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that England has any duties in Europe. It moment preparing another Encyclical is presumed that she cares not at all for which will ring out over Europe at the principles, and for customers a great deal. execution of the Convention of September, It is impossible to believe that this is more just as the last Encyclical was an answer to than a temporary state of national feeling. the conclusion of the Convention two years By the time the new Foreign Offices are ago. And what the POPE may say in Latin, completed, perhaps we shall have found when he once gets loose on the subject of some nobler purpose for them than being a modern infidelity and modern Liberalism, colossal shrine for the god of gray shirt- nobody can predict. If he is as vigorous as ings.
usual, the French and the Italians, and this time possibly the Prussians too, will hear a few bome truths about themselves. The French are accustomed to such explosions, and no body in France will much mind another En
cyclical, except the Bishop of Orleans, and From the Saturday Review, 29 Sept.
perhaps the MINISTER of the INTERIOR.
One or two illegal sermons will be preached, ITALY AND ROME.
there will be the usual Alutter of ephemeral
pamphlets, and possibly at most an episcopal As the time draws near for the promised appel comme d'abus. French statesmen are evacuation of Rome by the French troops, familiar with all the punctilios observed in it is natural that all eyes should be attracted the polite professional warfare between towards the principal actors in the Roman Bishops and lawyers which is generally the question. The Pope, as yet, has scarcely result of a fiery Pontifical missive; but the made a sign. A bandful of foreign merce French do not trouble themselves about the naries have certainly arrived to do duty Pope any more than country gentlefolk and when the French are gone, but their pres- country villagers in England mind their ence in the Papal territory seems more likely parson. But in Italy it is different. The to hasten than to prevent civic tumult and Italians are engaged heart and soul in the commotion. Unless the Italian troops re- task of reforming their ecclesiastical estabplace the French as self-constituted pro- lishment, and settling on a firm and liberal tectors of the Papal State, a small contingent basis the future relations of Church and of 1,200 mongrel volunteers will be no safe- State. An Encyclical which should be a guard against the impetus which brigandage repetition in any considerable degree of the will receive by the withdrawal of the French last would be in reality a declaration of war flag, and visitors this winter at Rome will against the Italian Parliament, and the sitfind their excursions into the Campagna uation of affairs in Florence has been so restricted within intolerably narrow limits. altered by recent events that it is not cerIf things were left to themselves, the Roman tain what the effect of such a Pontifical question would solve itself in the Christmas thunderbolt might be. holidays. Every effort will assuredly be The final discomfiture of Austria could made by the Roman Liberals to keep order not but kn, for many obvious reasons which till the last French vessel has weighed an- it is unnecossary here to examine in detail, chor too long to permit of a speedy return, a heavy blow and discouragement to the and a few months of suppressed disaffection Papacy. It must be remembered that the may succeed to nearly twenty years of com- recent Prussian aliance, and the common pulsory loyalty. But, even if the Roman action of the two Kingdoms in the late citizens and the citizens of the outlying campaigns, have tended to render Italy still towns are quiet, the brigands of the over- more inclined and able to be independent hanging mountains will not allow any pre- of the French Empire. Hitherto the French posterous notions about the comfort and EMPEROR has had a hod upon the Italians convenience of the Vatican to interfere about Rome, because he was their natural with their natural occupations. The task protector against the armies of Austria, who, of restoring and preserving order ought so long as she held Venetia and the Quadnaturally to pass into the hands of the Italian rilateral, and refused in any way to recogarmy; and if the Pope would only die, a nise the new Italian monarchy, threatened new occupant of the Chair might acquiesce the very existence of Italy upon the Northin the unsolicited protection secured to ern frontier. The Cabinet of Florence Rome by the Italian Kingdom. The only could not afford to sacrifice the patronage of difficulty' is about the Pope. Nobody knows the Cabinet of the Tuileries, and, dislike what he will do. Perhaps he is at this very such patronage as they might, the Italians
