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perate spirit which but for this might have soft. | throne which she had forfeited.'. We fear, ened the rigours of Calvinism - which caused however, that her friendship was about the eventual ruin of the person whose interests equal to her generosity., Mary, who had Elizabeth was intending to serve, by tempting filed without her wardrobe, complained to her to take refuge in the dominions of a sover. the Queen that she was even without a eign who was so persistently pretending to be change of linen; her necessities were nobly her friend.' (Vol. iii. p. 169.)

relieved by a couple of torn shifts, two Such was Elizabeth's friendship to Mary, pieces of black velvet and two pair of shoes.' while she remained in Scotland ; and even

The rags of Elizabeth's friendship were Mr. Froude appears to be not wholly without not more worthy of gratitude. While she misgivings as to its sincerity. What was made a show of supporting Mary in Scother friendship, when Mary, ruined and des- land, with high words and menaces, she olate, fled to her dominions for protection ? was betraying her into submission and Mary craved permission to be admitted to casting toils around her. She bad no right her presence, but was refused ; she bad to meddle between Mary and her subjects : come to seek comfort from her royal friend she had no claim to dictate to a neighborand sister, and found herself a prisoner; ing and friendly State; yet she assumed to she had merely fled from one prison to judge of Mary's guilt or innocence, and beanother. A guard of two hundred men guiled the unhappy captive, by terms of was sent from Berwick to Carlisle Castle, - pretended sympathy, into compliance with men so faithful that if there was any at- her treacherous advise. She promised that tempt at flight, Elizabeth expressed a fear if Mary could acquit herself of the charges that they would make short work of their made against her, she should be restored. charge.' * Mary's flight into England was, Mary declined with queenly dignity to be no doubt, embarrassing; and Mr. Froude thus put upon ber trial : says that in the golden era of the Plantagenets, such a difficulty would have been

'I came,' said she, 'to recover my honour, disposed of more swiftly and more effec- and to obtain help to chastise my false accusers tively;' but now, in a more scrupulous age, I were their equal, but myself to accuse them

- not to answer those charges against me as if the beautiful and interesting sufferer was in your presence. Madam, I am no manifestly a dangerous amimal which had equal of theirs, and would sooner die than so, run into a trap, difficult to keep, yet not to by act of mine, declare myself.' (Vol. iii. p. be allowed to go abroad, till her teeth 255.) were drawn, and her claws pared to the quick.' Elizabeth still affected friendship,

In vain Lord Herries protested, on her but she readily accepted the harsh counsels behalf, that Elizabeth had no right to conof her ministers. She wrote affectionate stitute herself a judge between the soverletters, she continued her intermeddling eign and subjects of a foreign realm. policy in Scotland, but she held her pris. She replied that she would not quarrel for oner safe, and was taking measures to de- the name of judge, but on the reality she stroy her reputation and influence. intended to insist.' No less vainly oid he

entreat that she might be permitted to Oh, Madam,' she wrote, “there is not a

leave England. Elizabeth was resolved creature living who more longs to hear your to hold her fast, and to degrade her. justification than myself; not one who would lend more willing ear to any answer which will As to her going to France,' she said, 'I will clear your honour. On the word of a pot lower myself in the eyes of my fellow-sov. prince, I promise you that neither your sub- ereigns by acting like a fool. The King, her jects, nor any advise I may receive from my husband, when she was in that country, gave own councillors, shall move me to ask any her the style and arms of this realm. I am not thing of you which may endanger you or touch anxious for a repetition of that affair. I can your honour.' (Vol. iii. p. 248.)

defend my own right. But I will not, of my

own accord, do a thing which may be turned to Most people will think such professions my own hurt.' (Vol. iii. p. 261.) as insincere and insidious as the rest of Elizabeth's conduct; but Mr. Froude re

According to Mr. Froude, she wished gards her as ' in reality Mary's best friend, only that so much evidence should be brought who was fighting for her against all her own forward as would justify the Lords in their ministers, and, guilty or innocent, wished rebellion, and would justify Elizabeth also only to give her a fresh chance upon the in restoring the Queen with a character

slightly clouded — to be maintained under Ibid., p. 239.

