Cousin, throw down your gage; do His deputy anointed in his sight, fully - you begin.
Hath caus'd his death : the which if wrongBoling: 0, God defend my soul from such Let heaven revenge; for I may never lift foul sin!
| An angry arm against his minister. Shall I seem crest-fallen in my father's sight? Duch. Where then, alas! may I complain Or with pale beggar-fear impeach my height
myself? Before this ont-dar'd dastard ! Ere my tongue Gaunt. To heaven, the widow's champion Shall wound mine honour with such feeble
and defence, wrong,
Duch. Why then, I will. Farewell, old Or sound so base a parle, my teeth shall tear
Gaunt. The slavish motive of recanting fear;
Thou go'st to Coventry, there to behold And spit it bleeding in his high disgrace, Our cousin Hereford and fell Mowbray fight: Where shame doth harbour, even in Mowbray's | O, sit my husband's wrongs on Hereford's face. [Exit Gaunt.
spear, K. Rich. We were not born to sue, but to That it may enter butcher Mowbray's breast ! command:
Or, if misfortune miss the first career, Which since we cannot do to make you friends, Be Mowbray's sins so heavy in his bosom, Be ready, as your lives shall answer it, That they may break his foaming courser's At Coventry, upon Saint Lambert's day ;
back, There shall your swords and lances arbitrate | And throw the rider headlong in the lists, The swelling difference of your settled hate; A caitifft recreant; to my cousin Hereford ! Since we cannot atone* you, we shall see Farewell, old Gaunt; thy sometime brother's Justice designt the victor's chivalry.
wife, Marshal, command our officers at arms With her companion grief must end her life. Be ready to direct these home-alarms.
Gaunt. Sister, farewell; I must to Coventry: [Exeunt. As much good stay with thee, as go with me!
Duch. Yet one word more;-Grief boundeth SCENE 11.-The same.--- A Room in the Duke where it falls, of LANCASTER's Palace.
Not with the empty hollowness, but weight: Enter Gaunt, and Duchess of GLOSTER. I take my leave before I have begun;. Gaunt. Alas! the part; I had in Gloster's
For sorrow ends not when it seemeth done.
Commend me to my brother, Edmund York. Doth more solicit me, than your exclaims,
Lo, this is all :-Nay, yet depart not so;
Though this be all, do not so quickly go; To stir against the butchers of his life.
I shall remember more. Bid him-0, what? But since correction lieth in those hands, Which made the fault that we cannot correct,
With all good speed at Plashys visit me. Put we our quarrel to the will of heaven;
| Alack, and what shall good old York there see, Who when he sees the hours ripe on earth,
But empty lodgings and unfurnish'd walls,
Unpeopled offices, untrodden stones?
And what cheer there for welcome, but my
(there, Hath love in thy old blood no living fire ?
Therefore commend me; let him not come
To seek out sorrow that dwells every where: Edward's seven sons, whereof thyself art one,
Desolate, desolate, will I bence, and die;
The last leave of thee takes my weeping eye. Some of those seven are dried by nature's
SCENE III.-Gosford Green, near Coventry. Some of those branches by the destinies cut: But Thomas, my dear lord, my life, my Glos
Lists set out, and a Throne. HERALDS, &c. ter,
attending One phial full of Edward's sacred blood, Enter the Lord MARSHAL, and Aumerle. One flourishing branch of his most royal root,
Mar. My lord Aumerle, is Harry Hereford Is crack'd, and all the precious liquor spilt;.
arm'd ? Is hack'd down, and his summer leaves all
Aum. Yea, at all points; and longs to enter in. faded,
Mar. The duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and By envy's hand, and murder's bloody axe.
(pet. Ah, Gaunt! his blood was thine ; that bed,
Stays but the summons of the appellant's trumthat womb,
| Aum. Why then, the champions are prepar'd, That mettle, that self-mould, that fashion'd
and stay Made him a 'man; and though thou liv’st, and
For nothing but his majesty's approach. breath'st,
+ A base villain. '* Reconcile. + Show,
Her house in Essex.
| There licast my lot."ever heaven, ons his seat.
Flourish of Trumpets.--Enter King RICHARD, My loving lord, (To Lord Marshal.] I tako who takes his seat on his throne ; GAUNT, and
my leave of you ;several Noblemen, who take their places. A Of you, my noble cousin, lord Aumerle Trumpet is sounded, and answered by another Not, sick, although I have to do with death; Trumpet within. Then enter NORFOLK in ar- But lusty, young, and cheerly drawing mour, preceded by a Herald.
breath.K. Rich. Marshal, demand of yonder cham-Lo, as at English feasts, so I regreet The cause of his arrival here in arms: [pion
| The dantiest last, to make the end most sweet: Ask him his name; and orderly proceed
O thou, the earthly author of my blood, To swear him in the justice of his cause.
