Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

Les côtes, the ribs.
La
peau,

the skin, Les os, the bones.

, 'Ouvrez la bouche.
Levez la tête.
Donnez-moi le bras.
J'ai mal aux dents.
Cet enfant a le teint frais.
Allez vous laver les mains.

Le sang, the blood.
La voix, the voice.
Le gosier, the windpipe.
Open your mouth.
Look up, lift up your head.
Give me your arm.
I have the toothache.
That child has a fresh complexion.
Go and wash your hands.

Les saisons, le temps, etc. The seasons, the weather, etc. Le printemps, spring.

Le brouillard, the fog. L'été, summer.

Le tonnerre, the thunder. L'automne, autumn.

La foudre, the thunderbolt. L'hiver, winter.

Un coup de tonnerre, a clap of Beau temps, fine weather.

thunder. Mauvais temps, bad weather. L'arc-en-ciel, the rainbow. Temps clair, clear weather.

, Le froid, the cold. La chaleur, the heat.

La rosée, the dew. Le vent, the wind.

Le serein, evening air. La pluie, the rain.

Un courant d'air, a draught. La grêle, the hail.

Le jour, the day. La gelée, the frost.

La nuit, the night. La glace, the ice.

Le soleil, the sun.
La neige, the snow.

La lune, the moon.
La gelée blanche, hoar-frost. Le clair de lune, moonshine.
Le verglas, sleet.

Les étoiles, the stars.
Le dégel, the thaw.

Une averse

; } a shower.

Nous voici en hiver, il fait froid. We are in winter, it is cold.
Approchez-vous du feu.

Come near to the fire.
Il tombe de la grêle.

It hails.
Je crois qu'il va pleuvoir. I think it is going to rain.
Le froid diminue.

The cold diminishes.
La neige commence à fondre. The snow begins to melt.
Le temps est humide, il dégèle. The weather is damp, it thaws.
Il fait beau temps, le soleil luit. It is fine weather, the sun shines.
Ne pleut-il pas ?

Does it not rain ? Ce n'est qu'une averse.

It is but a shower. Voilà l'arc-en-ciel.

There is the rainbow. Entendez-vous le tonnerre ? Do

you hear the thunder ? Oui, je l'entends.

Yes, I do. Maintenant il fait chaud.

Now it is warm. Le ciel est sans nuages.

The sky is cloudless.

[ocr errors][merged small]

ACCIDENCE (from the Latin accidere, to happen,) is that part of gram. mar which treats of the circumstances or changes by inflection incidental to single words.

33. There are ten classes of words, called parts of speech, six of which, namely, the article, the substantive or noun, the adjective, the pronoun, the verb, and the participle, are variable, that is, are liable to change of termination according to circumstances.

The remaining four, namely, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection, are invariable, that is, never change their terminations.

VARIABLE PARTS OF SPEECH.

ARTICLE.

34. An article is a word prefixed to a substantive to determine the extent of its signification. The article by some French grammarians is called adjectif déterminatif.

In the French language the article is chiefly used to denote to the ear either singleness or plurality in the following noun, with which it agrees in gender and number; as,

Le laurier et la rose. The laurel and the rose.
Les lauriers et les roses. The laurels and the roses.
La science et l'*art. (The) science and (the) art.
Les iences et les arts. (The) sciences and (the) arts.
L'homme est mortel. (The) man is mortal.
Les hommes sont mortels. (The) men are mortal.

* For P apostrophe, see paragraph 11.

35. There are three articles: the definite, the indefinite, and the partitive.

36. Definite Article. The definite article is so called because it has a particular and definite signification. The is the English definite article, and it is rendered in French by le before a noun masculine beginning with a

consonant or h aspirated la before a noun feminine beginning with a in the singular consonant or h aspirated ...

number. P (11.) before a noun of either gender be

ginning with a vowel or h mute les before any nouu

in the plural.
Examples.
Le mérite, the merit.

La vertu, the virtue.
L'esprit, the mind.

L'honneur, the honour. Note. The l' is to be pronounced with the noun, as if forming with it one entire word : 1_esprit, l'honneur; and not le esprit, le honneur.

Les plantes, the plants. Les oiseaux, the birds.
Les héros, the heroes.

