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reason or necessity, whether we can safely | pends upon this belief, every practical plan or infer from it actuality.
purpose that we form implies it, every provision Have we, then, any ground in reason for that we make for the future, every safeguard this our faith? If we proceed on the pre- and caution we employ against it, all calculation mises of empiricism, it must be confessed and adjustment of means to ends, supposes this we have not. Mr. Mozley has analyzed and our experience of the slightest ukse to us, and
belief; it is this principle alone which renders exposed every apparent argument which without it there would be, so far as we are conwould seem to give a rational ground for cerned, no order of nature and no laws of nature ; our faith in the uniformity of phenomenal and yet this belief has no more producible reasuccession. It'a man is asked why he be- son for it than a speculation of fancy. A natlieves the future will resemble the past, ural fact has been repeated; it will be repeated : probably his first impulse would be to say,
- I am conscious of utter darkness when I try Why, it is self-evident.' But it is not to see why one of these follows from the other; We mean by self-evident, that of which I not only see no reason, but I perceive that I the opposite is self-contradictory : but though tion thau I can stop the circulation of my blood.
see none, though I can no more help the expectathe tact that the sun rose to-day would be There is a premise, and there is a conclusion : contradicted by the fact that it did not rise but there is a total want of connection between ti-day, it is in no way contradicted by the the two. The inference, then, from the one of fact that it will not rise to-morrow.' In like these to the other, rests vpon no ground of the manner every other reason that we may be understanding; by no search or analysis, howinclined to bring forward will be found, on ever suitable or minute, can we extract from examination, to be no reason at all, but sim- any corner of the human mind and intelligence, ply a statement of the fact in other words. however reinote, the very faintest reason for it.'
- P. 39. It may be said, for instance, that the repetition of a fact for a length of time shows that there is a permanent cause at work. the inductive principle is of the same char
Mr. Mozley next shows that what is called Here we should say to the empiricist, • The idea of a permanent cause at all is subver- acter. It consists of two parts: first, the sive of your premises : it belongs to a dif- the inference which is exactly the same in
search for the antecedent; and, secondly, fe ent kind of philosophy. Hence Mr.Mozley stinct which
converts ordinary and common is quite correct when he argues, “ The effects which have taken place show a cause at experience into law, viz. that habit by which work only to the extent of those effects, not fact of nature into the future.'
we always extend any existing recurrent at all further. Why, then, do we expect with such certainty the future continuance expectation of likeness, Mr. Mozley does
With regard to the exa't nature of this of them? We can only say, because we
not commit himself. It may be simply a believe the future will be like the past. We hiave professed, then, to give a reason why practical instinct, analogous to the instinct we believe this, and we have only at last
of brutes; or it may arise in us from custom stated the fact that we do.'
or association. It is enough, he thinks, if
we understand that it is irrational, i.e. has no In like manner, Mr. Mozley disposes of
He quotes with appro other apparent arguments which might be ground in reason. brought from the same point of view. The bation the famous view of Hume, and then following summary is a fine specimen of the applies the result to the question of mira
cles:keen eloquence which so often breaks from
“And now the belief in the order of nature
being thus, however powerful and useful, an unWhat ground of reason, then, can we assign intelligent impulse of which we can give no for our expectation that any part of the course rational account, in what way does this discorof nature will the next moment be like what it ery affect the question of miracles? In this has been up to this moment, i.e. for our belief way, that this belief, not having itself its foundain the uniformity of nature? None. No de- tion in reason, the ground is gone upon which monstrative reason can be given, for the con- it could be maintained, that miracles, as opposed trary to the recurrence of a fact of nature is no to the order of nature, were opposed to reason. contradiction. No probable reason cau be given, There being no producible reason why a new for all probable reasoning respecting the course event should be like the hitherto course of naof nature is founded upon this presumption of cure, no decision of reason is contradicted by its likeness, and therefore cannot be the foundation unlikeness. A miracle, in being opposed to vur of it. No reason can be given·for this belief. experience, is not only not opposed to necessary It is without a reason. It rests upon no rational reasoning, but to any reasoning. Do I see, by ground, and can be traced to no) rational princi. a certain perception, the connexion between ple. Everything connected with human life de- these two ? It has happened so; it will hap
his pen :
pen so; then may I reject a new reported fact but if the miracle is only gained at the which has not happened so as an impossibility. price of adopting these, of what use is it to But if I do not see the connection between these us ? S mply none at all. If we dissever the two by a ceriain perception, or by any percep-connection between cause and effect, we detion, I cannot.' – P. 48.
