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329. Y se dit aussi d'une personne quand on la désigne vaguement ou indirectement: C'est un honnête homme, fiez-vous-Y. ACADÉMIE. Mais si l'on voulait s'exprimer avec précision et énergie on dirait: fiez-vous À LUI.

Y signifie aussi à cet endroit, dans ce lieu: Revenez-vous de la campagne ?—Non, j'y vais.

cam

Voilà un fossé, prenez garde d'y tomber.

En.

330. Ce que nous venons de dire des pronoms y, lui, et leur, s'applique au pronom en, qui signifie de cela, et aux expressions de lui, d'elle, etc.: Je vous confie cet enfant, occupezVOUS DE LUI. Je vous confie cette affaire, occupez-vous-EN. C'est un véritable ami; je n'oublierai jamais les services que j'en ai reçus. Aca

DÉMIE.

Avez-vous des livres?-Oui, j'en ai.

Vous avez du pain, donnez-en

Are you just returned from the country?—No, I am going thither.

There is a ditch, take care not to fall into it.

aux pauvres.

Allez-vous à la ville?-Non, j'en viens.

J'étudie cette langue, j'en connais bien les règles, mais la prononciation m'en paraît difficile.

He

is a true friend; I shull never forget the services which I have received from him.

Have you any books ?—Yes, I have.

You have bread, give some to
the poor.

Are you going to town?---No,
I have just returned.
I study that language, I know
its rules well, but its pro-
nunciation appears difficult

to me.

Dictée et analyse.

Ici bas chacun ne pense qu'à soi.-L'avare qui a un fils prodigue n'amasse ni pour soi ni pour lui.-On a souvent besoin d'un plus petit que soi.-En remplissant les volontés de son père, ce jeune homme travaille pour soi.-Cette maison menace ruine, n'en approchez pas.-Ce cheval est méchant, n'y touchez pas.-Ces bâtiments n'étant pas assez grands, j'y ferai ajouter une aile.-On revient d'une erreur à force d'en rougir.—Je viens de Paris, j'en ai admiré la magnificence, les promenades, etc.

Thème.

We think too much about ourselves. If you go to the park, I shall be glad to go2 (thither) with you. Talking of medals, I have beautiful ones to show you. If you have no umbrella, I will lend you one". Wine is bad for me; I will abstain from it; you should abstain from it. If you meet my servant, have the goodness to tell him that I shall want hims3 in half an hour. Here is the letter, direct it. I will add a word to it1o. You must not be uneasy, we will set about it11 immediately.—Are you afraid of him? Yes, I am 13.-It is an unfortunate business; do not speak of it.

331. Remarks on the pronouns le la les, en, y, and other words used in French when answering questions.

The elliptical answer it is, he is, she is, they are, etc., which in English is generally the same, whatever may be the question to which it relates, must be rendered in French with the addition of some word referring directly to the subject of the inquiry.

It is, they are, etc., relating to a substantive used definitely in the question, are expressed by ce l'est, ce les sont in the answer; as,

Is it Paradise Lost you are reading?

-Yes, it is.

Are those the works of Corneille you are reading?-Yes, they are.

Est-ce le Paradis perdu que vous lisez-Oui, ce l'est.

Sont-ce les œuvres de Corneille que vous lisez-Oui, ce les sont.

REMARQUE. Est-ce là votre voiture? Oui, CE L'EST.-Sont-ce vos livres? Oui, CE LES SONT. Ces réponses sont grammaticalement correctes, mais on évite de les employer, parce qu'elles ont quelque chose d'affecté, de bizarre. On dit simplement: Oui, ou Oui, c'EST MA VOITURE; oui, CE SONT MES LIVRES.-ACADÉMIE.

It is, he is, she is, they are, etc., relating to a substantive used with the indefinite article, are expressed by c'en est un, c'en est une; as,

Was it an Italian book you were
reading?-Yes, it was.

Is it an English watch you have?-
No, it is not.

It is, it was, they are, etc., relating are expressed by c'en est; as,

Is it Spanish you are reading?
Yes, it is.

Était-ce un livre italien que vous

lisiez?-Oui, c'en était un. Est-ce une montre anglaise que vous avez?-Non, ce n'en est pas une. to a substantive used partitively,

Est-ce de l'espagnol que vous lisez ?
-Oui, c'en est.

It is, he is, she is, they are, etc., relating to a place in which a thing or person is, are rendered by il y est, elle y est, ils y sont; as,

Is your letter in the post-office ?—

Yes, it is.

Are not your sisters in Paris?—Yes, they are.

Votre lettre est-elle à la poste?-
Oui, elle y est.

Mesdemoiselles vos sœurs ne sont-
elles pas à l'aris?-Oui, elles y

sont.

It is, she is, etc., relating to a place from which a thing or person comes, are expressed by il en est, etc.; as, Is not that quotation from Shakspeare ?-Yes, it is.

Was not Corneille from Rouen ?—
Yes, he was.

Is not the style of Milton frequently sublime?-Yes, it is.

Are not the tragedies of Racine admirable?—Yes, they are.

It is, she is, etc., relating to an adverb, an adjective, or a past participle, are expressed by il l'est, elle l'est, ils le sont, etc.; as,

Ce passage n'est-il pas de Shakspeare?-Oui, il en est.

Avez-vous écrit ?-Oui, j'ai écrit.
Viendrez-vous ?-Oui, je viendrai.
Enverrez-vous ces livres ?-Oui, je
les enverrai.

Corneille n'était-il pas de Rouen ?-
Oui, il en était.

Avez-vous envoyé de l'argent à votre
ami?-Oui, je lui en ai envoyé.
Lui en prêterez-vous?—Oui, je lui
en prêterai.

