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haine est aveugle dans sa propre cause.-La religion est nécessaire et naturelle à l'homme. Le sentiment de l'immortalité est commun à tous.-L'ennui, qui dévore les autres hommes, est inconnu à ceux qui savent s'occuper. FENELON.--La reconnaissance est une des qualités les plus inséparables des âmes bien nées.-On ne saurait être trop reconnaissant envers ses parents de la bonne éducation qu'ils nous ont donnée.-Un menteur est toujours prodigue de serments. CORNEILLE.

Thème.

He is always ready to do his duty. Are you not pleased1 with this work? Is he free from error? I am tired with walking. It is shameful3 to betray a friend. Are you sure1 to succeed? That good minister is accessible to every one. The universe is full of the magnificence of the Almighty. That general is loaded with honours. He was invincible in war, formidable to his enemies, accustomed to labour. How glorious it is to serve our country! He is unworthy of reward. She is much afflicted by this news. Too much exercise may be injurious to health. Do not be so greedy 10 after riches. Let us be kind to one another11. That man is dear to his family. Be affable to everybody 12. Is it not true that human life is never free from troubles 13?

Adjectifs qui expriment la dimension. l'étendue des

corps, etc.

301. NOTE. Adjectives relating to the dimensions or size of objects are expressed in French in various ways, as will be seen by the following examples:

Une tour haute de cent pieds, or Une tour de cent pieds de hauteur. A tower a hundred feet high.

Une rivière large de trois cents pieds, or Une rivière de trois cents pieds de largeur. A river three hundred feet wide.

Cette colonne est haute de deux cents pieds, or Cette colonne a deux cents pieds de hauteur. That column is two hundred feet high.

302. NOTE. By or and used when comparing length and breadth is rendered in French by sur; as, The form of the Place Vendôme is a square of 75 toises in length by 70 in width, the angles of which are cut off.-La forme de la place Vendôme est un quadrilatère de 75 toises de longueur sur 70 de largeur, dont les angles sont coupés. The walls of Algiers are twelve feet thick and thirty high.-Les murs d'Alger ont douze pieds d'épaisseur sur trente de hauteur.

303. NOTE. By after a comparative, and before a noun of measure, is expressed by de; as, He is taller than you by two inches, by the whole head, etc.-Il est plus grand que vous de deux pouces, de toute la tête, etc.

Thème.

I have a desk1 two feet three inches long, and one foot nine inches broad. That tree is ninety feet in height, and fifteen in (de) circumference. You are taller than I by three inches. The Monument of London is a column of the Doric order, more than (305.) two hundred feet high; it stands on a pedestal twenty feet high. Is not the column in the Place Vendôme two hundred feet high? That well3 is a hundred and eighty feet deep by twenty in (de) circumference. That man is six feet high. This street is about a mile and a half long, and seventy feet wide.

Des comparatifs et des superlatifs (70, 71 et 72).

304. NOTE. Than after a comparative, and before any tense of the indicative or conditional mood, is expressed by que ne; as,

He is richer than he was, Il est plus riche qu'il ne l'était.

He is less rich than he was, Il est moins riche qu'il ne l'était. The ne is omitted when the first part of the sentence is either interrogative, negative, or expressive of doubt, or when there is a conjunction between que and the verb; as, Can any one be happier than I am? Peut-on être plus heureux que je le suis?—He is not richer than he was, Il n'est pas plus riche qu'il l'était. You are happier than when you were in Germany, Vous êtes plus heureux que quand vous étiez en Allemagne.

However, if the subordinate proposition be intended to convey a negative meaning, ne must be used before the verb (482.); as, The existence of Alexander will not be more contested in ten centuries than it is at the present time, L'existence d'Alexandre ne sera pas plus contestée, dans dix siècles, qu'elle ne l'est de nos jours.

305. NOTE. Than after more or less, when followed by a numeral, is expressed by de; as, He has more than fifty francs, Il a plus de cinquante francs.

