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of controul because it is a new one. Then acts? But if the scene or the other side of we are only to examine into the conduct of the globe, which tempts, invites, almost com those who have no conduct to account for. pels to tyranny and rapine, be not inspected Unfortunately the basis of this new government with the eye of a severe and unremitting vigihas been laid on old condemned delinquents, lance, shame and destruction must ensue. For and its superstructure is raised out of prose- one, the worst event of this day, though it may cutors turned into protectors. The event has deject, shall not break or subdue me. The been such as might be expected. But if it had call upon us is authoritative. Let who will been otherwise constituted; had it been con- shrink back, I shall be found at my post. stituted even as I wished, and as the mover of Baffled, discountenanced, subdued, discredited, this question had planned, the better part of as the cause of justice and humanity is, it will the proposed establishment was in the publi- be only the dearer to me. Whoever therefore city of its proceedings; in its perpetual re- shall at any time bring before you any thing sponsibility io parliament. Without this check, towards the relief of our distressed fellowwhat is our government at home, even awed, citizens in India, and towards a subversion of as every European government is, by an au- the present most corrupt and oppressive system dience formed of the other states of Europe, for its government, in me shall find, a weak, 1 by the applause or condemnation of the dis- am afraid, but a steady, earnest, and faithful cerning and critical company before which it assistant.
And be it enacted by the authority aforesaiu, CLAUSES OF MR. PITT'S BILL.
that the said commissioners, or any two of
them, shall be, and are hereby impowered to Referred to from
examine into any corrupt and fraudulent pracAppointing Commissioners to enquire into the tices, or other misconduct, committed by any fees, gratuities, perquisites, emoluments, which person or persons concerned in the manageare, or have been lately, received in the several ment of any of the offices or departments herepublicoffices therein mentioned ; to eramine into inbefore mentioned: and, for the better execuany abuses which may exist in the same, fc. tion of this present act, the said commissioners,
or any two of them, are hereby authorized to meet And be it further enacted, that it shall and and sit, from time to time, in such place or places may be lawful to and for the said commission
as they shall find most convenient, with or with. ers, or any two of them, and they are hereby out adjournment, and to send their preceptor impowered, authorized, and required, to era- precepts, under their hands and seals, for any mine upon oath (which oath they, or any two person or persons whatsoever, and for such books, of them, are hereby authorized to administer) papers, writings, or records, as they shall judge the several persons, of all descriptions, belong- necessary for their information, relating to any ing to any of the officers or departments before of the offices or departments hereinbefore menmentioned, and all other persons whom the said tioned; and all bailiffs, constables, sheriffs, und commissioners, or any two of them, shall think other his majesty's officers, are hereby required to fit to examine, touching the business of each obey and erecule such orders and precepts aforeoffice or department, and the fees, gratuities, said, as shall be sent to them or any of them by perquisites, anil emoluments taken therein, and the said commissioners, or any two of them, touching all other matters and things neces. touching the prenises. sary for the execution of the powers vested in the said commissioners by this act; all which persons are hereby required and directed punc
APPENDIX, No. 2. tually to attend the said commissioners, at such
Referred to from
385. time and place as they, or any two of them, shall
YABOB OF ARCOT'S DEBTS, appoint, and also to observe and execute such orders and directions as the said commissioners, Mr. GEORGE Smith being asked, Whoor any two of them, shall make or give for the ther the debts of the nabob of Arcot have inpurposes before mentioned.