her own protectorate, and with her hands

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80 bound as to incapacitate her from further rebellion; and in reply, Murray defended mischief.'* She told De Silva that the them on the ground of Bothwell's crimes Queen of Scots should be restored, but and the Queen's marriage, without accusing restored without power, and her acquittal her of being concerned in the murder. should be so contrived that a shadow of But while he withheld this public accusation, guilt should be allowed still to remain.'+ he showed the Commissioners, in private, But Mary herself naturally treated her the proofs which he was able to offer. To professions as hypocrisy; and Cecil wrote this point,' says Mr. Froude, • Elizabeth had that it was not meant, if the Queen of brought it; she had spun refinement within Scots was found guilty of the murder, to refinement, artifice within artifice. The restore her to Scotland, however her friends Queen of Scots was to be accused and not might brag to the contrary.' I. At all events, accused, acquitted and not acquitted, restorthe unfortunate rival was to be made an in- ed and not restored.' Suddenly, however, strument of Elizabeth's ambition and love she heard of Norfolk's projected marriage, of intrigue. If she would not be put upon and at once cancelled the York Commission, her trial, before a tribunal which had no and summoned all the parties to Westminpretence to jurisdiction, the lords were to ster. be charged with rebellion, and in their own Here she assembled a council of Peers, defence were to bring accusations against before whom the proceedings were resumed. their sovereign, which she might answer or The Bishop of Ross entered a “protestation not, as she thought fit. It was a cunning that while ready to treat for an arrangedevice; but the Queen's jurisdiction was ment, he was submitting to no form of equally wanting; and her purpose was no judgment, nor would admit any judge or less dishonest than cruel. She intended judges whatever to have authority over his Murray to utter all he could to the Queen sovereign. Murray now openly accused of Scots' dishonour; to cause her to come Mary of having been the contriver of her in disdain with the whole subjects of the husband's murder, but without producing realm, that she might be the more unable to the proofs; and the Bishop of Ross contendattempt anything to her disadvantage; 'S ed on her behalf, that she was now insidwhile to persuade Mary to appear, she was iously put upon her trial, contrary to the pretending that if she could clear herself engagements of the Queen of England. she should be restored to her kingdom. If she were to reply at all, it could only be

After protracted negotiations, intrigues, in person, before the Queen herself and the and vacillation, Elizabeth completed her Peers. Anoi her attempt was now made to subtle scheme. In October 1568, a commis- stop the case and arrange a compromise ; sion was opened at York, in which Elizabeth but the Queen was resolved that the proofs was represented by the Earl of Sussex, Sir should not to be withheld. The Bishop of Ralph Sadler, and the Duke of Norfolk, Ross protested, and declared the couference Scotland by the Regent Murray in person at an end; but Murray, when called upon and other commissioners, and Mary Stuart to justify his accusations, produced the fatal by Lord Herries, Boyol, Livingston, Cock- casket and other evidence. In this manner, burn, and her chief adviser John Leslie, the Queen of Scots bad been betrayed into Bishop of Ross. All these parties were proceedings by which she found herself put playing a cross game: Elizabeth was intent upon her trial, in a court having no preupon obtaining evidence of Mary's guilt, tence to jurisdiction over her; and the proofs without sacrificing her entirely to the Re- of her guilt were now in the hands of the gent; the Duke of Norfolk was forwarding sovereign whose enmity she had too much his own design of a marriage with the fugi- reason to dread. She was tried in her tive Queen ; Murray, distrusting Elizabeth, absence, and in a form which put it out of was fearful of exposing himself to the ven- her power to rebut the adverse evidence, geance of his own sovereign, in case of her without acknowledging the usurped jurisdicrestoration; and Mary was hoping that tion of the Court partly by the aid of Elizabeth, and partly Mr. Froude is pleased to affirm that by intrigues with her own friends, and a · Elizabeth had not meant to deceive; but compromise with her enemies, she might be a vacillating purpose and shifting humour restored to liberty and power.

had been as effective as the most deliberate The confederate lords were accused of treachery.' That she showed vacillation

in contriving the means of ruining Mary Hist. of Eliz., vol. iii. p. 262.

Stuart may be admitted; but as to
Ibid., p. 271.
Ibid., p. 276.
Ibid., p. 289.

* Hist. of Eliz., vol. ill. p. 350.