Les hommes, the men. Read, translate, and parse*: Le garçon, la fille. Les oncles, les neveux. Les saisons, le printemps, l'été, l'automne, l'hiver. Le soleil, la lune, les étoiles. L'année, le mois, le jour, l'heure, la promenade, les histoires, les harpes.

Exercise. The servant,

the friend, the servants, the friends, the domestique m.for f.

domestiques amis child, the children, the brothers, the brother, the father, the fathers, enfant enfants

frères

frère père pères the herb, the herbs, the friendship, the honours, the hope,

herbe h m. herbes amitié honneurs h m. espérance the glory, the hero,

the plant. gloire f. héros h asp. I plante f. * The English of the Examples for reading, translation and parsing, given throughout the Accidence, will be found at the page 416, under the head Recapitulated exercises.

of See the explanation of the signs and abbreviations used in the Exercises, facing page 1.

For words beginning with h aspirated see page 11.

ami m.

The Definite article joined with de, of or from; and À, to, is thus declined: Singular.

Plural.

de l',

aux, to the.

au
aux ........

Before a consonant Before a vowel
or h aspirated. or h mute.

Masc. Fem. M. and F. with de: du, de la,

des, of or from the. with à : au,

à la,

à l',
du is a contraction of, and is used instead of de le.
des

de les.
à le.

à les.

Examples.
Du matin au soir. From the morning to the evening.
Au travail du garçon.

To the work of the boy.
Aux amis des élèves. To the friends of the pupils.

37. The English possessive or genitive case expressed by 's, as the child's book, having no literal equivalent in French, is rendered in an inverted manner: the book of the child, le livre de l'enfant.

38. Indefinite Article. The Indefinite article is so called because it has an indefinite signification. In English the indefinite ar

. ticle is a or an, and it is rendered by

un before a noun masculine, and une before a noun feminine.

Example. Un acte d'humanité est toujours An act of humanity is always une action honorable.

an honourable action. The French indefinite article is thus declined : Masc.

Fem. with de: d'un,

of or from a. with à :

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

d'une, à une,

à un,

to a

39. Partitive Article. "Some,' or 'any,' signifying a portion of anything, or a few, may be called the partitive article. It is rendered by du, de la, de l', or des (of the) ; but some or any is frequently understood in English, whereas du, de la, de l', or des must be expressed in French before every substantive taken in a partitive sense; as,

Donnez-moi du pain. Give me some bread.
Prenez de la salade.

Take some salad.
Buvez de l'eau.

Drink some water. Avez-vous des cerises, des Have you any cherries, straw

fraises, ou des framboises ? berries, or raspberries? Note. The partitive article, in French, is merely the definite article with the preposition de; and it denotes separation or partition of a part (une partie or une certaine quantité,) from a whole ; some, or an equivalent word, being understood before the article; as donnez-moi du pain; i. e. donnez-moi (une partie or une certaine quantité) du pain.

40. When a substantive taken in a partitive sense is preceded by an adjective, the preposition de is used without the article ; as, De bon pain.

(Some) good bread.
De bonne viande.

Some) good meat.
De beaux fruits.

Some) fine fruits.

Read, translate, and parse. L'amour de la vertu. Le bonheur de l'homme. Au printemps de la vie. De la pointe (or du point) du jour, au coucher du soleil. La sagesse est la santé de l'âme. La vigueur de l'esprit et du corps. Agréable à la vue, à l'ouïe, au

à goût, et au toucher. L'activité est la mère de la prospérité. L'instruction est un trésor. Le fruit du travail est le plus doux des plaisirs. Voilà une pomme et une poire. Voici du thé, du chocolat, de la crème, du pain, du beurre, et des eufs pour déjeuner. Voilà du sucre et du lait. Une année, un mois, une semaine, un jour, une heure, une minute, une seconde, même un instant, est une partie du temps aussi bien qu'un siècle.

Exercise.
The harp of the child. The history of (the) man.

The harpef. hasp. enfant histoire hm. hommehm. love of (the) study. The glory of the hero. The sight of the étude

gloire f. moon and of the stars. The mind of the king. The happiness of lune f. étoiles esprit

bonheur me

amour

héros h asp.

vue f.

roz

« ZurückWeiter »