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sixteenth century gradually becoming suppressed, when no sibilant preceded. -es (3rd pers. sing.) is always mute, and -es (plural and gen. sing.) is only occasionally pronounced in some of the earlier plays. Even after a sibilant the -es of the plural and of the gen. sing. is often not pronounced, and is occasionally not written.
Letters should not be known; | rich(es), poverty] (ii. 1. 150). The fresh | springs, brine- | pits, bar | ren place and fer | tile.
(i. 2. 338). Than oth | er prin | cess(es) can | that have more time (i. 2. 173). On the other hand, .es is sounded in achés (see note on i. 2. 370).
-est (2nd sing.) and -eth (3rd sing.) are practically always contracted in the later plays, e.g.
Shrug'st thou, malice ? If thou neglect'st or dost unwillingly (i. 2. 367–368). -est in the superlative is often retained, but it is six times contracted in The Tempest.
-ed (past tense and part.) shows much variety, but the contracted form is the commoner.
d. In the last but one syllable. An unaccented vowel is sometimes lost before a consonant in the middle of a word of more than two syllables: e.g. diligenti (iii. 1. 42), business (i. 2. 255).
(2) Vowel and Vowel-like. The letters l, m, n, and r have been given the name of “vowel-likes,” because they can exercise the double function of a vowel or a consonant.
a. Thus, one of these letters by passing from its consonant to its vowel value may form a new syllable. This is much commoner in earlier than in later plays, e.g.
They vanish'd strangely. No matter, since (iii. 3. 40). b. By passing from its vowel to its consonant value the “vowellike” may cause the loss of a syllable, e.g.
brother and yours (v. 1. 12), (brothe | r-and); mis'shapen knave (v. 1. 268), (mis-shape-n (kn)ave); officer and (i. 2. 84), (off-ice-rand).
Similarly within a word the unaccented vowel often suffers syncope before or after a “vowel-like”: e.g. parallel (i. 2. 74), and popular (i. 2. 92).
1 A dot under any letter (i) indicates that it is suppressed or slurred.
“Vowel-likes” underwent a still further reduction analogous to the suppression or slurring of vowels. Thus ! or r could be partially suppressed before a consonant, e.g. And hith | (er) come in ’t:go, hence | with dil | igence ! (i. 2. 304.)
vowel-like” r often caused a preceding long vowel to become a diphthong out of which two syllables were developed: e.g. faïrly spoke (iv. 1. 31); prayers (i. 1. 53); hour = ow-er (v. 1. 4).
(3) Vowel and Vowel.
Two adjacent vowels may be run into one in the same or in different words.
a. In different words.
This happens especially when the first word is the or to, e.g. th' event (i. 2. 117), th' afternoon (iii. 2. 96). Here the final vowel is altogether suppressed, but other final vowels rather formed a diphthong with the initial vowel: e.g. How came we ashore? (i. 2. 158).
b. In the same word.
This is most frequent when the first vowel is i or u, which readily pass into y or w: e.g. consciences (ii. 278); odious (iii. 1.5). When a stressed vowel is followed by an unstressed, the two may have the value of one syllable: e.g. being (i. 2. 72), deity (ii. 1. 278).
c. Contraction of vowels sometimes accompanies the loss of an intervening consonant.
Thus even in its adverbial sense is a monosyllable in 85 cases out of 100, and is often spelled e'en. (But the adjective even is always two syllables.) So ever and never are often one syllable, and over is so in more than 60 per cent cases. Whether, rather, other, and whither also are often monosyllables.
abysm (i. 2. 50), abyss, from
is used by ShakeO.F. abisme, abime, late Lat. speare in Richard II, i. abyssimus, a superl. of abyssus; 1. 164: there is no boot,
lit. “ the profoundest depth.” i.e. there is no help or use. amain (iv. 1. 74), at full speed, bosky (iv. 1. 81), woody, from swiftly. The word literally Mid. Lat. boscus, a wood. Cf. in strength
Comus, 313, every bosky on or in, and main strength, bower." from 0.E. magen. Appar- brave (i. 2. 6, 206), fine. F. ently not preceded by an brave, brave, gay, fine, proud, earlier full on main, but formed braggard, valiant (Cotgrave). in sixteenth century after words in a-, as afoot” (Mur- candied (ii. 1. 279), congealed, ray).
