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94. The following are called Disjunctive Personal

Pronouns :


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C'est moi,

C'est toi,

C'est lui,
C'est elle,







Faites comme eux,
Ni lui ni toi,



Qui parle?
Vous lisez mieux que
C'est vous ou moi,

It is I.

It is thou.
It is he.
It is she.




Disjunctive pronouns used with the reflective word même, self.

Moi-même, myself.
Toi-même, thyself.
Lui-même, himself.
Elle-même, herself.
Soi-même, one's self.





95. The disjunctive pronouns are used:

1st, After c'est expressed or understood, and generally when alone or separated from the verb. In comparisons, after que, than; or after ou, or; comme, as; ni, nor; as,

Moi, je suis Espagnol,
Toi, tu es Français,
Lui faire une chose pareille!

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Nous-mêmes, ourselves.
Vous-mêmes, yourselves (vous-
même, when speaking of a
single person).
Eux-mêmes, themselves.
Elles-mêmes, themselves.

C'est nous,
C'est vous,

Ce sont eux,
Ce sont elles,

2nd, For the sake of emphasis; as,



It is you or I.
Do as they.

Neither he nor thou.

It is we.

It is you.
It is they.

It is they.

Who speaks?


You read better than he.

I am a Spaniard.
Thou art a Frenchman.
He do such a thing!

3rd, After a preposition; as, de moi, of or from me; de toi, de lui, d'elle, de nous, de vous, d'eux, d'elles, à moi, etc.

4th, When there is more than one subject to the verb; as,

Lui et moi nous partons,

He and I depart.

96. Table showing the order in which the Personal pronouns are to be placed when there are two or three governed by

the same verb.

Me le,
me la,
me les,
Le-moi*, la-moi*, les-moi*,

me l'y,

me les y,

m'y, m'en,

m'y en.


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te les y,

t'y, t'en,

t'y en.


Se le,

se la,

se les,

se l'y,

se les y,

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Nous le, nous la,

nous les, nous l'y,

nous les y,

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Vous le,

vous la,

vous les,

vous l'y,

vous les y,

vous y,

vous en,

vous y en.

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les lui,

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Le leur, la leur, les leur, le leur y, la leur y, les leur y,
N.B.-See the Syntax for further rules on the personal pronouns.

General Examples of the Pronouns.

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* In the imperative used affirmatively (92.) the pronoun in the accusative comes first, except y-moi, y-toi, y-le; as,

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It is better, however, for the sake of euphony, to say, Envoyez-moi là, promène-toi dans ce lieu, etc,

Read, translate, and parse:

Je travaille avec application. C'est moi qui ai toute la peine. C'est à toi que je parle. Fiez-vous à lui. Je lui en parlerai. Je le vois venir. Elle est aimée parce qu'elle est bonne; je veux la récompenser. Ces jeunes élèves me plaisent,

ils sont bien élevés.

Exercise on the Personal Pronouns.



I walk, thou speakest, he studies, we (88.)marche parles étudie

read, they sew.

lisent f. cousent


I give him a book, he writes to you, she speaks to him, we donne (90.)



yield to them, we show them the way.



chemin m.


I see it, I eat it, he loves me, we
vois mange

it, they strike him.


see, you think, they voyons pensex m.

Y and En.

I consent to it, (let us consent) to it. consens y consentons (92.)

pity them, you plaignons

Is it he? No, it is I. Est-ce (94.) Non c'est from thee. Go with him. de Allez avec (Let us speak) ourselves. Parlons

bring apportez

He is inclined to it.
Il est enclin (90.)

We aim (at it). I (am going) thither. I speak of it. You speak

parle en


visons y of him. I have (some of them). We come (from that place). ai





Speak to him, and not to her. Far
Parlez à
et non pas à
Come without them. It is yourself.


Venez sans


They write everything themselves.
m. écrivent



97. These pronouns denote possession.

There are two sorts of possessive pronouns, the conjunctive and the disjunctive or relative.

The conjunctive possessive pronouns, (or pronouns adjective,) are so called from their being immediately joined to nouns. They are the following:

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98. NOTE. The personal pronoun leur, to them (88.), must not be confounded with the possessive leur, their. The former is connected with a verb, and never takes an 8; the latter always precedes a noun, and takes an when the noun is in the plural; as,

Je le leur ai dit,

Leurs amis les protégeront,

I have told it to them.

Their friends will protect them.

99. The following are called disjunctive or relative possessive pronouns, and are used when the nouns to which they refer are understood:

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The article le, la, les, which precedes these pronouns, when accompanied by de or à, becomes du, de la, des, and au, à la,

aux; as,

Du mien, de la mienne, des miens, des miennes, of mine, etc. Au mien, à la mienne, aux miens, aux miennes, to mine, etc.

100. Possessive pronouns, in French, agree in gender

and number with the object possessed, and not with the possessor as in English; as,

Son âge, his, her, or its age.
Son mari, her husband.

Sa femme, his wife.

Son frère, his or her brother.
Sa sœur, his or her sister.

101. To avoid the hiatus caused by the meeting of two vowels, mon, ton, son are used instead of ma, ta, sa, before a noun (or an adjective) feminine beginning with a vowel or an h mute; as,

Mon âme, my soul.

Ton épouse, thy wife. Ton humeur, thy temper. Son amitié, his or her friendship. Ton aimable sœur, thy amiable sister.

102. Conjunctive possessive pronouns are repeated before every noun to which they relate; as,

Mon père, ma mère, et mes frères sont à Paris,
My father, mother, and brothers are in Paris.

103. NOTE. In addressing a person and inquiring about his relations, it is generally the custom in France to use as a mark of respect one of the qualifications Monsieur, messieurs; madame, mesdames; mademoiselle, mesdemoiselles, before the possessive adjective; as,

Monsieur votre père est-il chez lui?

-Oui, monsieur, il y est. Madame votre mère est-elle à la campagne?-Non, monsieur, elle est de retour.

Comment se portent mesdemoiselles vos sœurs?-Parfaitement bien, je vous remercie.

Is your father at home?—Yes, sir,
he is.

Is your mother in the country?—
No, sir, she has returned.

How are your sisters?—Quite well,
I thank you.

In speaking of our own relatives the above forms are not used; thus we must be careful not to say Monsieur mon père, madame ma mère, etc.

104. NOTE. In speaking familiarly to our own relatives, observe that, in French, the possessive pronouns are generally used before the names of relationship. In English, these pronouns are frequently understood; as, Viens ici, mon frère ! Come hither, brother! Sister, whither shall we go?

Ma sœur, où irons-nous?

Read, translate, and parse:

Mon chapeau, ma bourse, mes gants, ton mouchoir, ta cravate, tes souliers, son portefeuille, sa montre, ses bijoux. Son domestique, son mari, sa sœur, son adresse. Voilà sa

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