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paint them yourself ?' and on her modest and Alcibiades; Praxiteles, on Demosthe. profession of inability, he continued, 'You nes; Lysippus, on Alexander and Aristono able ? you try, and you paint better.” tle, and so on. Alexander issued a decree

The establishment of the National Por- reserving the right of reproducing his image trait Gallery under the auspices of Earl to three artists : Apelles, for painting; PyrStanhope and the discriminating superin- goteles, for stone engraving; Lysippus, for tendence of Mr. Scharf, and the Exhibition statuary in bronze. The more statues, the at South Kensington, have enabled us to more honour, and the number erected to the take stock, as it were, of our possessions in popular favourites was immense. Unluckithis line of art, and to determine with ly they were knocked down as eagerly as tolerable certainty which of our earliest they had been set up when the tide turned. portraits may be accepted as authentic, No sooner had the news of the battle of i. e., as paintings from the life. The oldest Pharsalia reached the capital, than all Pomknown in our time was the portrait of pey's statues were thrown down and mutiEdward III. in St. Stephen's Chapel, West- Iated. Augustus began his reign by deminster. This was destroyed by fire in stroying all the busts and images of the as1834, but careful copies were fortunately sassins of Cæsar. At the same time he set taken from it for the Society of Antiquaries about forming a collection of the triumphal in 1812. The oldest extant of recognised statues of the great men who had contribauthenticity is the portrait of Richard III. uted to the power of Rome ; and the imin Windsor Castle, where, however, there is perial city at that time boasted many pria portrait of Edward IV. which good judges vate galleries rich with the spoils of Greece. (including Mr. Scharf) are inclined to If Mummius burnt Corinth with most of its think genuine. They are not so sure of inestimable treasures of art — that same her Majesty's portrait of Henry IV., al- Mummius who gave the well-known caution though some put faith in it, relying on the to the carriers of what he saved — Sylla features and costume. The earliest of the thanked the gods for having granted him genuine pictures in the National Portrait two signal favours : the friendship of MeGallery is a Richard III., next in quality tellus Pius, and the good fortune of having and equal in genuineness to the one at taken Athens without destroying it. Windsor. The second earliest in that col- But independently of the risks of removlection is a Cardinal Wolsey. The earliest al, and the increased difficulty of identificaat South Kensington are the portraits of tion, the accumulation of all the finest proSir Jobn Donne by Memling (No. 18) and ductions of art in one place, and that place Edward Grimston by Petrus Christus (No. the capital of the world which ambition or 17); both by artists of considerable dis- sedition periodically converted into a battinction in the history of art.

tle-field, was one main cause of their being We can abandon with comparative indif- wholly lost, or of their descending in an unference any small remains of faith we may satisfactory condition to posterity. Furor have cherished in the traditional likenesses arma ministrat : anything or everything, saof barbaric kings or popes, but it is a very cred or profane, becomes a weapon in a different matter when we are required to deadly conflict when the blood is up: •I believe that no trustworthy images of the expect little aid from their hand,' said Front heroes, statesmen, poets, orators, and philos- de Beuf, alluding to the stone images in phers of classical antiquity have descended his chapel, unless we were to hurl them to us ; that the busts of Alexander, Cæsar, from the battlements on the heads of the Pompey, Hannibal, Pericles, Homer, Virgil

, villains. There is a huge lumbering Saint Horace, Demosthenes, Cicero, Plato, Socra- Christopher yonder, sufficient to bear a tes, and Aristotle, with a host of others whole company to the earth.' The Roman which we have been wont to admire or ven- warriors thought and acted like the rude erate, are apocryphal. The primâ facie ar- Norman baron. When Titus Flavius Sagument is rather favourable to many of binus, the brother of Vespasian, was beihem. Fame is more lasting than brass, sieged in the burning capitol by the troops ære perennius, but brass, bronze, and mar- of Vitellius, he repaired breaches and formed ble are lasting enough to have endured to barricades with the statues of the Temple our time, and retain a faithful reflex of form of Jupiter. Fire and earthquake co-operand features, of character and mind. We ated with civil war and barbaric conquest know that the ancients were never tired of to complete the work of devastation ; whatmultiplying statues of their great men, and ever was left unbroken or distinguishable that the highest genius was employed on lay buried under heaps of ruin ; and when the greatest: Phidias, on Pericles, Socrates, the superincumbent mass of rubbish was cleared away after the lapse of ages, the posterior.” “Then it has been done après grand difficulty arose of appropriating the coup. I do not believe in it.' proper names to the best preserved images, Although the inference from the eye may and of duly assorting the arms, legs, heads not be deemed conclusive by connoisseurs, and noses of the mutilated.