*

the object itself there was throughout an of hospitality, as well as for the prerogatives of inflexible resolution. She now artfully crowns, she was not afraid to imprison a suppliadvised her victim to abandon her defence ant and to bring to judgment a queen. She and throw herself upon her forbearance, had not been sensible either of the trust of the which would have been no less than a con- the affliction of the woman, or of the honour

fugitive, or of the prayers of the relative, or of fession of guilt. This snare was avoided; of the sovereign. Mary Stuart, on her side, she was afraid of being 'entrapped and had no longer any reserve to maintain towards allured ;' but Mary was disgraced in the Elizabeth. Arrested with perfidy, defamed with eyes of the peers and privy council; and, hatred, imprisoned with injustice, she was justias she had refused to offer a defence, there fied in attempting everything to gain her freewas still an excuse for continuing her im- dom. She did not fail to do so.'* prisonment. On the other band, Murray had been tricked by false promises into the More serious difficulties were about to disproduction of evidence of his sister's guilt, turb Elizabeth's reign than the torture of a but failed in obtaining a confirmation of defenceless woman, and officious intermed. her deposition, or an acknowledgment of his dling in the affairs of a friendly State; and own title as regent. Elizabeth had been they were due, in great measure, to her treatfalse, fickle, and treacherous to all parties; ment of Mary, and to her insincerity and vashe had betrayed them all alike for her own cillation in dealing with her own subjects and selfish and tortuous ends. Mr. Froude finds with foreign sovereigns. The Reformation traces of a weak and unreasoning tender- was so recent that religion was still one of the ness,' and even of generosity,' in her con- chief causes of embarrassment in England, duct, where others see hypocrisy and hard- as in several other States. The Catholics ness of heart.

had been put down; but they hoped for We are unable to accept his judgment the restoration of their faith in another upon these events, or to acquit Queen Eliza- reign, if not in this. They had looked forbeth of injustice and perfidy. The flight ward to the succession of Mary Stuart ; and of Mary into England had been prompted her hard treatment by the Queen now led by her own strong professions of friendship, them to espouse her cause, and to precipiand her pretended indignation against thosetate their plans for overthrowing the Re. who had dethroned her; and to reward her formation, and with it the Queen herselfconfidence with imprisonment, and reduce the chief Protestant sovereign of Europe. her by insidious devices to the degraded The aid of the kings of France and Spain, position of a criminal, needs a better excuse as great Catholic Powers, was naturally than vacillation to redeem her conduct from relied on; and hence arose a succession of imputations of treachery. However embar- intrigues and rebellions which distracted rassing Mary's flight into England may have Elizabeth's reign for eighteen years. been, it was the clear duty of Elizabeth to In August 1568, the Spanish ambassador, have left her free; and the artful scheme of De Silva, was replaced at the Court of Lonassuming a jurisdiction over her, wbich had don by Don Guerau de Espes.

The one no warrant in international law, was a mon- was a bigh-bred and accomplished gentlestrous usurpation of power. Her conduct man, averse to intrigue, and without fanatiwas no less impolitic than unjust ; and how- cism: the other was at once a conspirator ever much reason there may have been for and a fanatic. apprehending Mary's intrigues with France or Spain, her unjust imprisonment in Eng.

* On Don Guerau had descended the dropland was the cause of the greater part ped mantle of De Quadra. Inferior to his proof the troubles of Elizabeth's reign. Mr. totype in natural genius for conspiracy, inferior Froude bas laboured heavily to vindicate or to him in intellectual appreciation of the instruexcuse her ; but we think he has laboured ments with which he was working - he was in vain ; and that M. Mignet's sterner esti- nevertheless in hatred of heresy, in unscrupu. mate of her conduct is more consistent with lousness, in tenacity of purpose, and absolute historic truth. Speaking of this period, he carelessness of personal risk to himself, as fit

an instrument as Philip could have found to says:

communicate with the Catholics, and to form a

party among them ready for any purpose for · As for Mary Stuart, she remained a prisoner which the King of Spain might desire to use in England. Elizabeth not only did not assist them.' (Hist. of Eliz., vol. iii. p. 328.) her against her subjects, as she had promised, but ant not even restore her libetry, of which He at once became the centre of intrigues she ought never to have deprived her. Without respect for the rules of justice and the rights * Histoire de Marie Stuart, 3rd ed., vol. ii, p. 63.

