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No. 1176. Fourth Series, No. 37. 15 December, 1866.

CONTENTS.

PAOR 1. Imagination and Conduct

Saturday Review,

643 2. Old Sir Douglas. Part 8

Mrs. Norlon,

646 3. Old-Fashioned Sins

Saturday Review,

659 4. Mr. Swinburne's Defence

London Review,

661 5. Out of Charity. Part 5

St. James' Magazine,

665 6. Victor Emmanuel and Venice

London Review,

691 7. Reorganization of the French Army

Economist,

692 8. Mr. Seward and the Fenian Convicts

Suturday Review, Spectator, and
London Review,

694 9. George III

Reader,

699 10. The Fall of the Leaves :

London Review,

701 11. Nooks and Corners of English Life

Examiner,

703

POETRY: Prof. Agassiz on Brazil, 642. The Poet and the People, 642. Only a Baby Small 642. Carissimo, 658. Weighing the Baby, 664. Home at Last, 690. Christmas Bells, 690.

ERRATUM. – No. 1173, page 495, second column, line fourteen from top, instead of miracle, read eircle.

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IMPROMPTU.

'Tis

you who gape at heaven, scorn earth below

it, On Hearing Professor Agassiz on Brazil, at the Your human nature narrowed to a span : Lowell Lectures.

Heaven cannot teach you, if Earth fail to show

it,
“I'll break my staff,
Bury it certain fathomas in the earth,

The majesty of Man.
And, deeper than did ever plummet sound,
I'll drown my book."- Tempest.

The soaring bird stoops lowest ; base things and

noble Touch'd by that magic staff, whose power sub- The seer sees each and all with human eyes, lime

Cuts deeper through life's rock, intent to double Made Prospero's name the memory of all time, The striving and the prize. Mountains on inountains rise, and far and wide The mightiest rivers through dense forests glide; You choke life's meaning out, love, tears, and Soft o'er the cheek just stirs the western breeze; laughter, A balmy fragrance fills the halcyon seas ;

With vague mad visions of some cold Ideal : The Southern Cross hangs in the dark blue air, He, looking, trusts or doubts the dread HereAnd every object tells - Brazil is there!

after,

But knows that Now is real. Tho view dissolves. We mark the abrasions deep,

You call his life 'calm,' spent in Truth's bigb Where glaciers rushed down Chimborazo's

quarrel, steep ;

His songs 'sweet,' that in blood and pain While in the boundless waters icebergs roll,

were born : And earth's foundations tremble to the pole. You think not of the brows beneath your laurel

Red-bleeding from the thorn. Ages then sweep away. We sail along In Ariel's boat, midst flowers unknown to song, You give him praise for some strange star, some Birds, beasts and fishes at his will appear,

comet And palms perennial crown the tropic year, Across your skies, of alien birth and breath A plant - a shell — a snail, no vulgar sight

God gives bim life to plunge into and plumb it To him, who makes their structure his delight:

Even to the dregs of death. What science claims, or knowledge loves to view,

Aye, gives him, over all, bis bliss, to know it, The great enchanter in each picture drew.

And, under all, his gulfs of pain to span,

Not more 'divine,' but most supremely Poet, Could he who first announced with impious When most intensely Man.

tongue That man progressive from a reptile strung;

Haileybury College, November 6.

Spectator. Hear what we heard, would not that skeptic see Naught but a Thinking Power'formed Agassiz ?

Nov. 26, 1866. John H. SHEPPARD. - Transcript.

ONLY A BABY SMALL.

J. B.

THE POET AND THE PEOPLE.

You care not for the splendour and the passion,

The march of music and the glow of speech, Would rest, not strive, content with this world's

fashion, To heights beyond your reach.