If the comparison is one of equality aussi...que is used (72.), unless the comparison relates to quantity or number, when autant (alterum tantum) que is used (486.); as, Autant de tués que de blessés, As many killed as wounded.

If the second member of the comparison is an infinitive, the comparison is by si-que de; as, Je ne suis pas si fou que de vous croire, I am not so foolish as to believe you.

NOTE (276.). The article which in English precedes the comparative when repeated, is not expressed in French; as, The longer the day, the shorter the night, Plus le jour est long, plus la nuit est courte.

306. Règle. Le superlatif est absolu ou relatif. Le superlatif absolu exprime la qualité à un très-haut degré, sans rapport à une autre chose ou à une autre personne, comme très-sage, fort utile, bien triste, extrêmement attentif, etc. Le superlatif relatif exprime le plus haut degré de la qualité, avec comparaison et relativement aux objets comparés, comme le plus sage, la plus belle. On appelle superlatif d'infériorité celui qui se compose avec les mots le moins. Le moins beau de tous ces jeunes gens.

A superlative (adjective or adverb) may be heightened in various ways; as,

Ce jeune homme est on ne peut plus
aimable,

Il est de beaucoup supérieur,
Il est plus grand de beaucoup,
C'est l'homme le plus généreux du
monde,

That young man is most amiable.

He is by far superior.
He is much taller.

He is most generous (lit. the most
generous man in the world).
Come as soon as possible.

Venez le plus tôt possible,

The le of a superlative adverb does number with the substantive spoken of; as,

Cette couleur me plaît le mieux,

not agree either in gender or in

This colour pleases me most.

"The le of a superlative adjective is changeable (that is agrees with the substantive), when the comparison is with others: it is unchangeable, when the comparison is with some other state of the object itself:

"Cette fille est la plus blâmable, This girl is most to blame (of them all). "La mère ne punit pas sa fille, lors même qu'elle est le plus coupable. This mother does not correct her daughter, even when she is most in fault; more in fault than she has been at any other time."-ARNOLD.

307. NOTE. So much the more and so much the less, are expressed by d'autant plus, d'autant moins; as, He is so much the more guilty, Il est d'autant plus coupable. He is so much the less to blame Il est d'autant moins blâinable.

(Not) near so good, etc., is expressed by (ne)...à beaucoup près si bon, etc.; as, He is not near so good as his brother, Il n'est pas à beaucoup près si sage que son frère.

308. NOTE. The more or the less...for it, is expressed by en before the verb, and plus or moins after it; as, He is only the more guilty for it, Il n'en est que plus coupable. He is not the less sorry for it, Il n'en est pas moins fâché.

309. NOTE. In after a superlative is expressed by de; as, France is the oldest monarchy in Europe, La France est la plus ancienne monarchie de l'Europe.

310 REMARQUES SUR LES COMPARATIFS pire ET pis.

Pire se rapporte à un substantif masculin ou féminin: Le remède est PIRE que le mal; il n'est PIRE eau que celle qui dort.

On emploie pis, 1° Lorsqu'il se rapporte à un mot indéterminé: Rien n'est PIS qu'une mauvaise langue. Ce que vous proposez est PIS que ce qu'on allait faire. 2° Lorsqu'il est employé lui-même comme mot indéterminé: Mettre les choses au PIS. 3° Lorsqu'il fait la fonction d'adverbe: Ils sont PIs que jamais ensemble; il se portait un peu mieux, il est PIS que jamais.

)

Cependant on emploie aussi pire comme substantif: Il n'est point de degré du médiocre au PIRE.-BOILEAU.

Pis dérive du latin pejùs, plus mal, et pire de pejor, plus mauvais.

Thème.