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and conspiracies, into all the secrets of which the Catholics; and who can say what an we are admitted by the Simancas archives impulse it would have given to Protestantand other state papers of the time. Mr. ism in Europe ! The mean and pitiful Froude bas entered into them with elabo- course pursued by her, so far from effectrate and instructive detail; he has traced ually supporting the Protestant cause abroad, out all the agents in the dark plots by which merely encouraged the Huguenots in an Elizabeth's throne and lite were threatened ; ineffectual resistance, while it provoked the and he has introduced us to the inner coun- Catholics throughout Europe, and won no cils of the Queen and her advisers, by whom Protestant sympathy in England. these plots were countermined.

Such being her relations with foreign Two conspiracies, to which Don Guerau Powers, she was exposed to the treasons of was a party, were speedily set on foot; and her own subjects encouraged by their amin both the foremost place was assigned to bassadors. The Duke of Norfolk, feeble, Mary Stuart. The northern lords were pro- hesitating, and timid, had separated himself jecting a Catholic insurrection, the de- from the northern lords in pursuit of his own thronement of Elizabeth, the crowning of personal objects; but he had been so far Mary Stuart, and her marriage with Don tempted into treason as to seek assistance John of Austria. The Duke of Norfolk and in his plot from the Duke of Alva; and his adherents merely sought the overthrow when Elizabeth peremptorily forbade his of Cecil, and the marriage of Nortolk to projected marriage with Mary, he was nearMary, who was to become a member of the ly driven into revolt. But his courage failed Church of England. While these plots him; he allowed himself to be arrested, and were being hatched, Elizabeth's conduct to was imprisoned in the Tower. There he Spain and France was so false and treacher- renounced his alliance with Mary, and, ous that she narrowly escaped a war with after some time, obtained the Queen's forboth. She had encouraged and protected giveness. English privateers who preyed upon the But the Earls of Northumberland and commerce of Spain; ships laden with Span- Westmoreland, and their confederates in ish treasure were seized in the ports of the North, were more earnest in their con•Plymouth and Southampton, and appropri- spiracy, and were encouraged by the strong ated by the Queen ; and outrages were com- Catholic sympathies of the northern counmitred upon the persons and property of ties, and by promises of support from Alva Spanish merchants resident in England. in Flanders. All their measures were conRedress was withheld by cunning, subter- certed with the Queen of Scots and Don fuges and falseboud. A policy no less pro- Guerau; and in November 1569, the counvoking was pursued towards France. While ties of Northumberland, Durham, and Yorkthe Queen professed herself neutral in the shire were in arms against the Queen. But civil war raging between the King and the South was true and loyal; the rebels the Huguenots, she was aiding the Prince of were foiled in their attempt to rescue Mary Condé at Rochelle with money and ammu- Stuart; they received no aid from Alva; nition; and English privateers sailing under and the Queen's forces soon drove the leadCondé’s flag seized French ships, and openly ers across the border into Scotland. Northsold their prizes at Plymouth and Dover. umberland was taken prisoner by the Regent, The remonstrances of the French ambassa- greatly to the disgust of the Scottish people, dor were met with transparent evasions. and lodged in Lochleven Castle ; and Eliza

Happily, the jealousies of France and beth, not content with the most cruel Spain prevented them from making common punishments inflicted upon the rebels whom cause agaivst England; and Elizabeth con- she had in her power, demanded the extratinued her deceptions without the cost of a dition of the earls by the Scottish governforeign war. But conspiracies at home ment. Wholesale executions were carried were naturally fomented by so impolitic an out, in which the Queen showed herself as irritation of the Catholic Powers. Eliza- intent upon lucre as upon vengeance. Numbeth might have taken the lead of the Prot-bers of those who had no lands were to be estant cause in Europe. She might have hung by martial law on the parish green or aided the Huguenots in France and the market place; and the servants of the prinNetherlands, and have conciliated the Re- cipal insurgents were to be executed near formers of all denominations in England and their master's houses ; and the bodies were Scotland. Such a policy might have been not to be removed, but to remain till they hazardous, but while generous and noble in fell to pieces where they hung.' Those who itself, it would have secured a hearty sup- bad lands were to be formally tried, in order port to her throne against the intrigues of that the Queen might be assured of the