ONLY a baby small,

Dropt from the skies;
Only a laughing face,

Two sunny eyes ;
Only two cherry lips,

One chubby nose;
Only two little hands,

Ten little toes;
Only a golden head,

Curly and soft ;
Only a tongue that wags,

Loudly and oft ;
Only a little brain,

Empty of thought;
Only a little heart,

Troubled with naught;
Only a tender flower,

Sent us to rear ;
Only a life to love

While we are here.
- Child's Garland, by Matthias Burr.

“ Some must do Earth's real work : we fain

would do it; Be dull and humble some, not soar and shine : What part have we with painter or with poet,

Things earthly with divine ?

So 'tis to-day, so yesterday ; to-morrow

The same fool's fable will be sung again : You dream not that the Artist's school is Sorrow,

The Poet's teacher Pain.

From the Saturday Review. that neither of these in the least degree

clashes with the other. But we can very IMAGINATION AND CONDUCT. easily believe that, if schoolmasters were to

teach science in the narrow, ungenial, dry-. It is a very common mistake to attribute bones fashion in which so many of them to coldness and badness of heart what is now teach ancient literature, the effect on the really due to nothing more criminal than an mind of a student with not more than averentire want of imagination. People more age natural susceptibility or enthusiasm would often rudely disregard the feelings and situ- be fatally injurious to the health of the imation of others from inability to picture with agination, and not less so therefore to soany accuracy what is not immed ately and cial conduct. It will be an exceedingly evil palpably under their own eye, than from a day when little boys and girls are regaled base resolution to pursue their objects at any with mathematical puzzles, and experiments cost to their friends and neighbours. They with the lever and the pulley, to the detrihave no sympathy with disappointment and ment of fairy tales and romances. For, alwounded affection and all the other similar though the effect of the highest scientific forms of mental pain, simply because they knowledge is to quicken and expand the are themselves unconscious of such sensa- imagination, this is not by any means the tions, and they have not the faculty which case when the knowledge is confined to the would quicken them into realizing the pos- stiff and apparently arid and inelastic elesibility of this pain in others. They say and ments. A lad who came away from school do harsh and unsympathetic things, out of with only the same amount of appreciation a sheer incapacity to foresee any but their of science as he commonly has of the classics most direct outside consequences. The im- would be even more starved than he is now mense power of imagination as a moral in the imaginative region of his mind. agent is almost invariably overlooked in the Considering that the comparative weakcurrent domestic theories of moral educa ness of the humane sentiments is the chief tion. Everybody sees how closely it lies cause of the most prominent as well as the about the root of art, how essential it is alike most deep-seated miseries that prevail to the composition and the enjoyment of throughout the world, and not least of all in poetry, painting, and, above all, of music; our own country, nothing can be more val. but not everybody has yet persuaded bim- uable than an idea which sheds any light self that imagination plays a scarcely less upon the source of ordinary inhumanity. important part in conduct. Take from the And this too generally neglected truth that character and acts of the best men and wo much cruelty and harshness in conduct is men what is due to the operation of the im- the result of defective imagination, has the aginative faculties, and you would have left important practical merit of substituting an but few of the highest kind of good motives accessible for an inaccessible cause. If you and fine traits. And from this it follows, attribute a harsh or unfeeling act to innate. that the present leaning of educational the malevolence or incurable natural coldness ories towards a severe repression of the im- of disposition, there is an end of the matter. agination in favour of the purely scientific The harsh person must be left to his miserform of mind is a leaning which is far from able fate, and so too must those unfortunate having all the arguments on its own side. beings who happen to be under his influence Scientific training, teaches the invaluable or in bis power. He is what he is hy the habits of testing all statements, and weigh- visitation of God. But it is of the essence ing evidence, and preferring truth above all of what has been called “ rationalism” in all other considerations; but it would be a dis- departments of thought to abandon this tinct misfortune if excessive and narrow cul- belief in the secret and unchangeable evil tivation of the scientific spirit were to dis- properties of the human heart. We no lonplace the imaginative temper, which is the ger believe that insanity is the consequence very source and spring of so many moral of the presence of an evil demon, who has excellences. The quick and manysided taken bodily possession of its victim. And sensibility which is the result of a cultivated a rational analysis persuades us in the same imagination, as a thousand instances have way that an austere, unsympathetic, unft elproved, is perfectly compatible with the ing disposition is not an absolute and final strictest philosophić temper. The aim of quality of character into which we need inman, as an inquirer and in the intellectual quire no further; but that, on the contrary, order of things, is truth; as a being with it only implies the presence of a number of unsocial instincts and obligations, bis aim is favourable mental conditions, the most prombeneficence and humanity. It is obvious | inent of which is torpidity of imagination. Invate badness of heart you cannot reach. I there are unnumbered fine shades of pasA slumbering faculty of intellect you can sion and feeling and sensibility, each of reach. If anybody chooses to say, as wicked which it is the business of the humane to Caligulas have said, that to indict torture of take into account, and make proper allowbody or anguish of mind positively gives ance for. him pleasure, you can do nothing with him Besides this, it is needless to say that in the way of argument. The only course there are a hundred other sides of conduct with a wretch of this sort is to put the grat- in which imagination plays a powerful ification of his monstrous pleasures out of though often unobserved part, and to which his reach. But most people who pass for the imagination lends a characteristic calharsh and unfeeling would deny, and with our. The more this faculty of the mind is perfect sincerity, that the infliction of pain quickened and developed, the more distinct is other than highly distasteful to them. the leaning towards what is generous and Their fault is that they do not see or under lofty. Take those thousands of British stand the pain which they cause.