creased since he knew Madras ? he said, Yos
they have. He distinguis ses his debts into this debt was given for the purposes mentioned two scris; those contracted before the year in the above question, but he does not know 1766, and those contracted from that year mo that it was so.-Being asked, Whether it was the year in which he left Madras.-Being the general opinion of the seitlement ? le said, asked, What he thinks is the original amount He cannot say that it was the general opinion, of tho old debts ? he said, Between twenty- but it was the opinion of a considerable part of three nnd twenty-four lacs of pagodas, as well the settlement. Being asked, Whether it was as he can recollect.-Being asked, What was the declared opinion of those that were conthe anount of that debt when he left Madras ? cerned in the debt, or those that were not ? he he nid, Between four and five lacs of pago said, It was the opinion of both parties, na! das, as he understood.-Being asked, What least such of them as he conversed with. waz the amount of the new debt when he left Being asked, Whether he has reason to beMadras ? he said, In November, 1777, that lieve that the interest really paid by the nabob, debt amounted, according to the nabob's own upon obligations given, or money lent, did 101 account, and published at Chipauk, his place frequently exceed twelve per cent. ?-he said, of residence, to sixty lacs of pagodas, inde. Prior to the first of August, 1774, he had had pendent of the old debt, on which debt of sixty reason to believe, that a higher interest than lacs of pagodas, the nabob did agree to pay twelve per cent. was paid by the nabob, on an interest of twelve per cent. per annum.- monies lent to him; but from and after that Being asked, Whether this debt was approved period, when the last act of parliament look of by the court of directors ? he said, He place in India, he does not know that more does not know it was.-Being asked, Whether than twelve per cent. had been paid by the the old debt was recognized by the court of nabob, or received from him.-Being asked, directors ? he said, Yes, it has been ; and the Whether it is not his opinion, that the nabob court ni directors have sent out repeated orders has paid more than twelve per cent. for money to the president and council of Madras, to en- due since the first of August, 1774? he said, force its recovery and payment.—Being asked, He has heard that he has, but he does not If the interest upon the new debt is punctually know it.-Being asked, Whether he has been paid ? he said, It was not during his residence at told so by any considerable and weighty auMadres, from 1777 to 1779, in which period he thority, that was like to know? he said, He Thinks no more than five per cent. interest was has been so informed by persons who he bepaid, in different dividends of two and one per lieves had a very good opportunity of knowing ent.-Being asked, What is the usual course it.-Being asked, Whether he was ever told taken by the nabob, concerning the arrears of so by the nabob of Arcot himself? he said, nterest? he said, Not having ever lent him He does not recollect that the nabob of Arcot monies himself, he cannot fully answer as to the directly told him so, but from what he said, he node of settling the interest with him. did infer that he paid a higher interest than
Being asked, Whether he has reason to be- twelve per cent. ieve the sixty lacs of pagodas was all princi- Mr. Smith being asked, Whether, in the pal money really and truly advanced to the course of trade, he ever sold any thing to the nabob of Arcot, or a fictitious capital, made nabob of Arcot ? he said, In the year 1775 up of obligations given by him, where no mo- he did sell to the nabob of Arcot pearls to the ley or goouis were received, or which was in- amount of 32,500 pagodas, for which the nabob reased by the uniting into it a greater interest gave him an order or tankah on the country han the twelve per cent. expressed to be due of Tanjore, payable in six months, without on the capital, he said, He has no reason to interest.—Being asked, Whether, at the time believe that the sum of sixty lacs of pagodas he asked the nabob his price for the pearls, the was lent in money or goods to the nabob, be- nabob beat down that price, as dealers com canse that sum he thinks is of more value than monly do? he said, No; so far from it, he all the money, goods, and chattels in the set- offered him more than he asked by 1,000 padement; but he does not know in what mode godas, and which he rejected. Being asked, or manner this debt of the nabob's was incurred Whether in settling a transaction of discount op accumulated. Being asked, Whether it with the nabob's agent, he was not offered a was not a general and well-grounded opinion greater discount than twelve per cent. he said, at Madras, that a great part of this sum was In discounting a soucar's bill for 180,000 paaccumulated by obligations, and was for ser- godas, the nabob's agent did offer him a discices performed or to be performed for the count of twenty-four per cent. per annun.. nabob? he said, He has heard that a part of saying, that it was the usuai rate of discount Vol. 1.-27
paid by the nabob; but which he would not guidance, we still think it necessary to collec accept of, thinking himself conficed by the act and digest, in a summary report, those transof parliament linuiting the interest of monies to actions in the management of the assigned welve per cent. and accordingly he discounted revenue, which have principally engaged our he bill at twelve per cent. per annum cnly.- attention, and which, upon the proceeding, are Being asked, Whether he does not think those too much intermixed with ordinary occurrences offers were made him, because the nabob to be readily traced and understood. thought he was a person of some consequence Such a report may be formed with the greates in the settlement? he said, Being only a pri- propriety at this time, when your lordship, &c. vate merchant, he apprehends that the offer have been pleased to conclude your arrangewas made to him more from its being a gene- ments for ihe rent of several of the nabob's ral practice, than from any opinion of his im- districts. Our aim in it is briefly to explaio portance.