nude the miracle of all meaning. A mira
cle has only meaning on the supposition of And again :
noumenal agency or real causation. It is on
this supposition alone that we can draw the 'When, then, there is nothing on the side of inference of a supernatural cause. If there reason opposed to the expectation of likeness, is no real causation - if the events of the as is the case commonly, we follow it absolutely. world succeed each other disconnectedly, But supposing there should arise a call of rea: like the images of a kaleidoscope, what does son to us to believe what is opposite to it; fup; it matter whether they are similar or dissimiposing there is the evidence of testimony, which is an appeal to our proper reason, that an event lar, miraculous or ordinary? We can in has taken place which is opposed to this impres- neither case advance a single step beyond sion it is evident then that our reason must the fact that they are. In tact, Mr. Mozley prevail in the encounter, i.e. that if there is on has only developed in one direction the inone side positive evidence, the antecedent herent scepticism of the empirical philosophy. counter-expectation must give way.' - P.57.
Hume developed it in other directions, to
the utter subversion of human knowledge. Such is Mr. Mozley's famous argument; And this illustrates the truth of a remark and, as an argumentum ad hominem, we be- which we made before, that the real point at lieve it to be unanswerable. He has shat- issue in the present controversy is not scientitered for ever the pretentious reasoning fic but philosophical
. • Our faith in the from the constancy of natural causes.' supernatural is dependent on the view Those who indulge in this argumentation which we take of the world as a whole are the very persons who have loosened the As Mr. Mozley has remarked (p. 50), the connection between cause and effect. The idea of real causation in nature is . not oporder of nature in their hands has become, posed to the supernatural: but (and it is our in Mr. Mozley's expressive phrase, but a own remark) the idea of antecedents and, rope of sand, consisting of antecedents and consequents is. It is not indeed opposed, as consequents, but without a rational link or Mr. Mozley has shown, to the unlike fact ; trace of necessary connection between them.' but it is opposed to the miracle as the work Under this point of view, then, what reason of God. But if it is opposed to the agency can be assigned against the miracle? There of God, it is equally opposed to the agency is none. The resurrection of Christ is as of man : its logical result being, as develop credible as is His death.
ed by Mr. Mill the reduction of the human But if we examine Mr. Mozley's argu- personality to a series of feelings.' Here ment in the light of its positive value, as then is a ready method for solving any tending to further our belief in the super- doubts a man may have in regard to miranatural, our estimate of it alters. The argu- cles. If he can see bis way to the belief ment is only valid on empirical principles : that is something more than a series of
feelings;' if he can convince himself that * It is to be observed that this argument only be is a living person the cause of his own meets Positivism, or the Englishi sense-philosophy actions, he has no longer any reason to It does not meet the objection to miracles grounded doubt the miraculous scheme of Christianity. on l'antheistic systeme.
MR. Joux Stuart Mul is now engaged, at A POSTHUMOUS work of Edgar Allan Poe has Avignon, in editing the collected works of the recently becn discovered, and will soon be publate Mr. Buckle, the author of the “ History of lished in New York, Civilization."