Leur donnez-vous des traductions?
-Oui, je leur en donne.
N'est-ce pas vous qui avez fait cela?
-Oui, c'est moi.

N'est-ce pas monsieur R. qui est

votre banquier?-Oui, c'est lui. N'est-ce pas mademoiselle G. qui est venue?-Oui, c'est elle. Mesdames, n'êtes-vous pas fâchées qu'il pleuve ? - Oui, nous sommes or nous le sommes. N'êtes-vous pas sujet à vous tromper?-Oui, je le suis.

en

Le cheval n'est-il pas utile à l'homme?-Oui, il lui est utile or il l'est.

Cet homme, n'est-il pas enclin à la colère ?-Oui, il l'est.

332. The student will perceive from the above, that in answers, the French language is less elliptical than the English. In the former it is always necessary to use some word directly applicable to the question, and not unfrequently to repeat the principal words, as will be seen by the following examples:

Le style de Milton n'est-il pas souvent sublime?-Oui, il l'est.

Les tragédies de Racine ne sontelles pas admirables?-Oui, elles le sont.

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NOTE. If the adjective in the question personally, then the answer must be N'est-il pas glorieux d'être utile à ses semblables?-Oui, c'est glorieux.

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N'est-il pas plus noble de pardonner que de se venger?-Oui, c'est plus noble.

Is it not more noble to forgive than to revenge?-Yes, it is.

333. NOTE. In sentences like the following: It rains, does it not? You have done your exercise, have you not? I told you so, did I not? etc., the interrogation in French is always expressed by N'EST-CE PAS; as, Il pleut, N'EST-CE PAS? Vous avez fait votre thème, N'EST-CE PAS? dit, N'EST-CE PAS?

Je vous l'ai

334. NOTE. The English auxiliary verbs do, did, shall, will, should, would, can, could, etc., occasion both in questions and in answers a variety of elliptical constructions peculiar to the English language. The student should be careful to observe that the French language has no words corresponding to the above-mentioned do, did, shall, etc., as auxiliaries (164.), and consequently clearness and regularity will require the verbs to be repeated in French; as,

Why do you complain? I do not complain. My brother does. Does he!-Indeed he does, and he has complained for a long time.

Pourquoi vous plaignez-vous? Je ne

me plains pas.-C'est mon frère qui se plaint. Il se plaint! (or se plaint-il!)-Oui vraiment, et il y a longtemps qu'il se plaint.

335. NOTE. Interrogative exclamations, such as the following, are frequently used in English familiar conversation:

My sister speaks French.-DOES SHE!

I am going to Paris.-ARE YOU!

These expressions Does she, are you, and similar exclamations, have no literal equivalent in French, and the student would make a ridiculous mistake if he translated them by the words Fait-elle! êtes-vous! etc. The French use a different exclamation, such as Ah! Vraiment !

Thème.

Yes,

Have you my penknife? Yes, I have. Has he (it)? No, he has not. Have they what they want (192.)? Yes, they have. Would you have money if your father were here? Yes, I should. Are you an Englishman (273.)? Yes, I am.--Is she a French-woman? No, she is not.-Are those Molière's comedies? Yes, they are.-Was it a grammar you bought? No, it was not. Is it an Italian dictionary you want? it is. Are they pleased with (298.) me? Yes, they are.--Is not your uncle in Paris? Yes, he is.-Was not that work translated from the German? Yes, it was.-Are those gentlemen gone? Yes, they are.-Is not the style of Racine more pure than that of any other French poet? Yes, it is.-Have you been this year to Versailles? Yes, I have. Has your friend been with you? Yes, he has.-Have you seen the picture galleries1 of the Louvre? Yes, we have.-Have you

written the letter? No, I have not. You have not written to him! No, I have not.-Is he in the library? Yes, he is. Do you think the binder will send those volumes in the course of the morning? Yes, he will.-Has the postman any change? No, he has not, but I have.-Have you change for five pounds? Yes, I have. Is the king at St. Cloud? No, he is not.Have those merchants sent the wines2 you ordered in your last letter? Yes, they have.-Are you reading (219. 221.)? Yes, I am.-Do you read French as often as English? Yes, I do. Do you like music? Yes, I do.-Does your sister like music? Yes, she does.-Has she a piano? Yes, she has. Do you speak German? Yes, I do a little1.-Was it he who did that? It was.-No, it was not; you are mistaken.-Do you not think that we shall speak that language in a short time if we persevere in our studies? Yes, I do. -Will you persevere? We will.-You improve", do you not (333.)? Yes, we do.-A knowledge of French is very useful, is it not? Indeed it is.

9

Is that house to be let (216.)? Yes, it is.-Do you wish to see it? Yes, I do.-Do you want a good servant? No, I do not, I have a very good one.-Has he served you long? Yes, he has.-How long? Six years.-Does he complain? No, he does not.-Does he not (334.)? Why should he? He has no reason to complain. My cousin is going to Dover by the railway. Is he (335.)!—I have been the whole way from London to Orleans in France by steam. Have you!-By steamboat to Havre, and by railway to Orleans, passing through Rouen and Paris. Really!-Was it a pleasant journey? Indeed, it was.-Do you like travelling? Yes, I do.-Was it necessary for you to have a passport? Yes, it was.-Did the police-officers or gendarms 10 ask you for it? Yes they did, once, at the railway terminus11.-Should you like to reside in France? Indeed, I should, and particularly in the south.— The climate of the south is mild and pleasant, is it not (333.)? It is particularly so." There are many learned men 12 in Rome, are there not (333.)?" Milton asked a Roman. "Not so many as when you were there," answered the Roman.

PRONOMS POSSESSIFS.

En et l'article le, la, les, employés pour son, sa, ses, leur, leurs.

336. Les adjectifs déterminatifs possessifs son, sa,

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