(To GAUNT. Mar. In God's name, and the king's, say who
Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate, thou art,
Doth with a two-fold vigour lift me up
(arms: And why thou com'st, thus knightly clad in to reach at victory above my head,-Against what man thou com'st, and what thy
at the Add proof unto mine armour with thy prayers; quarrel:
And with thy blessings steel my lance's point, Speak truly, on thy knighthood, and thy oath;
That it may enter Mowbray's waxen* coat, And so defend thee heaven, and thy valour!
| And furbisht new the name of John of Gaunt, Nor. My name is Thomas Mowbray, duke of
Even in the lusty 'haviour of bis son.
Guunt. Heaven in thy good cause make thee Who hither come engaged by my oath,
prosperous! (Which, heaven defend, a knight should vio
Be swift like lightning in the execution; Both to defend my loyalty and truth, [late!)|
utatav And let thy blows, doubly redoubled, To God, my king, and my succeeding issue, I
Fall like amazing thunder on the casquei Against the duke of Hereford that appeals me;
Of thy adverse pernicious enemy: [live. And, by the grace of God, and this mine arm,
Rouse up thy youthful blood, be valiant and To prove him, in defending of himself,
| Boling. Mine innocency, and Saint George A traitor to my God, my king, and me:
(He takes his seat. And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven!
Nor. (Rising] However heaven, or fortune, [He takes his seat.
There lives or dies, true to king Richard's Trumpet sounds.-Enter BOLINGBROKE, in ar- A loyal, just, and upright gentleman: mour; preceded by a Herald.
Never did captive with a freer heart K. Rich. Marshal, ask yonder knight in
Cast off his chains of bondage, and embrace
His golden uncontrollid enfranchisement, arms, Both who he is, and why he cometh hither
More than my dancing soul doth celebrate Thus plated in habiliments of war;
This feast of battle with mine adversary.
Most mighty liege, and my companion peers, And formally according to our law Depose him in the justice of his cause.
Take from my mouth the wish of happy years: Mar. What is thy pame? and wherefore
As gentle and as jocund, as to jest,
Go I to fight; Truth hath a quiet breast. com'st thou hither,
K. Rich. Farewell, my lord: securely I espy Before King Richard, in his royal lists?
thy Virtue with valour couched in thine eye.Against whom comest thou; and what's thy quarrel?
.. (yen? 10 ter the trial, marshal, and begin. Speak like a true knight, so defend thee hea
[The King and the Lords return to their seats.
1 Mar. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Boling. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and
Receive thy lance; and God defend the right! To prove, by heaven's grace, and my body's Boling; (Rising.) Strong as a tower in hope. valour,
I cry-Ámen. In lists, on Thomas Mowbray duke of Norfolk,
Mur. Go bear this lance (To an Officer.] to That he's a traitor, foul and dangerous,
Thomas duke of Norfolk. To God of heaven, king Richard, and to me;
1 Her. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster and
Derby, And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven!
(self, Mar. On pain of death, no person be so bold,
Stands here for God, his sovereign, and him. Or daring-hardy, as to touch the lists;
On pain to be found false and recreant, Except the marshal, and such officers
To prove the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mow. Appointed to direct these fair designs.
bray, Boling. Lord Marshal, let me kiss my sove
A traitor to his God, his king, and him,
| And dares him to set forward to the fight. reign's hand, And bow my knee before his majesty :
2 Her. Here standeth Thomas Mowbray, For Mowbray, and myself, are like two men
duke of Norfolk, That vow a long and weary pilgrimage;
| On pain to be found false and recreant, Then let us take a ceremonious leave,
Both to defend himself, and to approve And loving farewell, of our several friends.
Henry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby; Mar. The appellant in all duty greets your
To God, his sovereign, and to bim, disloyal; highness,
Courageously, and with a free desire, And craves to kiss your hand, and take his / Attending but the signal to begin. K. Rich. We will descend, and fold him in Mar. Sound, trumpets; and set forward, our arms,
combatants. [A Charge sounded. Cousin of Hereford, as thy cause is right,
Stay, the king hath thrown his warder| down. So be thy fortune in this royal fight!
K. Rich. Let them lay by their helmets and Farewell, my blood; which if to-day thou shed,. .. their spears, Lament we may but not revenge thee dead.
And both return back to their chairs again :Boling. 0, let no noble eye profane a tear
| Withdraw with us :-and let the trumpets For me, if I'be gored with Mowbray's spear;
sound, As confident, as is the falcon's flight
* Yielding. Brighten up. Helmet. Against a bird, do I with Mowbray fight.- Play a part in a mask.
While we return these dukes what we de. | Embrace each other's love in banishment; cree.
