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he

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vous

eux

94. The following are called Disjunctive Personal Pronouns :

Singular. Nominative Moi

toi

lui elle soi.
and I
thor

-self. Accusative. J Me thee him her

Plural. Nominative Nous

elles soi. and We

you they they -selves. Accusative. S US

you

them them. Disjunctive pronouns used with the reflective word même, self.

Moi-même, myself. Nous-mêmes, ourselves.
Toi-même, thyself. Vous-mêmes, yourselves (vous-
Lui-même, himself.

même, when speaking of a Elle-même, herself.

single person). Soi-même, one's self. Eux-mêmes, themselves.

Elles-mêmes, themselves. 95. The disjunctive pronouns are used: 1st, After c'est expressed or understood, and generally when alone or separated from the verb. In comparisons, after que, than; or after ou, or ; comme, as; ni, nor; as, C'est moi, It is I.

It is we. C'est toi,

It is thou. C'est lui, It is he.

Ce sont eux,

It is they C'est elle, It is she. Ce sont elles,

It is they. Qui parle ? Moi. .

Who speaks? 1.
Vous lisez mieux que lui, You read better than he.
C'est vous ou moi,

It is you or I.
Faites comme eux,

Do as they
Ni lui ni toi,

Neither he nor thou.
2nd, For the sake of emphasis ; as,
Moi, je suis Espagnol, I am a Spaniard.
Toi, tu es Français,

Thou art a Frenchman.
Lui faire une chose pareille! He do such a thing !

3rd, After a preposition; as, de moi, of or from me; de toi, de lui, d'elle, de nous, de vous, d'eux, d'elles, à mui, etc.

4th, When there is more than one subject to the verb; as, Lui et moi nous partons,

He and I depart.

C'est nous,
C'est vous,

It is you.

96. Table showing the order in which the Personal pronouns are to be placed when there are two or three governed by the same verb.

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me les y,

te les y,

Ne lui en donnez pas,

Je m'y applique,

Je ne te le redemande pas,

se les y,

nous les y,
vous les y,

lui en.

leur en,

y en.

Le leur, la leur, les leur, le leur y, la leur y, les leur y, leur N.B.-See the Syntax for further rules on the personal pronouns.

General Examples of the Pronouns.

I know them.
I see him.

I conclude from it.

m'en,

m'y,
y-moi*.
t'y, t'en,

y-toi.

s'y,
nous y,
vous y,
l'y,

y-le*.

s'en,
nous en,
vous en,

l'en.

Donnez-le-moi,
Gardez-les-nous,
Envoyez-y-moi,
Promènes-y-tor,
Menez-y-le,

m'y en.

t'y en.

s'y en. nous y en. vous y en.

I do not drink it.

I do not conduct them.

I do not wish any more of it.
I am not going thither.
Does it rain?

I laugh (of) at it.

I do not write to them.

I do not know it.

I do not tell him.

I do it not.

I shall not relate it to them.
Give him some (of it).

Do not give him any (of it).
I apply myself to it.

I do not ask it (to) thee again.

* In the imperative used affirmatively (92.) the pronoun in the accusative comes first, except y-moi, y-toi, y-le; as,

Give it me.

Keep them for us.
Send me thither.
Take a walk thither.
Take him thither.

It is better, however, for the sake of euphony, to say, Envoyez-moi là,
promène-toi dans ce lieu, etc.

Read, translate, and parse : Je travaille avec application. C'est moi qui ai toute la peine. C'est à toi que je parle. Fiez-vous à lui. Je lui en parlerai. Je le vois venir. Elle est aimée parce qu'elle est bonne; je veux la récompenser. Ces jeunes élèves me plaisent, ils sont bien élevés.

Exercise on the Personal Pronouns.

CONJUNCTIVE.

m.

Nominative. I walk, thou speakest, he studies, we see, you think, they (88.)marche parles étudie voyons pensex read, they sew. lisent f. cousent

Dative. I give him a book, he writes to you, she speaks to him, we donne (90.)

écrit

parle yield to them, we

show them the way. cédons montrons

chemin m.

Accusative. I see it, I eat it, he loves me, we pity them, you bring vois mange aime plaignons

apportex it, they strike him. frappent

Y and En. I consent to it, (let us consent) to it. He is inclined to it.

consentons (92.) Il est enclin (90.) We aim (at it). I am going) thither. I speak of it. You speak visons y vais Y parle en

parlez of him. I have (some of them). We come (from that place).

ai

consens

en

venons

en

DISJUNCTIVE.

