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fruitless, began a close blockade, and turned his rage on the open country, making the Dutch residents, and especially the ministers, prisoners : one of these was sent to Fort Zealand, to propose terms of surrender; on the refusal of which, all the prisoners were to be put to death.

This individual, by name Hambrocock, having left his wife and children with the enemy as hostages, like another Regulus exhorted the Dutch to a good defence, and returned to Koshinga with the Governor's refusal. As might have been expected, both himself and all the other prisoners were put to death, including many of the women and children.

Only two days after the Council at Batavia had censured Coyet for his fears, and despatched his successor Clenk to Formosa, the ship, which had sailed away, arrived with the news of the attack on that place. They immediately revoked the censure, and fitted out ten ships, with 700 soldiers, for the island; but Clenk arrived first off Fort Zealand, where he saw the red flag flying, and hundreds of Chinese vessels lying in the north roads. He came to an anchor, and sent his despatches on shore; but, instead of landing himself, sailed away for Japan. The succours from Batavia soon afterwards arrived, and the besieged began to act on the offensive; but they were unsuccessful in the attempt to dislodge the enemy from the town. The garrison was now increased to the utmost; and the women and children, with the other useless persons, sent to Batavia. These preparations checked the approaches of Koshinga ; but the inconceivable imprudence of the Dutch lost them their advantage. The Governor received letters from the Tartar Viceroy of Fokien (the opposite province), requesting his assistance in expelling the remains of Koshinga's forces from the coast, and promising his aid afterwards to the Dutch at Formosa. Five ships were accordingly sent away for this purpose; but



three were lost in a storm, and the remainder returned to Batavia. The wish of Koshinga was complete. A deserter from the Dutch encouraged the besiegers, and showed them the weakest points. They now assailed the fort from three batteries, and succeeded in making a breach, which they soon prepared to assault. The Hollanders upon this began to deliberate, and the majority of the Council decided that the fort was untenable. Accordingly, after a siege of nine months, with the loss of about 1,600 men, Formosa was given up, and the Dutch returned to Java, in 1662. Koshinga now became independent sovereign of the island; but in 1683 it was surrendered by his grandson to the Manchow Tartar dynasty.

The intercourse of the Russians with China through Siberia not being of a maritime character, and confined altogether to the northern extremity of the empire, has differed altogether from that of other European nations, and we have not space to enter into the details of its history. One attempt was made by them in 1806 to communicate with Canton by sea in two ships under the command of Captain Krusenstern; but an edict was then issued forbidding to Russia any trade except by land, at the frontier station (established by mutual treaties) at Kiackta in Tartary. The most celebrated early embassies, from Russia overland, were those of Isbrand Ides in 1693; and of Ismaloff, sent by Peter the Great in 1719, an account of whose mission is well given by Mr. Bell, of Antermony. The ambassador in both instances was treated with a degree of respect unusual at Peking, and demonstrative of the estimation in which the power of Russia was held there. Catherine I., in 1727, despatched Count Vladislavitch to China, as ambassador-extraordinary, and by him a treaty was concluded, by which the Russians were to have a church at Peking, with

an establishment of priests; and four young Russians were to remain at the residence of the embassy, for the purpose of studying the language, and serving as interpreters between the two nations. The Russian mission now consists of six ecclesiastical and four lay members, who study the Manchow and Chinese languages. Their abode at Peking extends to a period of about ten years, at the end of which they are relieved by others from St. Petersburgh.




First Trade between England and China-Forts battered—Leave to trade-Treaty of Commerce at Formosa–Troubles at Canton-Heavy charges on Trade-Amoy and Ningpo-Ten European ships at Canton in 1736-Commodore Anson in China-Intrigues of Hong Merchants-Mr. Flint-Quarrels of English and French Trade forbidden at Ningpo-Seizure of Mr. Flint-His Majesty's ship ArgoThe Portuguese give up an innocent Man-Chinese Maxim for ruling BarbariansViolent conduct of a Ship-master-Debts to the English recovered from the Chinese-Shocking case of the Gunner in 1784Mission and Death of Colonel Cathcart-Mission of Earl Macartney.

We now proceed to give a sketch of the early intercourse between Great Britain and China, the first attempt to establish which seems to have been as far back as 1596, when three ships were fitted out in charge of Benjamin Wood, bearing letters from Queen Elizabeth to the Emperor ; but the ships were lost on their way out, and no renewal of the project appears to have taken place. The oldest record of the Company at Canton is dated April 6th, 1637, and commences thus :—“In the latitude of 6} degrees, we took leave of the ship Planter, whom God, we hope, hath conducted in safety. Upon her was laden as per invoice appeareth," &c. This was one of a fleet of five ships, of which the remaining four, the Dragon, Sun, Catherine, and Ann, proceeded on their way to China, under the command of Captain Weddel. They first arrived at Acheen in Sumatra. “ At our reaching this (it is said) we found no Christians in the whole town, but there were three Dutchmen. Their capital was small,

as likewise their wit and manners, being fellows of foriner slender employment, and sent hither rather to oppose any of our nation that should arrive in outfacing, outvying, and outlying them, than for any real intent or desire of trade*." The fleet proceeded on its way to China, and arrived off Macao on the 28th May. Here the Portuguese did all in their power to misrepresent them to the Chinese, and prevent the chance of a trade. After several fruitless attempts to establish a peaceful arrangement, and some vain endeavours to depute persons from the fleet to open a negotiation at Canton, it was resolved that all the ships should sail up the river. They arrived in a few days at the river's mouth, at present called the Bogue, in the neighbourhood of the forts; “and being now furnished with some slender interpreters, they soon had speech with divers mandarines in the King's jounkes, to whom the cause of their arrival was declared, viz., to entertain peace and amity with them, to traffic freely as the Portugalls did, and to be forthwith supplied, for their monies, with provisions for their ships : all which those mandarines promised to solicit with the prime men resident at Canton; and in the mean time desired an expectation of six days, which were granted; and the English ships rode with white ensigns on the poop; but their perfidious friends the Portugalls had in all that time, since the return of the pinnace, so beslandered them to the Chinese, reporting them to be rogues, thieves, beggars, and what not, that

* This rancour against the Dutch was the consequence of the mutual jealousies which existed between the rival traders of the two countries at that time in the East. A treaty concluded with Holland, called the treaty of defence, in 1615, had no effect ultimately in producing harmony; and the dreadful massacre of Amboyna, in 1623, at length became the crowning act of cruelty and perfidy on the part of the Hollanders.

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