PART V. - CHAPTER X.
her lover. How was it possible that she
should continue to live in such a condition SOME days passed on after the visit to the as this ? jeweller's shop, perhaps ten or twelve, — She was sitting one morning very forlorn before Nina heard from or saw her lover in the big parlour, looking out upon the again ; and during that time she had no ti- birds who were pecking among the dust in dings froin her relatives in the Windeberg- the courtyard below, when her eye just gasse. Lite went on very quietly in the old caught the drapery of the dress of some wohouse, and not the less quietly because the man who had entered the arched gateway. proceeds of the necklace saved Nina from Nina, from her place by the window, could any further immediate necessity of searching see out through the arch, and no one therefor money. The cold weather had come, or fore could come through their gate while she rather weather that was cold in the morn- was at her seat without passing under her ing and cold in the evening, and old Ba- eye; but on this occasion the birds had dislatka kept his bed altogether. His state tracted her attention, and she had not was such that no one could say why he caught a sight of the woman's face or figure. should not get up and dress himself, and he could it be her aunt come to torture her himself continued to speak of some future again - her and her father? She knew time when he would do so; but there be that Souchey was down stairs, hanging was, lying in his bed, and Nina told herself somewhere in idleness about the door, and that in all probability she would never see therefore she did not leave her place. If it him about the house again. For herself, she were indeed her aunt, her aunt might cone was becoming painfully anxious that some up there to seek her. Or it might possibly day should be fixed for her marriage. She be Lotta Luxa, who, next to her aunt, was knew that she was, herself, ignorant in such of all women the most disagreeable to Nina. matters; and she knew also that there was Lotta, indeed, was not so hard to bear as no woman near her from whom she could aunt Sophie, because Lotta could be seek counsel. Were she to go to some mat- answered sharply, and could be told to go, ron of the neighbourhood, her neighbour if matters proceeded to extremities. In such would only rebuke ber, because she loved a case Lotta no doubt would not go ; but a Jew. She had boldly told her relatives still the power of desiring her to do so was of her love, and by doing so had shut her- much. Then Nina remembered that Lotta self out from all assistance from them. From never wore her peticoats so full as was the even her father she could get no sympathy; morsel of drapery which she had seen. And though with him her engagement had be- as she thought of this there came a low come so far a thing sanctioned, that he had knock at the door. Nina, without rising, ceased to speak of it in words of reproach. desired the stranger to come in. Then the But when was it to be? She had more than door was gently opened, and Rebecca Loth once made up her mind that she would ask the Jewess stood before her. Niva had seen her lover, but her courage had never as | Rebecca, but had never spoken to her. yet mounted high enough in his presence to Each girl had heard much of the other allow her to do so. When he was with her, from their younger friend Ruth Jacobi. their conversation always took such a turn Ruth was very intimate with them both, that before she left him she was happy and Nina had been willing enough to be enough if she could only draw from him an told of Rebecca, as had Rebecca also to asurance that he was not forgetting to love be told of Nina. 6 Grandfather wants Anher. Of any final time for her marriage he ton to marry Rebecca,” Ruth had said more never said a word. In the meantime she than once; and thus Nina knew well that and her father might starve! They could Rebecca was her rival. “I think he loves not live on the price of a necklace for ever. her better than his own eyes,” Ruth had She had not made up her mind — she never said to Rebecca, speaking of her uncle and could make up her mind — as to what might Nina. But Rebecca had heard from a be best for her father when she should be thousand sources of information that he who married ; but she had made up her mind was to have been her lover had forgotten that when that happy time should come, his own people and his own religion, and she would simply obey her husband. He had given himself to a Christian girl. Each, would tell her what would be best for her therefore, now knew that she looked upon father. But in the mean time there was no an enemy and a rival; but each was anxword of her marriage; and now she had ious to be very courteous to her enemy. been ten days in the Kleinseite without Nina rose from her chair directly she saw once having had so much as a message from her visitor, and came forward to meet her.
suppose you hardly know who I am, ered upon her from the Christian side, was Fräulein," said Rebecca.
not going to quail before the opposition of " Oh, yes,” said Nina, with her pleasant- a Jewess, and that Jewess a rival ! est smile; "you are Rebecca Loth."