crystallized (see note). Pers. amazement (i. 2. 14), confusion, qand, sugar; Skr. khándava
distress of mind; stronger sweetmeats. than mere astonishment. So cat o mountain (iv. 1. 262). amazedly in stage direction Probably one of the smaller (v. 1. 216) means in a state varieties of the leopard, and of bewilderment." M.E. the name was apparently not amase, which had often the strictly confined to one anisense of producing disaster as mal (Wright). Thus Topsell well as confusion. Cf. Richard gives it as a synonym for a II, i. 3. 81, amazing thun- leopard, Minsheu for a wild der.”
cat, and Florio for an ounce. attached (iii. 3. _5), seized, at-catch (iii. 2. 126), a part-song.
tacked by. O.F. atachier, from 'Catch, round, or roundelay, a root probably cognate with and canon in unison are, in English tack; hence probably music, nearly the same thing. = to tack to.
In all, the harmony is to be
sung by several persons, and betid (i. 2. 31), happened. M.E. is so contrived that, though be-tiden, happen, a_synonym
each sings precisely the same of tiden, from O.E. tid-an, notes as his fellows, yet by happen.
beginning at stated periods of blow (iii. 1. 63), deposit eggs on,
time from each other, there foul, sully. Cf. Love's La- results a harmony of as many bour's Lost, v. 2. 408-409 : parts as there are singers.
The catch differs only in that “these summer flies
the words of one part are made Have blown me full of maggot ostentation.
to answer or catch the other,
as' Ah! how Sophia 'sung like bootless (i. 2. 35), profitless, *a house o' fire.'” (Chappell,
useless. O.E. bót, advantage, Popular Music of the Olden profit. The substantive Time), quoted by Wright.
certes (iii. 3. 30), certainly. corollarie; a surplusage, over
0.F. certes, more fully (ac- plus, addition to, vantage cording to Littré) a certes, above measure (Cotgrave). from probably late pop. Lat. Lat. corollarium, a present of
a certis, on certain grounds. a garland, a gratuity. chanticleer (i. 2. 385), the cock. crab (ii. 2. 171), crab apple. Originally a proper
Skeat suggests that the word O.F. chantecler, the name of the is perhaps allied to crab, the cock in the O.F. romance, shellfish, i.e. pinching, sharp, Reynard the Fox. It means
the clear singer,” from chanter, to sing, and cler, clear. dew-lapped (iii. 3. 45), with a chirurgeonly (ii. 1. 140), like a piece of loose skin hanging
surgeon. Chirurgeon is the from the throat. The second old spelling of surgeon.
F. element is 0.E. lappa, penchirurgien, Gr. χειρουργός, , dulous piece, lappet, lobe; worker with the hands.
the first is uncertain. chough (ii. 1. 266), red-legged
crow. Cognate with 0.E. ceó; ecstasy (iii. 3. 108), commotion named from cawing.
of mind. Used in E.E. of any cockerel (ii. 1. 31), a young mental disturbance, whether
cock, applied satirically to a due to joy, grief, or any other young man. A diminutive of cause. O.F. ecstase, through cock; perhaps of Anglo-Fr. the Latin, from Gr. exotasis, origin, but no such word found displacement. in O.F. dictionaries; perhaps of English formation; the feater (ii. 1273), more gracetermination seems to be the fully. same as in haggerel, mongrel, featly (i. 2. 380), nimbly, gracepickerel. (See Murray.)