the state of the Carnatic at the period of the nabob's assignment; the particular causes
which existed, to the prejudice of that assigoAPPENDIX, No. 3.
ment, afier it was made; and the measures Referred to from p. 390.
which your lordship, &c. have, upon our reA bill for the better government of the terri. commendation, adopted for removing those torial possessions and dependencies in India.
causes, and introducing a more regular and be
neficial system of management in the country. [One of Mr. For's India bills.]
Hyder Ali having entered the Carnatic And be it further enacted by the authority with his whole force, about the middle of July, aforesaid, that the nabob of Arcot, the rajah 1780, and employed fire and sword in its de
Tanjore, or any other native protected struction for near eighteen months before the prince in India, shall not assign, mortgage, or nabob's assignment took place, it will not be oledge any territory or land whatsoever, or the difficult to conceive the state of the country at produce or revenue thereof, to any British that period. In those provinces which were subject whatsoever; neither shall it be lawful fully exposed to the ravages of horse, scarce .o and for any British subject whatsoever to a vestige remained either of population or ake or receive any such assignment, mortgage, agriculture: such of the miserable inhabitants or pledge; and the same are hereby declared as escaped the fury of the sword were either to be null and void; and all payments or deli- carried into the Mysore country, or left to veries of produce or revenue, under any such struggle under the horrours of famine. The assignment, shall and may be recovered back Arcot and Trichinopoly districts began early by such native prince paying or delivering the to feel the effects of this desolating war. Tinsame,
from the person or persons receiving the nevelly, Madura, and Ramnadaporum, though same, or his or their representatives.
little infested with Hyder's troops, became a prey to the incursions of the Polygars, who
stript them of the greatest part of the reveAPPENDIX, No. 4.
nues; Ongole, Nellore, and Palnaud, the only
remaining districts, had suffered but in a small Referred to from p. 399 and 403.
The misfortunes of war, however, were not 27th May, 1782. the only evils which the Carnatic experienced. Letter from the Committee of assigned Reve. The nabot's aumildars, and other servants, ap
nue, to the President and Select Committee, pear to have taken advantage of the general dated 27th May, 1782; with comparative confusion to enrich themselves. A very smalı statement, and minute thereon.
part of the revenue was accounted for ; and so To the Right Honourable Lord Macartney, K.B. high were the ordinary expenses of every dise President and Governour, fc. Select Com
trict, that double the apparent produce of the mittee of Fort St. George.
whole country would not have satisfied them.
In this state, which we believe is no way My Lord, and Gentlemen,
exaggerated, the company took charge of the ALTHOUGH we have, in obedience to your assigned countries. Their prospect of relief commands of the 5th January, regularly laid from the heavy burthens of the war, was inbefore you our proceedings at large, and have deed but little advanced by the nabob's coroccasionally addressed you upon such points as cession; and the revenues of the Carnatic acquired your resolutions or orders for our seemed in danger of being irrecoverably lust.
unless a speedy and entire change of system ments appeared, by the nabob's own accounts, could be adopted.