“ I do not know why we should not live “ Yes, I am Rebecca Loth, the Jewess.” to see it,” said Nina. “I like the Jews,” said Nina.
It must take long first — very long," Rebecca was not dressed now as she had said Rebecca. “ Even now, Fräulein, I fear been dressed on that gala occasion when you will think that I am very intrusive in we saw her in the Jews' quarter. Then she coming to you. I know that a Jewess has had been as smart as white muslin and no right to push her acquaintance upon a bright ribbons and velvet could make her. Christian girl.” The Jewess spoke very Now she was clad almost entirely in black, humbly of herself and of her people; but in and over her shoulders she wore a dark every word she uttered there was a slight shawl, drawn closely round her neck. But touch of irony which was not lost upon she had on her head, now as then, that pe- Nina. Nina could not but bethink herself culiar Hungarian hat which looks almost that she was poor so poor that everything like a coronet in front, and gives an aspect around her, on her, and about her, told of to the girl who wears it half defiant and poverty ; while Rebecca was very rich, and half attractive; and there were there of showed her wealth even in the sombre garcoarse the long, glossy, black curls, and the ments which she had chosen for her morning dark blue eyes, and the turn of the face, visit. No idea of Nina's poverty had crossed which was so completely Jewish in its hard, Rebecca's mind, but Nina herself could not bold, almost repellant beauty. Nina had but remember it when she felt the sarcasm said that she liked the Jews, but when the implied in her visitor's self-humiliation. words were spoken she remembered that “I am glad that you have come to me, they might be open to misconstruction, and very glad indeed, if you have come in she blushed. The same idea occurred to friendship.” Then she blushed as she conRebecca, but she scorned to take advantage tinued;" to me, situated as I am, the friendof even a successful rival on such a point as ship of a Jewishi maiden would be a treasure that. She would not twit Nina by any hint indeed."
that this assumed liking for the Jews was “ You intend to speak of” simply a special predilection for one Jew in " I speak of my engagement with Anton particular. “ We are not ungrateful to you Trendellsohn. I do so with you because I for coming among us and knowing us,” said know that you have heard of it. You tell me Rebecca. Then there was a slight pause, that Jews and Christians' cannot come tofor Nina hardly knew what to say to her gether in Prague, but I mean to marry a visitor. But Rebecca continued to speak. Jew. A Jew is my lover. If you will say “ We hear that in other countries the pre- that you will be my friend, I will love you judice against us is dying away, and that indeed. Ruth Jacobi is my friend; but then Christians stay with Jews in their houses, Ruth is so young.” and Jews with Christians, eating with them “ Yes, Ruth is very young. She is a child. and drinking with them. I fear it will never She knows nothing." be so in Prague."
“A child's friendship it better than “And why not in Prague ? I hope it none.” may. Why should we not do in Prague as “ Ruth is very young. She cannot unthey do elsewhere ?”
derstand. I too love Ruth Jacobi. I have Ah, the feeling is too firmly settled here. known her since she was born. I knew and We have our own quarter, and live alto- loved her mother. You do not remember gether apart. A Christian here will hardly Ruth Trendellsohn. No; your acquaintance walk with a Jew, unless it be from counter with them is only of the other day.” to counter, or from bank to bank. As for “ Ruth's mother has been dead seven their living together — or even eating in years,” said Nina. the same room do you ever see it ? ” “ And what are seven years? I have
Nina of course understood the meaning known them for four-and-twenty.” of this. That which the girl said to her was “Nay ; that cannot be.” intended to prove to her how_impossible it “But I have. That is my age, and I was was that she should marry a Jew, and live born, so to-say, in their arms. Ruth Trenin Prague with a Jew as his wife; but she, dellsohn was ten years older than I - only who has stood her ground before aunt So- ten.” phie, who bad never flinched for a moment “ And Anton ? before all the threats which could be show- “ Anton was a year older than his sister;
you know Anton's age. Has he never | turn against him. His own father will betold you his age ?”