fully. coil (i. 2. 207), confusion, up- flat-long (ii. 1. 181), with the flat roar. Gaelic goil, rage, battle. side. There were
some adcomplexion (i. i. 32), constitu- verbs in O.E., originally dative
tion, from Lat. complexionem. feminine singular, ending in It referred in M.E. “to the -inga, -unga, -linga, lunga. four Humours mixed in vary- A few of these, without the ing proportions in each human dative suffix, exist under the body; so Chaucer, ' of his form -ling or -long, as headcomplexion he was sanguin.' long, sidelong, darkling, flatThence it denoted
ling, and flatlong. The last (2) the outer appearance of two words were specially used the face as an index of tem- of a blow with the flat of a perament, and then (3) outer sword ; cf. Spenser, Faërie appearance in general. All Queene, v. 5. 18: Tho' with three meanings are common her sword on him she flatling
in Shakespeare (Herford). strooke,' and Sidney's Arcontrol (i. 2. 439), contradict, cadia, in the description of
confute; the original meaning Pamela's execution, “ The pitto check, verify, from O.F. tilesse sword had such pittie contre-role, a duplicate register of so precious an object that used to verify the official or at first it did but hit flatlong." first made roll.
flote (i. 2. 234), sea, from 0.E. corollary (iv. 1. 57), a super- flot; cf. Ger. fluth.
numerary. O.F. corolaire, a foison (ii. 1. 163; iv. 1. 110),
plenty. O.F. foison, Lat. fu- manage (i. 2. 70), management. sionem.
Originally like its immediate frippery (iv. 1. 226), an old- source, O.F. manège, a tech
clothes shop. Cotgrave trans- nical term for the managelates 0.F friperie
ment of horses. Cf. 1 Henry friperie, broker's shop, street IV, ii. 3. 52: Speak terms of brokers or of fripiers," and of manage to thy bounding he defines fripier as mender steed.' or trimmer up of old garments, mantle (v. 1. 67), cover with a and seller of them
scum ; cf. filthy-mantled mended.” O.F. fripper, to pool (iv. 1. 182). The verb rub up and down, to wear to is formed from the subs. rags.
mantle, a cloak or covering;
M.E. mantel, O.F. mantel, gaberdine (ii. 2. 40), a long frock Lat. mantellum, a napkin or
of coarse material. Extended covering. from Span. gaban, a great marmoset (ii. 2. 174), a small coat with a hood.
American monkey. The
name, however, is older than hests (i. 2. 274), commands. the discovery of America, as 0.E. hæs, command. The Maundeville mentions
apes; final † is excrescent,
marmozettes, babewynes. whils-t, amongs-t.
O.F. marmoset, translated by holp (i. 2. 63), helped. Curtailed Cotgrave, the cock of a
from holpen, p. part. of 0.E. cistern or fountain, any antick helpan.
image from whose teats water
trilleth, any puppet or inch-meal (ii. 2. 3), by inches. tick.”
“ Thus it meant Compounded of inch, from grotesque creature, originally O.E. ynce, with mutation from a grotesque ornament on Lat. uncia, and meal, from fountain. Formed by a PariO.E. mælum, dat. plu. of sian change of r to s, as in
mæl, piece. Cf. piecemeal. chaise for chaire (a chair), inherit (iv. 1. 154), possess.
from Low Lat. marmoretum, O.F. enheriter, Lat. hereditare, a thing made in marble, apto become heir to. It often plied to fountains. At the has the sense of “ possess same time, the transference in in poetry in E.E. by transfer
from 'drinking-founfrom an act to its sequel.
tain to 'ape' was certainly
helped on by confusion with kibe (ii. 1. 276), chilblain. F. marmot, a marmoset
or Welsh cibwst cib-gwst, com- little monkey” (Skeat). pounded from cib, a cup, and meddle (i. 2. 22), mix, mingle. gwst, humor, malady ; M.E. medlen, O.F. medler, hence a cup-like malady, from Low Lat. misculare, Lat. from the rounded form. The miscere. English word has preserved merely (i. 1. 59), entirely, abonly the syllable cib, reject- solutely from Lat. merus, ing the latter syllable (Skeat). pure.
minion (iv. 1. 98), favorite, from lieu (i. 2. 123), literally“ place," F. mignon, dainty, pleasing,
from Lat. locum. Hence in kind. Same root as O.H.G. lieu of = in place of, instead minna, memory, love, whence of, and thus “in return for." minnesinger
= singer of love.