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for the person or the thing we wish to designate or

point out; as.

Ce n'est pas moi,

Ce n'est pas vrai,

It is not I.

It (that) is not true.

See, in the Syntax, Ce, cela, comparé avec il.

123. Ce is much used with a relative pronoun; as,

Ce qui nous plaît,

Ce dont je me plains,

Ce à quoi je m'applique,

Ce que je vois,

That which pleases us.

That of which I complain.

What I apply to.

What I see.

124. NOTE.-Ce que is used before a substantive or a pronoun which is the subject of the verb être. The relative que (109.) signifying quelle chose, which thing; as,

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126. Ci (here) and là (there) are often added to the noun, to point it out more distinctly; as

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Vos plumes et celles de Jean,
Ce dictionnaire-ci et celui-là,
Cette grammaire-ci et celle-là,
Je préfère celle-là à celle-ci,
Donnez-moi ceux-ci,
Prenez ceux-là,

Your pens and those of John.
This dictionary and that one.
This grammar and that one.
I prefer that one to this.
Give me these.

Take those.

128. Celui, celle, ceux, celles, are also used with a relative pronoun, in reference to a noun previously expressed, and are applied to both persons and things.

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Celui qui me voit,
Celui que je vois,


he who, or that which.
she who, or that which.

} they who, or those which.


he whom, or that which.
she whom, or that which.

} they whom, or those which.


Quel livre?-Celui qui est sur le pupitre,

Celui que je vous montre,

He who sees me.
He whom I see.

Which book?-That which is
on the desk.

The one that I show you.

Read, translate, and parse:

Ce n'est pas là (or cela n'est pas) ce que vous m'aviez promis. Ce livre me plaît. Ceci mérite attention. Cette gravure n'est pas celle que vous m'aviez promisc.-Que dites-vous de cela? Rien.-Cet enfant n'est pas celui que j'ai vu. Ces raisins sont bons, mais ceux-ci sont meilleurs.—Que dites-vous de ces jeunes personnes? Celle-là est aimable, mais celle-ci me plaît davantage. Ceci est bon, cela est mauvais.


This child. That general. Those gentlemen. This woman. That (121.) m.


friendship. This book or that one. I do not like that. This is for n'aime pas (125.) (125.)

(126.) ou (127.)

you. That which pleases me.
(123.) plaît Donnez (125.)

Give me this or that.

Of several plusieurs

hats, this one or that one, these or those. Of several (127.)

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or that one, these or those. It is you. It is useful.


(122.) utile


Tout ce qui,

Tout ce que, } whatever.

129. Indefinite pronouns have a vague and general signification; as, On, one, people, they, etc. Plusieurs, several. Nul (ne), no one. Autres, others. Autrui, other people. Chacun, every one. Personne (ne), nobody. Quelqu'un, some one. Tel, such a one. Tout, everything, all. Tout le monde, everybody. Aucun, any;-with ne, none.

On dit qu'il est malade,

Qui que ce soit, whoever.
Quoi que ce soit, whatever.
Quiconque, whoever.
Quelconque, whatever.
Quelque....que, however.
L'un l'autre, one another.
L'un et l'autre, both.
L'un ou l'autre, either.
Ni l'un ni l'autre, neither.


Nul n'est content de sa fortune,

(One says) It is reported that he is ill.

No one is satisfied with his for


Read, translate, and parse:

On dit que la Quiconque passe

Quelqu'un m'a dit vous avoir vu. Ne faites pas à autrui ce que vous ne voudriez pas qu'on vous fît. paix est faite. Nul n'est exempt d'erreur. par là, doit payer tant. On frappe à la porte. à soi. On ne doit pas compter sur la prospérité.

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Chacun pense

Some one came. Every one


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130. The verb is a word whose function is to express existence, possession, action or passion, either present,

past, or future.

Je suis, I am.


I have.

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131. Whatever performs the act, or is in the state expressed by the verb, is its nominative case, subject, or agent; as JE marche, I walk; JE suis estimé, I am esteemed.

132. Whatever the act immediately falls upon is called its accusative case, object, or regimen (régime ou complément direct); as, J'aime MON PÈRE, I love


133. When the noun or pronoun comes after a preposition, either expressed or understood, it is said to be in an oblique case. The oblique cases are the genitive (génitif), dative (datif), and ablative (ablatif).

The genitive is the noun or pronoun after the preposition de, meaning of. It names the possessor of another noun; as La maison DE MON PÈRE, My father's house.

The dative is the noun or pronoun after the preposition to or for; as, Il ME le dit, he tells it (to) me. It shows to whom or to what the thing spoken of is directed; as, Envoyez ces lettres À VOTRE SŒUR, Send those letters to your sister.

The ablative names the person or thing from which something is taken away or received; as, J'ai reçu une lettre DE VOTRE AMI, I have received a letter from your friend. It is also known by other prepositions expressed or understood, as in, with, by, etc.

The oblique cases are called in French, régimes ou compléments indirects, or régimes ou compléments de prépositions.

There is another case, called the vocative (vocatif), which is used whenever a person or thing is addressed by name; as, Charles! viens jouer, Charles! come and play.

Examples of the cases.

Nominatif. Je suis, I am. Je parle, I speak.






C'est le livre DE MON FRÈRE, It is my brother's

Je LUI donne la plume, I give (to) him the pen.
Je LA vois, I see her (or it).

JULES! viens ici. Julius! come hither.

J'ai reçu une lettre DE MON PÈRE, I have re-
ceived a letter from my father.

134. The verb être, as it expresses existence, is called a verb substantive; all other verbs, as they contain an attribute or quality, are called verbs attributive. These are divided into:

Verbs active, or transitive;

Verbs passive;

Verbs neuter, or intransitive;

Verbs reflective; and

Verbs unipersonal or impersonal.

135. Active or transitive Verbs.-The action expressed by the active or transitive verb passes directly

to an object; as,

Je cueille une fleur,
J'étudie la musique,

J'estime mon précepteur,

I gather a flower.

I study music.

I esteem my preceptor.

136. Passive verbs are verbs which present the subject as receiving the effect of an action produced by another subject; as,

Un enfant sage est aimé de A good child is beloved by his
ses parents,

The subject producing the action is frequently understood; as,

Une fleur est cueillie,

La musique est étudiée,
Mon précepteur est estimé,

A flower is gathered.
Music is studied.
My preceptor is esteemed.

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