come his enemy." “I never asked him ; but I know it. “ How can that be? His father knows of There are things one knows as a matter of it, and yet he is not my enemy." course. I remember his birthday always." “It is as I tell you. His father will dis« It has been a short always.”
inherit him. Every Jew in Prague will “ No, not so short. Two years is not a turn his back upon him. He knows it now. short time to know a friend."
Anton knows it himself, but he cannot be “ But he has not been betrothed to you the first to say the word that shall put an for two years ?”
end to your engagement.” “No; not betrothed to me."!
“ Jews have married Christians in Prague “ Nor has he loved you so long; nor you before now," said Nina, pleading her own him?"
cause with all the strength she had. “For him, I can only speak of the time “ But not such a one as Anton Trendellwhen he first told me so.
sohn. An unconsidered man may do that " And that was but the other day — but which is not permitted to those who are the other day as I count the time.” To this more in note.” Nina made no answer. She could not claim “ There is no law against it now.” to have known her lover from so early a " That is true. There is no law. But date as Rebecca Loth had done, who had there are habits stronger than law. In your been, as she said, born in the arms of his own case, do you not know that all the family. But what of that ? Men do not friends you have in the world will turn their always love best those woman whom they backs upon you? And so it would be with have known the longest. Anton Tren- him. You two would be alone neither dellsohn had known her long enough to as Jews nor as Christians — with none to aid find that he loved her best. Why then you, with no friend to love you." should this Jewish girl come to her and “For myself I care nothing," said Nina. throw in her teeth the shortness of her in- “ They may say, if they like, that I am no timacy with the man who was to be her Christian.” husband ? If she, Nina, had also been a “But how will it be with him ? Can you Jewess, Rebecca Loth would not then have ever be happy if you have been the cause of spoken in such way. As she thought of ruin to your husband ?” this she turned her face away from the Nina was again silent for a while, sitting stranger, and looked out among the sparrows with her face turned altogether away from who were still pecking among the dust in the Jewess. Then she rose suddenly from the court. She had told Rebecca at the her chair, and, facing round almost fiercely beginning of their interview that she would upon the other girl, asked a question, which be delighted to find a friend in a Jewess, came from the fulness of her heart, “ And but now she felt sorry that the girl had you — you yourself, whar is it that you income to her. For Arton's sake she would tend to do? Do you wish to marry him ? " bear with much from one whom he had I do,” said Rebecca, bearing Nina's gaze known so long. But for that thought she without dropping her own eyes for a mowould have answered her visitor with short ment. “I do. I do wish to be the wife of courtesy As it was, she sat silent and Anton Trendellshon." looked out upon the birds.
“ Then you shall never have your wish “I Þave come to you now,” said Rebecca never.
and me only. Ask Loth, to say a few words to you about him, and he will tell
you Anton Trendellsohn. I hope you will not “I have asked him, and he has told me refuse to listen."
so." There was something so serious, so sad, “ That will depend on what you say.". and so determined in the manner of the
“ Do you think it will be for his good to young Jewess, that it almost cowed Ninamarry a Christian ? "
almost drove her to yield before her visitor. “I shall leave him to judge of that,” re- “ If he has told you so," she said —; then plied Nina, sbarply.
she stopped, not wishing to triumph over It cannot be that you do not think of her rival. it. I am sure you would not willingly do “ He has told me so; but I knew it withan injury to the man you love."
out his telling. We all know it. I have not “ I would die for him if that would serve come here to deceive you, or to create false him."
suspicions. He does love you. He cares “ You can serve him without dying. If nothing for me, and he does love you. But he takes you for his wife, all his people will lis he therefore to be ruined? Which had
He loves me,