that drawn from the want of contemporary This difficulty was aggravated by a known medals carries weight. When medals and practice of the ancients, which may have gems fail, the deficiency is not unfrequently suggested to Sir Roger de Coverley the no- supplied by inscriptions or books. The fine tion of transforming by a few touches of bust of Cicero at the Vatican is authentithe brush the sign of • The Knight's Head,' cated by a passage in Livy as well as by set up in his honour, into • The Saracen's medals. There are no well-authenticated Head!' When the Rhodians decreed the busts, medals, or gems of Virgil or Horace; honour of a statue to a general, he was de- although the biographers of Virgil do not sired to choose which he liked amongst the hesitate to describe him as tall and dark, existing votive statues, and the dedication with long, flowing hair, whilst the personal was altered by the insertion of his name. peculiarities of Horace may be collected The prevalence and antiquity of this method from his writings. The best bust of Plato of substitution are proved by Plato's pro- is apocryphal, which is probably the reason posed law for compelling the statuary to why Mr. Grote's last great work, Plato and form each statue out of a single block; and the other Companions of Socrates,' appears instances abound of the change of heads without a frontispiece. This range of subfrom vanity, caprice, or accident. A strik-jects is inexhaustible; and our immediate ing passage in Statius charges Cæsar with object is simply to skim the cream of a semithe incredible folly of cutting off the head classical, semi-artistic causerie. We will of an equestrian statue of Alexander by now suppose the conversation turning on Lysippus, and replacing it by a gilded effi- some other singularities of classical antiquigy of himself

. Tacitus states that Tiberius ty, which throw light on its intellectual or decapitated a statue of Augustus to make secret history, and suggest parallels or conroom for his own head; and the gods of trasts with modern life and manners. Greece, including the Jupiter Olympus of We can hardly persuade ourselves that Phidias, were similarly treated by Caligula we are not listening to the story of an Engwith a view to his own deification. There lish or French collector, when we are told is a statue of Pompey at Rome reputed to of Libanius of Antioch hearing that an be the very one at whose base, 'which all Iliad and an Odyssey of prodigious antiquithe time ran blood, great Cæsar fell. But, ty were about to be sold at Athens, and objects M. Feuillet de Conches, we must commissioning a friend to purchase them. have recourse to some anecdote, suspicious On receipt of the coveted treasures, he as ingenious, to be persuaded that the head, sends a fine copy of the Iliad, more recent very badly, restored, is really the original but correct, in acknowledgment of the bead. Rome is full of antiquity-mongers, friend's services. He next learns that a who will supply any number of consuls' or copy of the Odyssey which seemed contememperors' heads and noses to order. porary with Homer, is for sale, and purchases