Nothing ought to be so sacred to men as the laws intended to render them good, wise, and happy. Be just as well as1

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humane. I am as happy as you. That country is as much enlightened as ours. He remained more than ten years in France. He is older than you. The more they study this language, the more they like it. His uncle is one of the richest merchants in Paris. That lady is not less than forty years old. He feels the insult so much the more as he deserved it the less. The weather is not so fine as I should have expected. The laws are less severe than they were. You are more learned than I. There is nothing (de) more difficult than to learn by heart what one does not understand 10. The richer they are, the more charitable they become". That action is so much the more laudable because it was unexpected12. That is so much the more blamable. You do not think them the less guilty. Their conduct is so much the more honourable. The oldest general in the army.

The wisest of men have been the most religious. Of all flowers, the rose pleases me most. William and George are most to blame. That over 13-indulgent father never chastises his children even when they are most in fault. That professor is most (translate one cannot be more) learned. He is not nearly so attentive as his sister. The voyage of the Phœnicians round Africa is (so much) the more admirable, because 14 their ships could not go far from the coasts. He is not so silly as to 15 believe you. Write to me as soon as possible. Your father is a most generous man (translate the most generous man in the world). Is he as tall as your brother? He is much taller. A kindness received is of all debts the most sacred. The learned are of all men the most sought after. Learned men have been most sought after. She is too sensible to do that. The highest trees are most exposed to the storm. The most fashionable ornaments. The talents most in honour. It is in France that the fine arts are most cultivated. The arts that are most needed, are not the most honoured. It is in England, where agriculture is in honour, that the land is best cultivated. That song is one of those which were most applauded.

SYNTAXE DES PRONOMS.

pour l'accord, aux mêmes

311. Le pronom est soumis règles que l'adjectif qualificatif (56.) :

Les fruits et les fleurs aux-
quels je donnais tous mes
soins sont détruits,
Il a un courage, une intrépi-
dité à laquelle (293.) rien
ne résiste,

The fruits and flowers to which I devoted all my care are destroyed.

PRONOMS PERSONNELS.

Je, tu, il, elle; nous, vous, ils, elles, etc. (88.)

312. Le pronom sujet du verbe le précède ordinairement: je suis, j'aime. Excepté, comme nous l'avons vu (91.), dans les phrases interrogatives: parlent-ils ? 313. Le pronom sujet se place aussi après le verbe :

2o Dans les phrases interjetées : "Soldats!" s'écria-t-il, “ qui m'aime, me suive!"

He has a courage, an intrepidity, which nothing can re

sist.

1' Dans certaines phrases elliptiques et exclamatives :

Puissiez-vous être heureux !
Que viens-je d'entendre!

Peut-être viendra-t-il,

A peine fûmes-nous arrivés,

May you be happy!
What have I heard!

"Soldiers!" cried he, "let him who loves me follow me!"

3o Dans les phrases construites avec aussi, en vain, peut-être, encore, à peine, du moins, au moins, ou autre expression semblable:

Perhaps he will come.
We were scarcely arrived.

On peut aussi placer le pronom avant le verbe: peut-être il viendra.

314. NOTE. A personal pronoun in the nominative is repeated in French before every verb, if those verbs be of different tenses. When however the verbs are in the same tense, it may be repeated or not, as taste may direct or perspicuity require :

J'étudie et j'étudierai toujours,

I study and will always study.

315. NOTE. When there are two or more pronouns in the nominative case, a resuming pronoun (395.), such as nous, vous, ils, is generally used in French as the subject of the following verb; as,

Vous et moi, nous partirons,

Vous et nous, nous payerons,
Vous et eux, vous marchez vite,

You and I will depart.
You and we will pay.
You and they walk fast.

316. La répétition des pronoms faisant office de compléments est indispensable avant chaque verbe :

Il me l'a dit et me l'a assuré

He said it to me and asserted it a hundred times.

cent fois,

Mais on ne les répète pas avant un temps composé dont l'auxiliaire est sous-entendu :

Il les a flattés et loués,

He flattered and praised them.

N

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