were bound to submit to it as a lesser evil, eral constitutional principles, but of the at any rate; than national annihilation. All temporal power and supremacy of the POPE. this Italian dependence upon France is now Italy, then, is far nearer obtaining Rome swept away. The danger of Austrian inva- than she ever was. The battle of Sadowa sion has for the present vanished into air. has lightened the burden of French influVenice bas not proved such a rich blessing ence under which her various Governments to the family of HAPSBURG that they can have been staggering ever since the cambe solicitous to recapture the bird which has paign of 1859, and has made it possible been let go; and one merit, at all events, of for the Legislature of Florence to breathe the fiction of a voluntary transfer is that a freely. One of the immediate consequences province ceded for valuable consideration is will perhaps be a change in the situation of less likely to be coveted by the grantor than parties in the national Chambers. Office territory of which he has been forcibly de- has of late years been in the hands of a prived by war. It is still true that France, Ministerial clique, on account, it may be, of in virtue of her superior military strength, the evident importance of maintaining a can, if she chooses, overshadow Italy, just as Ministry in power whose opinions would France by brute force could, if she chose; dovetail into the opinions of the Emperor of overpower Switzerland and Belgium. And the French. NAPOLEON III. has always there is no doubt that pressure will be freely been afraid that the Italian coach would be put upon the French EMPEROR to induce run away with, and a species of friendly and him to vindicate his diplomatic position in not always unwholesome terrorism has acthe eyes of Europe by insisting, at all haz. cordingly been often exercised upon the home ards, on the temporal authority of the Holy and foreign policy of successive Italian MinisSee. The Pope's temporal power is part tries. This the Italians will now endure no of the French Imperial programme, and so longer, nor is there any longer any reason many portions of that programme have had why they should put up with it. The time is by turns to be abandoned, that there is some come when the leading strings, which have danger of Frenchmen holding that it is always seemed to them intolerable, are necessary, for the sake of their prestige, to plainly unnecessary too, and the work of take their stand firmly on the remnant that internal legislation will fearlessly proceed is left. But though the Italians are no without risk of interruption or dictation from military match for the French, there are the Tuileries. French vanity will be parmany questions, of wbich the Roman ques- tially, though not entirely, appeased by the tion is perhaps one, which do not depend reflection that Italian legislation is likely to purely on military considerations. Italy be built on a French foundation. The can certainly afford to be firmer now about principles, as they are called, or the theories the liberation of Rome than ever, and to of 1789 have been tacitly adopted in the maintain a bolder and more unflinching main by Italian political parties of most attitude, in spite of all that the EMPEROR shades of opinion; and the Italian Church, may say and do. NAPOLEON III. must rely, before many years, will probably be an instiafter all, on the moral support of the French tution similar to the Gallican. "The national nation ; and every step which Italy can rights for which the French State, and some dare to take ir advance, NAPOLEON III., if of the most enlightened of the French prehe is as wise about Rome as about other lates, have always contended against Ultrathings, will certainly recede. The aggran- montanism, are not likely to be abandoned dizement of Prussia renders an Italian alli- by Italians; and, as the final emancipation ance an especial political advantage to of the Italian Church will not have been France. It cannot be for the EMPEROR's the result of a violent social and moral coninterest to fling Italy straightway into Prus- vulsion, there will be all the less danger sia's arms, or perhaps to give Count Bis- hereafter of an Ultramontane reaction. MARK