Napoleon was a great admirer of Ilanni- it. But he is so ill-advised as to lend it, and bal, and one day, during a visit to the Lou as it is not returned, we find him complainvre, he stopped before the bust which bears ing and lamenting, very much like Evelyn the name of his hero, and inquired of M. when he denounced the carelessness or disVisconti, the distinguished antiquary, wheth. honesty of the two Scot borrowers, or the er it was authentic. “It is possible,' was French gentleman who was done out of the the reply; the Romans erected his statue Malebranche's letters by the philosopher. in three public places of a city within the Why, asks M. Feuillet de Conches, did he bounds of which, alone among the enemies not act like the Faculty of Paris who held of Rome, he had cast a javelin. Caracalla, out against Louis XII., all absolute as he who ranked him among the great captains, was, and refused to lend him an Arabian also raised several statues to him ; but all manuscript without a deposit of a hundred this is much posterior to Hannibal.' • This gold pieces, and would not abate a livre on effigy,' rejoined Napoleon, 'has nothing Af seeing the royal treasurer forced to sell a rican about it. Besides, Hannibal was part of his own plate to make up half of blind of one eye, and this is not. Are the security ? there any medals of the time confirmatory The greatest private collection of autoof this bust?' • There are medals, also long graphs at Rome is said to have been that of Mucianus, the friend of Pliny the Elder. | careless of profaning or defacing them as He especially rejoiced in the possession of modern travellers or bagmen. M. Letronne the reputed letter of Sarpedon to Priam, found the names of Hadrian, Marcus Aurewhich he had discovered in a temple whilst lius, and Lucius Verus, inscribed on the he was governor of Lycia. Among other statue of Memnon at Thebes. He might celebrated autographs in which the Greek also have copied from it, had he thought fit,, and Roman collectors put faith, may be · Pierre Giroux le grand vainqueur, grenadier named the letters of Artaxerxes and Dem- de la deuxième demi-brigade, division Desais, ocritus to Hypocrates, the correspondence passait par Thèbes, le 7 Dsessidor, An VII, of Alexander and Aristotle, the letter of pour se rendre aux cataractes du Nil.' Zenobia to Aurelian in the handwriting of The conceit of compressing the greatest Longinus, and the letters of Titus to Jose- quantities of writing into a given space was phus, testifying to the trustworthiness of his carried to excess by the Romans. Cicero history of the Jews. It might safely be speaks of the entire lliad having been writtaken for granted, without evidence of the ten on just so much skin or parchnient as fact, that the autographs of Livy, Cicero, was contained in a nutshell — in nuce in. Horace, Virgil, &c. &c., were as eagerly clusam. This tour de force was rivalled by sought after and as highly prized in ancient the poet, mentioned by Pliny, who contimes as those of the corresponding celebri- trived to inclose a distich in letters of gold ties in our own. But we are not left to con- within the busk of a grain of corn, an ex. jecture. Pliny speaks of having seen auto- ploit which may pair off with that of the graphs of Cicero and Virgil. Quintilian Frenchman who wrote the four canonical mentions manuscripts of Cicero, Virgil, Au- prayers on his nail

. M. Feuillet de Conches gustus and Cato the Censor, apropos of cer- has discovered a marked analogy between tain differences and singularities of orthog- the French bureaucracy and the Roman raphy which the copyists had not preserved. scribes, who formed a corporation of which Cicero refers to an autograph of Ennius Horace was a member. They had gradualfor the same purpose. Aulus Gellius had ly grown into considerable importance, and seen a manuscript of the Georgics, corrected must not be confounded with the copyists

, by the author, as well as a manuscript of masters and journeymen, who answered the second book of the Æneid which passed to our printers and booksellers. The Sosü for the original, or at least came from the were the Murrays and Longmans of the house and the family of Virgil. The first Augustan age of Rome. The patricians known use of the word aútograph is in Sue- were not ashamed to compete with them in tonius, Lilere Augusti Autographe.

this peculiar line of business. The house of A great variety of materials were em- Atticus is described as an immense establishployed for writing by the Romans, besides ment in which skilful workmen, mostly the waxed tablets, without which no Roman slaves, were busied in copying, pressing, of condition ever went abroad. For epis- and binding for the book-market. One tolary correspondence they used a fine pa- amongst them, named Tiron, highly compyrus called Augustan ; the second quality mended by Cicero, turned out copies that was called Livian; the third, Claudian. took rank like Elzevirs. They had also (adds M. Feuillet de Con- Women were much employed as copyists, ches) great eagle paper' like ourselves. and occasionally as seribes or secretaries. Curious points of analogy abound in this We have heard, prior to the abolition of portion of his book. The ancients had in- serfdom, of white slaves in Russia embarked genious cyphers for their secret despatches, in commerce or eminent in art, vainly offer and sent private orders to their commanders ing enormous sums for enfranchisement; and or ambassadors which could not be opened, cases of the same kind were of frequent ocso as to be legible, without a peculiar con- currence in Greece and Rome. An actor was trivance or the key. Cæsar's usual method prepared to give a sum equivalent to seven or was to write by agreement the fourth letter eight thousand pounds sterling for his liberof the alphabet for the first; for example, ty. One Canisius Sabrinus (mentioned by D for A, and so on, varying the arrange- eca) a man of enormous wealth who ment occasionally. The Romans had also wished to shine as a diner-out in spite of short-hand writers, a chosen number of his natural dulness, procured a dozen slaves whom were employed by Cicero to take who were made to learn by heart select down a speech of Cato. Martial and Au- passages from the popular poets and instructsonius bear testimony to the surprising skill ed how to prompt him when he broke down of some of them. We find emperors and or had nothing to say. As the required consuls scribbling on monuments, and as duty implied memory and tact, the slaves

are said to have cost him, on the average, a had destroyed it to conceal the fraudulent hundred thousand sesterces (about 8001.) use made of the contents for his treatise apiece.