Children, households where a mistaken and dwarfing for instance, are nearly all cruel, and for conception of religion has invested the bare the reason that they are, from their years, notion of a richly cultivated imagination scarcely able to know what cruelty means with all that is perilous and wicked — where Their barbarous tormentings of Aies and the drama is spoken of as a choice device toads and cats, and most other sentient be- for ensnaring souls, where pictures are held ings on which they can lay their hands, are to be vain gewgawe, novels to be pestilent only the result of an ignorant sportiveness. diversions from the pursuit of salvation, and They have no notion of the thrills of agony poetry to be very frivolous and dangerous which their reckless humour sends along the as soon as it quits the bounds prescribed by quivering nerves of the victim. Parents too the imagination of Dr. Watts. The grey, often content themselves with a simple pro- colourless life which comes of this theory is hibition, either very stern or else very mild too well known, and so are the often disasand appealing, instead of trying to awaken trous rebellions against the theory on the a vivid consciousness of what these torn flies part of its younger victims. The profligacy and mutilated toads endure. Boys and girls of the sons of too austere fathers is an old desist from these atrocities when they are story. Minds with any elasticity or fertility old enough to find out for themselves that or impulse cannot tolerate these stiff, parpain is a bad thing. But, besides the hor- row bounds. They long for an atmosphere rors which they inflict on birds and insects, of growth and movement, and, as they do are those with which they torment one an- not find it in any form of virtue with which other, or rather with which the dull and they are acquainted, they very commonly blunt torment the few among them who are seek it in the more genial shape which vice keenly sensitive. In this case they see may present. The powers of imagination plainly that they cause pain, but they have which might have been made the very salt no distinct picture of what they are doing of character only serve to hurry the characAnd it is the same with them when they ter the more rapidly to degradation. The grow up.. Persons with blunt sensibilities mental ruin of the profligate is not so very and sluggish imaginations know that this or much worse than the mental ruin of the that thing is sure to be disagreeable to prig, except in the external ruin which the others, because they can tell the outward former commonly entails into the bargain. signs of pain and mortification. Only their Each loses that happy expansiveness of naconception of pain is so dull

