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in Fokien, at Ningpo in Chekeang, and at Shanghae in Keangnân. On the return, Corea and Loo-choo were visited. No device of ingenuity or enterprise was spared to dispose of the goods on board, and to establish a traffic with the natives. These showed a very hospitable disposition towards the strangers; but all commerce was effectually prevented by the mandarins, except in one or two trivial instances. Some of the officers of Government were civil and forbearing, and even accepted of small presents; others, less condescending, were fairly bullied by the people in the Amherst, their junks boarded, or their doors knocked down, and their quarters invaded. Still the same vigilance was exercised to prevent trade, and trade was prevented.
On the conclusion of the voyage, it was stated in the report, that “ much alarm and suspicion had invariably been manifested, on the part of the local governments, at their appearance; and to fear, might be mainly attributed the civility which on some occasions they experienced. As a commercial speculation, it was observed, the voyage had failed, for they had “ only succeeded in disposing of a portion of the goods shipped.” These goods, being intended for experiment only, and not for profit, amounted only to about 200 bales in the aggregate, but comprised every variety of articles in demand at Canton. The larger portion were brought back exactly as they went, and, of the few things which were not returned, a considerable number had been given away. The loss on the expedition amounted to 5,6471.
In proceeding to the northward, the Amherst found the authorities especially unfriendly, and hostile to commerce. “Our sudden appearance on the coast (says Gutzlaff's journal) spread general terror." The committee, in their report to the Directors, admitted the unsatisfactory result of he experiment, and ac
TRADE TO NORTH-EASTWARD.
knowledged that, though the Chinese natives were by no means averse to a more extended intercourse, the Government had displayed the most effectual opposition. The expedition was upon the whole condemned by the court; and their animadversions were particularly directed against the fictitious characters and false names assumed by those who conducted the voyage. They commented on the inconsistency of the frequent complaints against the duplicity of the Chinese ; while the English, at the same time, were presenting themselves in an assumed shape, and in direct violation of the laws of the country.
With some it may be a question how far the system of exclusion, practised by the Chinese Government, justifies such means in order to defeat it; but there can be none whatever with regard to those deeds of violence on the part of individuals, who have themselves attempted no other justification than the extent of the provocation. Among these instances may be mentioned, the shooting of Chinese from the smuggling ships near Lintin, in 1831 and 1833, and the notorious case of an English subject, who, by his own confession in the papers, actually set fire to a mandarin's house. There can be no permanent peace or security for either natives or strangers as long as acts like these can be committed with impunity; and under the circumstances of our anomalous relations with the country, it befits our Government to place a very summary controlling power in the hands of whomsoever it appoints as its representative in China.
Towards the close of 1833, when the authority of the Company was drawing to an end, and before it had been replaced by any other, the effects were seen in a series of violences that took place not far from Lintin, where some furious engagements occurred with the natives, and one of them was killed. In revenge for this, an unfortunate lascar, belonging to the smuggling
ship principally concerned, and who had been taken prisoner by the enraged Chinese, was put to death by them. An organized attack of armed boats from the opium ships was now prepared against the town or village near which the occurrence took place; but the natives were prepared for them, and such a fire was opened from a small fort when the boats made their appearance, that it was thought better to return quietly, without attempting to land.
The relatives of the deceased Chinese, not yet satisfied, applied to their Government for redress, but the transaction had occurred in connexion with the opium trade, and the provincial authorities found themselves hampered with the usual difficulties. A singular device was fallen upon by the Hong merchants :-One of these, by authority of the Government, caused to be conveyed to Canton some individual out of a trading junk, in the harbour of Macao, who, for a bribe or reward, was to personate the culprit who had shot the Chinese. He was to be imprisoned for a certain time, and previous to his trial was to be furnished with a prepared story which was to acquit him of the murder, and convert the case into one of mere accident, or misfortune. Information of this scheme reached the select committee at Canton, who, though they were pretty well assured of the safety of the individual, and quite certain that he was no British subject, still felt themselves bound to address the Viceroy, and to protest against these strange proceedings, with which the English name was associated by report.
After some trouble, and a renewed correspondence, a public edict was issued by the Government, declaring that the affair in which the man was said to be involved was accidental, and
assuredly would not lead to the forfeiture of his life;"' and it was subsequently understood that he was liberated.
On the 22d of April, 1834, the trade of the East India Company with China, after having lasted just 200 years, terminated according to the provisions of the new Act, and several private ships soon afterwards quitted Canton with cargoes of tea for the British islands. One vessel had, previously to that date, sailed direct for England under a special licence from the authorities of the East India Company. A most important national experiment was now to be tried, the results of which alone could set at rest the grand question of the expediency of free trade against the Chinese monopoly. The success of it (whenever this shall have been established beyond dispute,) will be universally hailed, not only as a vast national benefit, but as a signal corroboration of the leading principle in the comparatively new science of political economy. Years, however, must elapse before we can judge of its effects in counter-working the Hong monopoly, or, on the other hand, adding strength to that combination.
GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF CHINA.
Eighteen Provinces of China-comprise about twenty degrees of la.
titude, by twenty of longitude-Extremes of Heat and Cold-Principal Chains of Mountains, I'wo great Rivers, The Grand Canal-Crossing the Yellow River-Great Wall-Province of the Capital-Other Provinces-Independent Mountaineers-Chain of volcanic symptoms in west of China—Manchow and Mongol Tartary-Neighbouring and tributary Countries-Chinese account of Loo-choo–of Japan.
This chapter will be principally devoted to a succinct view of the chief geographical features of China Proper, under which may be included, on account of their unparalleled magnitude, and the important stations which they hold in the maps of the country, a particular description of the Imperial canal, and of the Great wall. The scientific skill of the Jesuit missionaries accomplished a survey of the whole of this fine country on trigonometrical principles, so admirably correct as to admit of little improvement; and, with the exception of the British possessions in India, there is no part of Asia so well laid down as China.
Since the time of the Jesuits' survey, however, an alteration has taken place in the divisions of the country. The provinces of China, which then consisted of fifteen in all, have been increased, by the subdivision of three of the largest, to eighteen. Keang-nån has been split into Keang-soo and Gân-hoey, Hoo-kuâng into Hoo-nân and Hoo-pe, and the western part of Shensy has been extended, and called Kân-so. These eighteen provinces constitute a compact area, extending (if we leave out the island of Haenân) from about 21° to 41° of north latitude, and mea
ing in extreme length from north to