Is it he! No, it is I. Speak to him, and not to her.

Far Est-ce (94.) Non c'est Parlez à

et non pas à

Loin from thee. Go with him. Come without them.

It is yourself

. de Allez avec Venez

C'est (Let us speak) ourselves. They write everything themselves. Parlons

m. écrivent tout

sans

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

Mon,

ta,

our.

97. These pronouns denote possession.

There are two sorts of possessive pronouns, the conjunctive and the disjunctive or relative.

The conjunctive possessive pronouns, (or pronouns adjective,) are so called from their being immediately joined to nouns. They are the following: Singular.

Plural. Masc. Fem. Masc, and Fem. ma, mes,

my. Ton,

tes, thy. Son, sa, ses,

his, her, its, or one's. Notre, notre, nos, Votre, votre,

vos,

your. Leur, leur, leurs, their.

98. NOTE. The personal pronoun leur, to them (88.), must not be confounded with the possessive leur, their. The former is connected with a verb, and never takes an 8; the latter always precedes a noun, and takes an s when the noun is in the plural; as, Je le leur ai dit,

I have told it to them.
Leurs amis les protégeront, Their friends will protect them.

99. The following are called disjunctive or relative possessive pronouns, and are used when the nouns to which they refer are understood : Singular.

Plural. Masc. Fem.

Masc. Fem. Le mien, la mienne, les miens, les miennes, mine. Le tien, la tienne, les tiens, les tiennes, thine. Le sien, la sienne, les siens, les siennes, his, hers, or its. Le nôtre, la nôtre, les nôtres, les nôtres, Le vôtre, la vôtre, les vôtres, les vôtres, yours. Le leur, la leur, les leurs, les leurs, theirs.

The article le, la, les, which precedes these pronouns, when accompanied by de or à, becomes du, de la, des, and au, à la, aux ; as, Du mien, de la mienne, des miens, des miennes, of mine, etc. Au mien, à la mienne, aux miens, aux miennes, to mine, etc.

100. Possessive pronouns, in French, agree in gender

ours.

and number with the object possessed, and not with the possessor as in English; as,

Son âge, his, her, or its age. Son frère, his or her brother.
Son mari, her husband. Sa sæur, his or her sister.
Sa femme, his wife.

101. To avoid the hiatus caused by the meeting of two vowels, mon, ton, son are used instead of ma, ta, sa, before a noun (or an adjective) feminine beginning with a vowel or an h mute; as,

Mon âme, my soul. Ton épouse, thy wife.
Ton humeur, thy temper.

Son amitié, his or her friendship. Ton aimable sæur, thy amiable sister. 102. Conjunctive possessive pronouns are repeated before every noun to which they relate; as,

Mon père, ma mère, et mes frères sont à Paris,

My father, mother, and brothers are in Paris. 103. Note. In addressing a person and inquiring about his relations, it is generally the custom in France to use as a mark of respect one of the qualifications Monsieur, messieurs; madame, mesdames; mademoiselle, mesdemoiselles, before the possessive adjective; as, Monsieur votre père est-il chez lui? Is your father at home ?Yes, sir, -Oui, monsieur, il y est.

he is. Madame votre mère est-elle à la Is your mother in the country?

campagne ?-Non, monsieur, elle No, sir, she has returned.

est de retour. Comment se portent mesdemoiselles How are your sisters ?-Quite well,

vos sæurs ?-— Parfaitement bien, je vous remercie.

In speaking of our own relatives the above forms are not used; thus we must be careful not to say Monsieur mon père, madame ma mère, etc.

104. Note. In speaking familiarly to our own relatives, observe that, in French, the possessive pronouns are generally used before the names of relationship. In English, these pronouns are frequently understood; as, Viens ici, mon frère !

Come hither, brother! où irons-nous ?

Sister, whither shall we go?

I thank you.

Ma soeur,

Read, translate, and parse : Mon chapeau, ma bourse, mes gants, ton mouchoir, ta cravate, tes souliers, son portefeuille, sa montre, ses bijoux. Son domestique, son mari, sa sœur, son adresse. Voilà sa

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