the power of presiding over the The troubles in Sicily have been a prosolution of the Italian question, as NAPOLE- voking sequel to the Italian history of the on III. meant at the beginning of the year present year, but Sicily has from time imto preside over the solution of the German memorial been a focus of agitation and inquestion. A reconciliation between the trigue. Nobody, not even Lord Minto, has King of Italy and the Papacy is the card ever been able to do anything with the on which the EMPEROR should, and prob- Sicilians; and it was evident, from the time ably means to, declare to win; and if Italians when the suppression of the religious corpoare true to themselves, this reconciliation rations was mooted in the Italian Parliawill be effected at the expense, not of Lib- ment, that disturbances in the island might
not improbably be expected. The casual The meteors should be especially looked alliance between the momentary interests for between midnight and sunrise, and may of democracy and Catholicism in Sicily be expected in greatest abundance between has given rise to some comments, and, in three and four A.M. They proceed, with religious circles on the Continent, to some few exceptions, from a common centre in ludicrous and extravagant hopes. It is not some part of the Constellation Leo.” Mr. easy to say whether the cause of convents or Herschel observes that “ between the 13th of 'republics suffers most discredit by the of October and the 12th of November, durconjunction. The insurrectionary hordes ing the years from A.D. 1903 to 1833, not less that have descended on Palermo represent than thirteen great star showers have been that portion of the great unwashed of Sicily recorded. They are separated from each which might; by the force of circumstances, other by the third part of a century, or by any day become either bandits, or patriots, some multiple of this period, and are perior monks. The last of the three honourable odical reappearances of one grand meteoric professions has the advantage of being better shower, viz., that seen by Humboldt in fed and paid in the south of Italy, and Sicil- 1799, and by Olmsted in 1833, the star ian patriots are naturally anxious lest, if shower expected to return in the present religious houses are abolished, and begging year, and known by the name of the ' great as well as robbing becomes unlawful, they November shower.” Its contact with the may in the long run be compelled unfortu- earth takes place one day the year at nately to subsist by the labour of their hands. each of its principal returns. According to A foolish movement of the kind would be the exact calculations of Professor Newton, insignificant if Italy internally were in a " the next passage of the earth through the more composed and settled condition. Now centre of the meteoric group will take place that the astringent force of external aggres- two hours after sunrise at Greenwich on the sion is removed, the bundle of sticks is more morning of the 14th of November, 1866." in danger of falling to pieces, and symptoms A watch on the morning of the 13th is recof disunion may perhaps be looked for (as ommended, “as the moment of greatest in America and Germany) as soon as na- brightness may fall one day before the pretional unity is permanently assured. Part dicted time.” On the 13th of November, of the dark days of Italy are over, but her 1865, first-class meteors were seen at Greentroubles as a self-governing nation have only wich at the rate of 250 per hour, and the just begun.
"maximum display of the November meteors expected in 1866 is several hundred times greater than that observed at Greenwich on the 13th of November, 1865. Two hnndred and forty thousand meteors are
computed by Arago to have been visible THE COMING METEOR SHOWER. above the horizon of Boston on the morning
of the 13th of November, 1833." MR. ALEXANDER HERSCHEL recently The average height of shooting stars at gave a lecture at the Royal Institution, “ On the middle of their apparent paths is not the Shooting Stars of the year 1865—66, quite sixty miles above the earth. and on the Probability of the Cosmical The- Mr. Herschel points out a singular differory of their Origin.' He commenced by ence in the behaviour of shooting stars and adverting to the probability established by ærolites, or meteoric stones. The meteoric Professor Newton, of Yale College, U.S., stones most frequently fall after mid-day, " that in the current year, 1866, a prodi- between noon and nine P.M., while the gious flight of meteors, the most imposing of shooting stars are most abundant after midits kind, and visible over a large area of the night ; and only one stone has been known earth's surface, will make its appearance to fall on the 10th of August or the 13th of perhaps for the last time in the present cen- November, when shooting stars are most tury - either on the morning of the 13th, numerous. — Intellectual Observer. or on the 14th November."