(A long Aourish. Nor never look upon each other's face; Draw near,
[To the Combatants. | Nor never write, regreet, nor reconcile And list, what with our council we have done. | This lowering tempest of your home-bred hate. For that our kingdom's earth should not be | Nor never by advised* purpose meet, soil'd
To plot, contrive, or complot any ill, With that dear blood which it hath fostered ;* 'Gainst us, our state, our subjects, or our land. And for our eyes do hate the dire aspect
Boling. I swear. Of civil wounds plough'd up with neighbours' Nor. And I, to keep all this. swords;
Boling. Norfolk, so far as to mine enemy;[And for we think the eagle-winged pride | By this time, had the king permitted us, Of sky-aspiring and ambitious thoughts,
One of our souls had wander'd in the air, With rival-hating envy, set you on scradle | Banish'd this frail sepulchre of our tesh, To wake our peace, which in our country's | As now our flesh is banish'd from this land: Draws the sweet infant breath of gentle sleep;1 | Confess thy treasons, ere thou fly the realm ; Which so rous'd up with boisterous untun'd Since thou hast far to go, bear not along drums,
[bray, The clogging burden of a guilty soul. With harsh resounding trumpets' dreadful Nor. No, Bolingbroke ; if ever I were traiAnd grating shock of wrathful iron arms, My name be blotted from the book of life, [tor, Might from our quiet confines fright fair peace, | And I from heaven banish'd, as from hence! And make us wade even in our kindred's | But what thou art, heaven, thou, and I do 2. blood ;
know; Therefore, we banish you our territories: And all too soon, I fear, the king shall rue.-You, cousin Hereford, upon pain of death, Farewell, my liege :-Now no way can I stray; Till twice five summers have enrich'd'our Save back to England, all the world's my way. Shall not regreet our fair dominions, [fields,
[Exit. But tread the stranger paths of banishment. 1. K. Rich. Uncle, even in the glasses of thine Boling. Your will be done : This must my I see thy grieved heart: thy sad aspect [eyes comfort be,
[me; | Hath from the number of his banish'd years That sun, that waris you here, shall shine on | Pluck'd four away ;-Six frozen winters spent, And those his golden beams, to you here lent, Return (To Boling.] with welcome home from Shall point on me, and gild my banishment.
banishment. K. Rich. Norfolk, for thee remains a heavier
Boling. How long a time lies in one little doom, Which I with some unwillingness pronounce : Four lagging winters, and fourwanton springs, The fly-slow hours shall not determinate End in a word ; Such is the breath of kings. The dateless limit of thy dear exile;
Gaunt. I thank my liege, that, in regard of The hopeless word ofếnever to return
He shortens four years of my son's exile: [me, Breathe I against thee, upon pain of life. But little vantage shall I reap thereby; Nor. A heavy sentence, my most sovereign For, ere the six years that he hath to spend, liege,
Can change their moons, and bring their times And all unlook'd for from your highness'
about, A dearer merit, not so deep a maim
My oil-dried lamp, and time-bewasted light, As to be cast forth in the common air,
Shall be extinct with age, and endless night; Have I deserved at your highness' hand. My inch of taper will be burnt and done, The language I have learn'd these forty years, And blindfold death not let me see my son. My native English, now I must forego:
K. Rich. Why, uncle, thou has many years And now my tongue's use is to me no more,
to live. Than an unstringed viol or a harp;
Gaunt. But not a minute, king, that thou Or like a cunning instrument cas'd up,
canst give : Or, being open, put into his hands
Shorten my days thou canst with sullen sorrow, That knows no touch to tune the harmony. And pluck nights from me, but not lend a Within my mouth you have enjail'd my tongue,
morrow: Doubly portcullis'd,t with my teeth and lips; Thou canst help time to furrow me with age, And dull, unfeeling, barren ignorance
But stop no wrinkle in his pilgrimage; Is made my jailer to attend on me.
Thy word is current with him for my death; I am too old to fawn upon a nurse,
But, dead, thy kingdom cannot buy my breath. Too far in years to be a pupil pow; [death, K. Rich. Thy son is banish'd upon good What is thy sentence then, but speechless
advice,t Which robs my tongue from breathing native Whereto thy tongue a party verdict gave; breath?
Why at our justice seem'st thou then to lower? K. Rich. It boots thee not to be compas Gaunt. Things sweet to taste, prove in disionate;t
gestion sour. After our sentence plaining comes too late." You urg'd ine as a judge : but I had rather, Nor. Then thus I turn me from my country's | You would have bid me argue like a father : light,
O, had it been a stranger, not my child,
Retiring. A partial slanders sought I to avoid, (mild: K. Rich. Return again, and take an oath And in the sentence my own life destroy'd. with thee,
Alas, I look'd, when some of you should say, Lay on our royal sword your banish'd hands; | I was too strict, to make mine own away; Swear by the duty that you owe to heaven, But you gave leave to my unwilling tongue, (Our part therein we banish with yourselves,) | Against my will, to do myself this wrong. To keep the oath that we administer :
K. Rich. Cousin, farewell :-and, uncle, bid You never shall (so help you truth and heaven!)| . him so;
| Concerted. + Consideration. Had a part or share. Nursed. Barred. To move compassion.
Reproach of partiality.