De Exsilio, many pages of which (to borrow Mural and monumental inscriptions apart, a simile from the Critic) lie upon the the oldest specimens of Roman writing ex- surface, like lumps of marl on a barren tant are those discovered in Pompeii and moor, encuinbering what they cannot fer.. Herculaneum. Next in order of antiquity tilise. Leonard Aretin, believing himself to these stand a Terence of the fourth cen- the sole possessor of a manuscript of tury and a Virgil of the fifth, both on Procopius on the War of the Goths, transparchment, now in the Vatican. How hap- lated it into Latin, and passed for the pens it that, out of the multitude of manu- author until another


up. scripts in general circulation for several The Causeur relates a similar anecdote of centuries later, not a single known original, Augustin Barbosa, Bishop of Ugento, who and hardly one perfect copy, of an eminent printed a treatise De Officio Episcoporum. classic author has survived the dark ages ? His cook had brought home a fish wrapped

The best solution will be found in the never- in a leaf of Latin manuscript. The prelceasing war waged against learning and ate had the curiosity to read the fragment. knowledge, by bigotry and ignorance, from Struck with the subject, he ran to the the decline of civilisation to its revival or market, and ransacked the stalls till he had new birth. “The Romans,' says Disraeli discovered the book from which the leaf the elder, .burnt the books of the Jews, of had been torn. It was the treatise De the Christians, and of the philosophers ; the officiis, which, adding very little of his own, Jews burnt the books of the Christians and he published among his works, to the the Pagans; the Christians burnt the books greater glory of God.' This was a bolder of the Pagans and the Jews.' Take, for stroke for fame than that of an Irish bishop, instance, the fate of Livy, of whom we still living, who incorporated a brother have only thirty-five books, and those in- divine's sermon in his charge. Plagiarism, complete, out of one hundred and forty: however, was not esteemed so heinous au Independently of the long chapter of acci- offence as it is at present, and our actual dents common to all, he was honoured by stores of thought and knowledge have been the senseless enmity of Caligula, who or- enriched by it. Thus, Sulpicius Severus, dered his works, along with those of Virgil the Christian Sallust, is believed to have and Homer, to be cast out of all the libra- copied his account of the capture of Jeruries. Livy was afterwards treated much in salem from the lost books of Tacitus. the same fashion by Gregory the Great, How little comparative value was who placed him in the Index. This same tached for some time after the revival of letPope (says Disraeli) ordered that the ters to the classic masterpieces, may be library of the Palaiine Apollo, a treasury inferred from the confession of Petrarch, of literature formed by successive emperors, that he had seen several in bis youth of should be committed to the flames. He which all trace had subsequently been lost ; issued this order under the notion of con- among others, the Second Decade of Livy. fining the attention of the clergy to the Its fate was curious, although perhaps not Holy Scriptures. From that time all ancient singular. The tutor of a Marqius de Ronlearning which was not sanctioned by the ville, playing at tennis near Saumur, found authority of the Church has been emphat- that his racket was made with a leaf of old ically distinguished as profane in opposition parchment containing a fragment of this to sacred. This pope is said to have burnt Decade. He hurried to the racket-maker the works of Varro, the learned Roman, to save the remains: all had passed into that Saint Austin might escape from the rackets. charge of plagiarism, being deeply indebted Tacitus had a better chanre than Livy ; to Varro for much of his great work, • The for his imperial namesake, after supplying City of God.'

all the public libraries with his works, This is not the only irreparable loss that ordered ten fresh copies to be executed has been attributed to plagiarism. Cicero's annually; yet thirty books were lost, and treatise De Gloriâ was extant in the four- the manuscript of what are saved escaped teenth century and in the possession of Pe. by a miracle; a single copy in a state of trarch, who lent it, and it was lost. Two rapid decomposition having been discovered centuries later it was traced to a convent in a convent in Westphalia. library, from which it had disappeared under We have lingered with pleasure over this circumstances justifying a suspicion that the classical causerie, which is just such as may guardian of the library, Pierre Alegonius, be supposed going on at Earl Stanhope's,