was astonishing how very vague and incom
plete, afier all, was the impression left on THE STRANGER PREACHES A SERMON. the hearer's mind. Beyond the fact that
his name was James Frere, his family beBy the wide hearth in the reception-room longing to Shropshire, and his strongest of Clochnaben Castle - where a fire of desire on earth to become a missionary pinewood and coal had been kindled to preacher, and do good in bis generation baffle the chill summer evening, and where * yea, even by the extremest sacrifice,”heavy woollen curtains of tartan were drawn Lady Clochnaben could not say she had across the deep narrow embrasures of the learnt anything which had not been told, old-fashioned windows sunk in the stone without questioning, when he was recoverwalls
sat, greatly comforted and much at ing from bis fainting fit in the glen that his ease, in spite of the stiffness of shape of morning. his bigh-backed chair, the hero of that ad- After a while she inquired whether he venture in the glen. Opposite to him, in was a rapid accountant. Yes; he believed two similarly high-backed chairs, sat Alice he was very quick at figures. Could he Ross and Lady Clochnaben. The words draw? Yes, he could draw in a poor way:
lounge" and " recline” were not in her he had not studied : he had amused himself ladyship's vocabulary : and if, in the pri- with pen-and-ink etching now and then, vacy of her lone turret-chamber at Glen- and architectural sketches. Willing to utilrossie, Alice relapsed into cushions and soft- ize these gifts, the gaunt old lady informed ness, at all events in the Dowager's pres- him she desired to build an addition to the ence she preserved that attitude which alone castle towards the brow of the precipitous was considered decent or fit for a well-bred rock on which it was erected, and “would female.
be glad of any suggestion on paper," he She sat, then, bolt-upright, her little pale could give as to the building, and any aphands folded in her lap, looking furtively at proximate calculation of expense : at the the stranger: furtively and askance. same time opening a blotting-book, and put
And Lady Clochnaben also looked at ting that, and pens and ink, ready for hím. him: not at all furtively, but, on the con
Mr. James Frere did not refuse ; be rose trary, with a scrutinizing and contemplative from his high-backed chair, and courteo stare; as if, having warmed and fed him, advanced to the table. Alice had taken
now merely exercising a natural her work. As he passed her he slightly right of inspection of the stray creature paused. “What curious work,” he said : found on her lands. If the young man was " what is it? What a beautiful glossy maconscious of the double inspection, he did terial !” not show it. His great luminous eyes were “I am making nets of chenille – it is fixed abstractedly on the fire, wide and un- very soft," said pussy-cat Alice; and she winking, as if they drank in the light. A held one of the hanks up for examination. somewhat hectic colour had succeeded his For an instant he touched it with his long paleness and exhaustion, making his eyes attenuated fingers; and her eyes followed seem still brighter, and the cheek-bones them. She drew Lady Clochnaben's attenmore prominent. The mouth of that strange tion, in a low under-tone, to a remarkable meagre face was its only defective feature. scar on the back of his hand, as he sat down It was at once hard and sensual — hard, in to his architectural task. spite of the full contour of the lips, and the “ You have been badly hurt some time,” submissive smile with which he answered all said the grim hostess, pointing to the scar the questions his grim hostess was pleased with little ceremony. to put to him. A Portuguese sort of mouth: Mr. James Frere paused for a moment something apish in the form and expression in his etching, glanced at his band, and of the jaw.
said quietly, “ Yes, it was a knife.” With respect to her questionings, Lady But he volunteered no further inforClochnaben "ne se géna pas.” She asked mation. whatever it came into her head to ask - It was a knife. Was it a penance, or an age, his parentage, his name, his tastes attack, or whăt? Alice felt curious.
She and occupations, his means of living, his mused as she twisted the soft chenille; and, chances of aid from relations or friends, his so musing, and seeing from under the narhopes for the future, his adventures in the rowed lids of her eyes that Lady Clochnapast. And, though all these questions were ben was also considering, and vot looking answered with the smoothest readiness, it her way, but sternly contemplating her own
foot as it rested on the edge of the fender, | This somewhat discursive and involved she ventured a furtive examination once reasoning being further explained by the more of the hand and its owner.