escheats; and if judgment was not given for the political problems of Elizabeth's reign. the Crown, the prisoners were to be remitted Three-quarters of the peers, he tells us, and to the tender mercies of the Star Chamber. half the gentlemen were disaffected; and Elizabeth, to whom,' says Mr. Froude, they had the goodwill and encouragement

nothing naturally was more distasteful than of France and Spain, whom she had insultcruelty (!) when Sussex's arrangements (for ed and provoked: yet the northern rebellion these executions) were made known to her, had miserably failed. It was, indeed, a rash was only impatient that they should be car- and ill-concerted rising, and was readily ried out;' and on the 11th January she put down by the strong arm of the execuwrote that she somewhat marvelled that tive government; yet if the Catholic body she had as yet heard nothing from Sussex of were as numerous and as disaffected as they any execution done by martial law as was are represented to have been, it is singular appointed; and she required him, if the that the northern earls met with so little same was not already done, to proceed support. Doubtless it was one thing to thereto with all the expedition he might, conspire for the restoration of the ancient and to certify her of his doings therein.' faith, and another to rebel against their

While these executions were proceeding, lawful sovereign; but much was due to the the Queen was trying to force the Regent characteristics of the two religions. to surrender Northumberland, and was offering bribes for the treacherous capture of Catholicism in England was still to appearWestmoreland. Murray did not venture to ance large and imposing, but its strength was comply with her demands; he had already the strength of age, which, when it is bowed or roused a bitter feeling by the imprisonment broken, cannot lift itself again. Protestantism, of Northumberland; and while he was still on the other hand, was exuberant in the fresh

ness of youth.

The Catholic rested holding out against Elizabeth's persistent

upon order and tradition, stately in his habits claims, he was himself strurk down by the of thought, mechanical and regular in his mode hand of the assassin Bothwellbaugh. of action. His party depended on its leaders,

The Regent Murray is one of Mr. Froude's and the leaders looked for guidance to the Pope favourite characters, and deserves a large and the European Princes. The Protestant share of his panegyrics. That he was the was self-dependent, confident, careless of life, enemy of Mary Queen of Scots, and had believing in the future not the past, irrepressible driven her from her kingdom, would alone by authority, eager to grapple with his adverhave been a sufficient claim to his favour; sary wherever he could find him, and rushing but Murray had many eminent qualities tar warfare was denied him.' (Vol. iv. p. 4.)

into piracy, metaphorical or literal, when reguwhich, in evil times, commend him to our respect. If it be exaggerated praise, to af. With such supporters of her throne, Elizafirm with Mr. Froude that when the verdict beth was able to defy Catholic disaffection of plain human sense can get itself pro- and foreign intrigues. nounced, the “good Regent” will take his

The influence of the Reformation upon place among the best and greatest men who the character of the people, was far more have ever lived,' * we cannot but admire his moral superiority over the ruffians by

striking in Scotland than in England. whoin he was surrounded. They were

Elsewhere the plebeian elements of nations without any sense of religion or justice; he had risen to power through the arts and indus. was an earnest Protestant, yet above the tries which make men rich — the commons of narrow intolerance of the fanatics of his Scotland were sons of their religion. While the own age and country; and he honestly nobles were splitting into factions, chasing desired that Scotland should be quietly gov- their small ambitions, taking securities for their erned and her deadly factions quelled. His fortunes or entangling themselves in political greatest embarrassments had been due to intrigues, the tradesmen, the mehanics, the poor Elizabeth's meddling and inconstant poli- sciousness, with spiritual convictions for which

tillers of the soil, had sprung suddenly into concy, and his chief errors to her dictation. The second of Mr. Froude's new volumes of God in the left no room for the fear of any

they were prepared to live and die. The fear opens with some observations on the influ- other thing; and in the very fierce intolerance ence of the Reformation upon the character which Knox had poured into their veins, they of the people in England and in Scotland, had becoine a force in the state. The poor clay which will help us to understand some of which, a generation earlier, the baron would.

have trodden into slime, had been heated red. Hist. of Eliz., vol. ill. p. 581. Mignet's estimate hot in the furnace of a new faith.” of Murray's character is less favourable; but he does * Hist. of Eliz., vol. iv. p. 24; see also another in. justice to his eminent qualities. (Histoire de Mario structive passage'upon the intluence of John Knox, Stuart, vol. ii. p. 116.)

p. 456.

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