Abbildungen der Seite

1er, 2d, gième, 4ième, 5ième, 6ième, 7ième, gième, gième, 10ième,

11ième, 12ième, 13ième, etc.

1, 2°, 3°, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, etc.

73 222

11, 2, 3, 4, 67, 10, 3, 13, 71, 10, 75, 10, 333354, 444443, 55553, 666689, 777777, 888888, 9999,

33,333, etc., etc.

Repeat in French:


2 fois (times) 2 font (make) 4 5 fois (times) 8 font (make) 40





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6 5

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3 et 7 font 10, et 10 font 20, et 9 font 29, et 7 font 36, et 4 font 40, etc.


Otez (take) 7 de (from) 10, reste (remains) 3; ôtez 9 de 16, reste 7; ôtez 13 de 19, reste 6, etc.

84. NOTE. The French use the cardinal numbers when speaking of sovereigns, and of the day of the month:

Louis quatorze,

Le onze janvier,

Louis the Fourteenth.
The 11th of January.

Except in mentioning the first, or sometimes the second, when speaking of sovereigns, and the first when speaking of the day of the month:

François premier,

Georges second or Georges deux,
Le premier mai or de mai,

Francis the First.
George the Second.·
The 1st of May.

Examples of Dates.

Paris, le 15 avril 1837,
Londres, le 12 septembre 1839,

Paris, the 15th of April, 1837.
London, the 12th of September, 1839.

The following abbreviations are frequently used: 7bre, or sepbre, September.

8bre, or octbre, October.

9bre, or novbre, November.

xbre, or décbre, December.

Le 18 du ct (du mois courant), the 18th instant.

Le 26 der (du mois dernier), the
26th ultimo.

N° (numéro) 33, number 33.
0/0, pour cent, per cent; as, les
trois 0/0 consolidés, the 3 per
cent consols.

85. NOTE. The expressions a fortnight, and a week or sennight, are rendered by quinze jours and huit jours; as,

This day fortnight,

This day week,

Aujourd'hui en quinze.
Aujourd'hui en huit.

86. NOTE. In speaking of the hour, or subdivision of time, the portion of time mentioned as being wanted to complete any hour is preceded by the word moins, less; as,

Huit heures moins dis (minutes Ten minutes to eight.

is generally understood),

Minuit moins un quart,

A quarter to twelve (midnight).

Examples of sentences used in mentioning the hour.

Quelle heure est-il ?

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What o'clock is it?

It is twelve o'clock (noon).
It is half-past twelve.
It is a quarter past twelve.

It is a quarter to one.
It is half-past one.
It is a quarter to two.
It is ten minutes to two.
It is five minutes to two.

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La bibliothèque royale de Paris se composait de 910 volumes sous Charles V, de 1890 sous François Ier, et de 16,746 sous Louis XIII. En 1684, elle en possédait 50,542; en 1775, près de 150,000 volumes, et environ 200,000 en 1790. Elle contient aujourd'hui 600,000 volumes imprimés et 80,000 manuscrits. La bibliothèque Mazarine se composait en 1684 de 40,000 volumes, elle en a aujourd'hui 90,000 imprimés et 3437 manuscrits. La bibliothèque de l'Arsenal se compose de plus de 175,000 volumes, dont 6000 sont manuscrits. La bibliothèque de Sainte-Geneviève contient 160,000 volumes. Total, 1,111,937 volumes.

La France est divisée en 85 départements, 373 arrondissements, 2842 cantons, et 39,381 communes. Louis XII, Francois Ier, Henri II, François II. Charles IX, Henri III, Henri IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, et XVIII, Charles X, Louis-Philippe Ier.

Un trimestre, ou 3 mois. Un semestre, ou 6 mois. Une vingtaine de fois. Londres, le 1er janvier 1840.

Un franc, ou 20 sous, ou 100 centimes. Vingt-cinq sous font un schelling, et 25 francs* font une livre sterling. Cent livres sterling font 2500 francs*. Mille livres sterling font 25,000 francs*.


The year one (76.) thousand eight hundred and (76.) thirty-seven. Ten thousand men. Five hundred francs. Three thousand volumes. One million and a (82.) half. The 7th inst. The 13th ult. 6 times 7 are 42. William the Fourth. George the First. Nine hundred Guillaume Georges

and (76.) eighty-seven million six hundred and fifty-four thousand three hundred and twenty-one.

* For the sake of simplicity, no account is here taken of the rate of exchange between England and France. A correct computation may be formed by knowing that in France the English pound sterling, when at par, has the value of 25 francs 20,8 centimes. See in the APPENDICE, Tableau des mesures légales.


87. Pronouns are words used instead of nouns, to avoid repetition.

There are five sorts of pronouns: the personal, possessive, relative, demonstrative, and indefinite.


88. Personal pronouns are used instead of the names of persons and things.

The following are called conjunctive, from their being immediately united with verbs:

Conjunctive Personal Pronouns.

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Elles,} they.

S to him, to her,
or to it.

Vous, to you.

Le, him or it.
La, her or it.

Nous, us.

Vous, you.

Leur, to them.

Les, them.

Se (accusative and dative) is used in reflective verbs, for one's self, himself, herself, itself, themselves, each other, one another, or to one's self, etc.

Y, to me, thee, him, her, it, us, you, them, that; to or in that place; there; thither, etc.

En, of or from me, thee, him, her, it, us, you, them, that; of or from that place; thence, etc.

89. NOTE. The pronoun tu is much more frequently used in French than its corresponding thou in English: in the latter, thou is rarely used except in the solemn style; but in the former tu is common in familiar language, as when parents address their children, and frequently children their parents, and generally when relatives or intimate friends speak or correspond with each other; as, Maman, veux-tu venir avec moi? Mamma, wilt thou come with me?-See APPENDICE, Du tutoiement.

90. Conjunctive pronouns precede the verb (except in the instances mentioned in the rules 91. and 92.); as,

Je vous parle,

Tu me remercies,

Il me prie,
Elle te sert,

Nous le lui disons,

Vous me le dites,

Ils nous les donnent,

Elles vous en parleront,

I speak to you.

Thou thankest me.
He prays me.
She serves thee.

We tell it to him.
You tell it to me.

They give them to us.

They will speak to you about it.

91. In interrogations the pronoun nominative comes

after the verb; as,

Ai-je des amis?

Suis-je heureux?

Parlez-vous allemand?

Le verriez-vous?

Lui avez-vous obéi?

Have I friends?

Am I happy?

Do you speak German?
Is he coming?

Would you see him?
Have you obeyed him?

92. The conjunctive pronouns come also after the verb in the imperative mood used affirmatively (except me and te used without any other objective pronoun*);

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Moi and toi are used instead of me, te, after the verb; as, Enseignez-moi, Teach me. Donnez-moi, Give me (to me).

93. But if the imperative be used negatively, the conjunctive pronouns precede the verb; as,

Ne lui parlez pas,
Ne le voyez pas,
Ne la prenez pas,
Ne les aimons pas,
Ne leur parlons pas,
Ne m'enseignez pas,
Ne m'en donnez pas,

Do not speak to him.
Do not see him.
Do not take it.

Let us not love them.
Let us not speak to them
Do not teach me.

Do not give me any of it.

* Such as m'en, m'y en, etc., which are placed after the imperative used affirmatively; as, Donne-m'en, give me some of it.

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