Dowager Clochnaben, it became clear to But, just as her cautious glance had her attentive guest that what was expecttravelled from the hand to the downcast ed of him was, so to bewitch the small brow of the sketcher, he suddenly lifted his world to which she would introduce him, head, and turning his broad, bright, intel- that he should oust Mr. Saville Heaton ligent gaze full on her face, met the eyes from the hearts and ears of his already that were stealthily creeping towards him, dwindling congregation, and “put him to as if he had flashed a lantern on her pale silence" by the very simple process of leavfeatures and sandy hair. Alice was not em- ing him without listeners in the parish. barrassed. She never
was embarrassed. And, in the meanwhile, the meagre and Many a girl in her place would have persecuted hero of the glen was to live at blushed and laughed, or blushed, without the castle" as long as it suited him ;” uprelaughing. Alice merely smiled; a little claimed by his Shropshire friends. grave odd smile, a sort of tacit admission, The hand that had that conspicuous scar
“Well, I was looking at you; and what on it, idly clasped and unclasped the paper of that?
knife on the table, and balanced it lightly, The young stranger smiled also; and while the stranger listened to these prowhereas, a very few minutes before, Alice posals. had been reflecting that he would make a “I will exert whàt poor gifts I may have, good study for a picture of John the Bap- next Sabbath, if your ladyship pleases. In tist in the wilderness, it suddenly seemed to no church, but on the brow of this rocky her that it was rather an insolent smile, hill, where I have met with such signal de from a countenance anything but religious liverance; and at no set time of other's or ascetic, but, to her taste, extremely preaching, for that would be an unseemhandsome.
ly, and, as I am at present situated, a probAnd, as both smiles died away, Alice re- ably unsuccessful, rivalry. But just in the sumed her cautious demureness in the high- interval, — when a discourse might be lisbacked chair ; and the hard-set lines round, tened to without offence, — if your ladyship Mr. Frere's mouth seemed to deepen in could give such notice as seems good to you, intensity, as he once more bent over the and likely to serve the end you have in writing-table.
view, I would do my best for the glory of The silence which followed was broken by my Heavenly Master, and leave the result to Lady Clocknaben. “ Mr. Frere,” she said, "did you ever So it was settled that Mr. Frere should
preach; and the notice the grim woman gave This time the readiness of answer seemed - heightened with every detail of romance in abeyance for a few seconds. Then, in a respecting the religious persecution to which low steady voice, he replied, “Never ; I he had been subjected by “ Satan and his never ventured.”
priests," and favoured by the ever-ready curi“ Could you preach ?”
osity of the congregations to hear“ a skreed “Of course, I suppose that I could; the o' the doctrine ” from new lips -- brought grace of God assisting.”
together as large a crowd as the three “ As to the grace of God, it's help your neighbourhoods of Glenrossie, Torrieburn, self, and heaven will help you,' that's my and Clochnaben could furnish. dictum. Some can preach, and some can't, Nor was the success of the stranger
who may be very good men for all that. doubtful. A voice more powerful and yet But I want a man who can preach. I have musical - more practised in its ready inbeen thinking ” — and here the dowager flections, its tones of warning, of tenderfrowned yet more sternly at the foot plant- ness, of deprecation — never addressed a ed on the fender, — "I have, I say, been group of fellow-men. As to the matter of thinking that you might be of great use in his discourse it was strange, ingenious, and this distracted place; and, if you've any occasionally marred by what the more eduspirit, you might just drive out those that cated portion of his hearers might think bad never should have been here at all. And taste. Yet even that seemed a calculation, I'll tell you what it is, young sir: if I and intended to rouse attention among his thought that you'd undertake it, you're poorer auditory. And he was right; images welcome to stay here, up at the castle, as and illustrations which to the cultivated long as ever it suits ye to remain, until that seemed absurd, to the uncultivated are desirable consummation should come about." | often merely striking. It is astonishing bow
preach ? "