Dean Milman's, Mr. Gladstone's, or Mr. M. Feuillet de Conches; · are always packed Grote’s, when the late Sir George Lewis in blank paper. Thus, too, pocket-handand Lord Macaulay were alive to join in it. kerchiefs being in China an object of show Decies repetita placebit ; and although many and luxury, every great dignitary is folof the details may not be new to the accom- lowed by a valet, who, on visits of ceremony, plished bibliophile — to the Duc d'Aumale carries his spitting-box and presents him or M. Van der Weyer

we are not afraid with small pieces of paper every time be of falling under the sarcasm levelled in Gil wishes to blow his nose. These pieces of Blas at the pedant who solemnly narrated paper are blank, never printed or written. that the Athenian children cried when they The same veneration for writing was prowere whipped; a fact of which, but for fessed by a Christian saint, François d'Asbis vast and select erudition, we should sise, who flourished in the thirteenth cenhave remained ignorant.'

tury: If his eye fell on any scrap of writing We shall pass more rapidly over the in his walks, he scrupulously picked it up, chapters devoted to China." But although for fear of treading on the name of the the gloss of novelty has been taken off by Lord or any passage treating of things sarecent travellers, there is still a good deal cred. When one of his disciples inquired left in the Celestial Empire for the philo- of him why he picked up with equal care sophical inquirer to glean and speculate the writings of pagans, he replied, My upon. The respect paid by the Chinese to son, it is with the letters of these writings paper or parchment on 'which written or that we form the most glorious name of printed characters have been impressed, God.' contrasts strikingly with the Ęuropean A religious respect for the staff of life, mode of thinking, ancient and modern. bread, is not confined to the Chinese. We Martial's friend, Statius, tells him that his are told of a janissary dropping out of a book has all the air of paper in which procession at Aleppo, and dismounting to Egyptian pepper and Byzantian anchovies remove a piece of bread, lest it should be are to be packed; and the same vein of profaned by the horses' hoofs. During the pleasantry may be traced in a letter from great fire of London, popularly attributed Hume to Robertson : I forgot to tell you to the Catholics, a member of the Portuthat two days ago I was in the House of guese Embassy was apprehended on a charge Commons, where an English, gentleman of throwing fireballs into houses. On excame to me and told me he had lately sent amination it was proved that he had simply to a grocer's shop for a pound of raisins picked up a piece of bread, and placed it which he received wrapped up in a paper that on the ledge of a window; an act which he that he showed me. How would you have explained by stating that, according to a feelturned pale at the sight! It was a leaf of ing prevalent among his countrymen, to have your History, and the very character of left it on the pavement would have been a Queen Elizabeth which you had laboured sin. To return to the Chinese : it stands to so finely, little thinking it would soon come reason that they attach the highest value to to so disgraceful an end. After stating the handwriting of their rulers and worthies that the publisher, Millar, had come to him - in other words, to autographs. Even facfor information to trace out the theft, be similes held in high esteem, and the inadds: “In vain did I remonstrate that terior of temples are adorned with them, this was, sooner or later, the fate of all posted like advertising bills against the walls. authors serius, ocyus, sors exitura. He will The great pagoda of Canton boasts no other not be satisfied and begs me to keep my decoration ; neither does the great temple jokes for another occasion.'

of Confucius at Pekin. By some fatality To the Chinese, who regard the art of no manuscript from the actual hand of this speaking to the eyes by marks or signs as a philosopher has been preserved. All his gift from on high, handwriting and printing, autographs have disappeared, although aumeans for the reproduction of thoughts, are tographs are extant of the two preceding sacred. The trade of ink-making is es- centuries. teemed honourable for the saune

The use of red ink is reserved to the emHence in China a scrap of printed paper or perors, so that it would be neither easy nor writing is never wittingly trodden under safe to counterfeit their autographs, foot or used as a wrapper : it is carefully which are carefully deposited in the state picked up; and in the vestibule of each archives when the immediate purpose has house is a perfuming-pan destined to re- been served. The signature of the Mongol ceive and burn all waste papers of the kind. emperors consisted merely of the impress of “ Tea and other objects of commerce,' adds the forefinger and thumb. The first-class


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