, and corresponds ture which is one of the traits that make a 80 very imperfectly and scantily with the man's character worth most both to bimself reality, as to have no restraining power and other people, and of which a rich and over their conduct. In all cases of this kind vigorous imagination is the chief root and exhortations to benevolence and consider- source. It is rather mournful to think. ateness and mercy only fall with a fraction how many wretches there are whose only of their due weight. Those to whom they glimpses of these beights of soul are got are addressed understand too dimly what through the evil agency of gin, whose you mean by your very terms. They re-only moments when such dim glimpses quire definition, and the only way of making are possible are those when all the rest of the definition intelligible is to kindle some the intellect except imagination has been flame in the imagination, to impress upon lulled into a fatal slumber. Whether any them that their own capacities and suscep. of these visions of higher possibilities surtibilities are not the measures of the uni- vive the clearing away of the spirituous verse, to quicken in them the idea that mist is a question which the wise man will not undertake to decide. With these un- , sort are better than an unbroken level of fortunate souls, as with other people, the sordid and hideous existence. But when imagination takes some of its colour and culture and opportunity make the habitual bias from outside conditions; but its effect is and wise exercise of the imagination possito make them brighter and more endurable, ble, there is scarcely anything else so cerat least so long as the imagination is at work. tain to elevate all the springs and impulses Even faint and momentary insights of this of conduct.

The correspondent of La Presse in Italy MICHAL LEVY & Co. announce the fourth warns tourists who pass through Ferrara not to series of “ Quelques Pages d'Histoire Contembelieve that the cell shown as that of Tasso is poraine," by M. Prevost Paradol, one of the really the one in which that poet was confined. writers on the Journal des Debats. The same "Byron, who was exceedingly credulous," says publishers have also just brought out a new this correspondent, “had hinself shut up for edition of the work of General E. Daamas, entwo hours in this damp cell, and came out of titled "Les Chevaux du Sahara et les Meurs it with one of the most remarkable fragments du Désert.” This magnificent edition is accom. of his poem, "The Lamentations of Tasso' panied by comments and notes by Abd-el Kathe author of Don Juau ' and Childe Harold' der, and ornamented by a portrait of the had a strange mania for writing French, and in Emir. The beginning of his wandering and poetic life he wrote it very badly, as the following verses, quite authentic, but little known, will attest. They were written by him on the wall of the GENERAL PHILIPP DE SEGUR, the author of coa -cellar which was pointed out to him as “ Histoire de la Grande Armée," has just comthe dungeon whero Tasso was confined :- pleted his "Mémoires sur Napoleon I. et les

autres Personnages célèbres de l'Epoque.” This Là, le Tasse brul d'une flamme fatal, veteran author is eighty-seven years old. Expiant dans les fers sa gloire et son amur. Quand il va recevoir la palm trionfal Descand au noir sejcr.

GERMANY, which has hitherto been without a weekly political newspaper, is about to have

It will be started by the proprietors of It is stated that one of the objects which ex- the daily Kölnische Zeitung, under the same cited the most curiosity in the recent exhibition namo. at Toledo was a complete edition of “ Don Quixote," printed in microscopic characters, on fifty-four cigarette papers.

It is stated in the daily papers that the South Kensington Museum has recently acquired a

pack of playing cards of singular rarity. They UNDER the title of “ Twelve Champions of are woven in silk, and were made for the MedRevolution,” the Volkszeitung says, a work has ici in the 17th century by one Panicbi. been published at Berlin, giving the biography of twelve men of the revolutionary epoch of the last twenty years in Germany, France, Russia, and Italy. Freiligrath, Karl Blind, Robert MR. HANNAY is about to produce a work enBlum, Dortu, Hecker, Ruge, Schlöffel, repre- titled " Three Hundred Years of a Norman sent Gerinany; Ledru Rollin and Louis Blanc, House.” The “house” in question is that of France ; Bakunin, Russia; Mazzini and Ca. the Gurneys of Norfolk, whose ancestors were vour, Italy. The work is by M. Gustav Struve, the Lords of Gournay, in Normandy, from one of the democratic leaders of 1848, and by which place they derived their name. Dr. Rasch.

one.

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