to be one lac of rupees more than the receipts. On our minutes of the 21st January, we In other districts, the charges were not in so treated the subject of the assignment at some high a proportion, but still rated on a most exlength, and pointed out the mischiefs which, in travagant scale; and we saw, by every account addition to the effects of the war, had arisen that was brought before us, the absolute necesfrom what we conceived to be wrong and op- sity of retrenching considerably in all the pressive management.-We used the freedom articles of expense. to suggest an entire alteration in the mode of Our own reason, aided by such inquiries as realizing the revenues. We proposed a consi- we were able to make, suggested the alteraderable and immediate reduction of expenses, tions we have recommended to your lordship, and a total change of the principal aumildars &c. under this head. You will observe, that who had been employed under the nabob. we have not acted sparingly; but we chose
Our ideas had the good fortune to receive rather, in cases of doubt, to incur the hazard your approbation ; but the removal of the na- of retrenching too much, than too little ; bebob's servants being thought improper at that cause it would be easier, after any stated particular period of the collections, we em- allowance for expenses, to add what might be ployed our attention chiefly in preserving what necessary, than io diminish. We hope, howrevenue was left the country, and acquiring ever, there will be no material increase in the such materials as might lead to a more perfect articles as they now stand. knowledge of its former and present state. One considerable charge upon the nabob's
These pursuits, as we apprehended, met country was for extraordinary sibbendies, sewith great obstructions from the conduct of the poys, and horsernen, who appeared to us to be nabob's servants. The orders they received a very unnecessary incumbrance on the reve were evaded under various pretexts; no atten- nue. Your lordship, &c. have determined to tion was paid to the strong and repeated ap- receive such of these people as will inlist into plications made to them for the accounts of the company's service, and discharge the rest. their management; and their attachment to This measure will not only relieve the country the company's interest appeared, in every of a heavy burthen, but tend greatly to fix in instance, so feeble, that we saw no prospect the company that kind of authority, which is whatever of success, but in the appointment requisite for the due collection of the revenues. of renters under the company's sole authority. In consequence of your determination re
Upon this principle we judged it expedient specting the nabob's sepoys, &c. every charge to recommend, that such of the nabob's dis- under that head has been struck out of our tricts as were in a state to be farmed out, account of expenses. If the whole number of might be immediately let by a public adver- these people be enlisted by the company, there tisement, issued in the company's name, and will probably be no more than sufficient to comcirculated through every province of the Car- plete their ordinary military establishment. natic; and with the view of encouraging bid- But should the present reduction of the dabob's ders, we proposed, that the countries might be artillery render it expedient, after the war, to advertised for the whole period of the nabob's make any addition to the company's establishassignment, and the security of the company's ment, for the purposes of the assigned counprotection promised, in the fullest manner, to tries; the expense of such addition, whatever such persons as might become renters. it be, must be deducted from the present ac
This plan had the desired effect; and the count of savings. attempts which were secretly made to coun- In considering the charges of the several teract it, afforded an unequivocal proof of its districts, in order to establish better regulanecessity : but the advantages resulting from tions, we were careful to discriminate those it were more pleasingly evinced, by the number incurred for troops kept, or supposed to be of proposals that were delivered, and by the kept up for the defence of the country, from terms which were in general offered for the those of the sibbendy, servants, &c. for the districts intended to be farmed out.
cultivation of the lands, and the collection of Having so far attained the purposes of the the revenues, as well as to pay attention to assignment, our attention was next turned to such of the established customs of the country, the heavy expenses entailed upon the different ancient privileges of the inhabitants, and pubprovinces; and here, we confess, our astonish- lic charities, as were necessarily allowed, and ment was raised to the highest pitch. In the appeared proper to be continued ; but which, Trichinopoly country, the standing disburse- under the nabob's government, were not only
rated much higher, but had been blended under renters now appointed will be able at present one confused and almost unintelligible title of to fulfil the terms of their leases; but we trust, Expenses of the Districts ; so joined, perhaps, from the measures we have taken, that very to afford pleas and means of secreting and liulo, if any, of the actual collections will be appropriating great part of the revenues to lost, even during the war; and that on the other purposes than fairly appeared; and cer- return of peace and tranquillity, the renters wil tainly betraying the utmost neglect and mis- have it in their power fully to perform their management, as giving latitude for every spe- respective agreements. cies of fraud and oppression. Such a system We much regret that the situation of the has, in the few latter years of the nabob's ne- Arcot province will not admit of the same setcessities, brought all his countries into that tlement which has been made for the other dissituation, from which nothing but the most tricts; but the enemy being in possession of rigid economy, strict observance of the con- the capital, together with several other strong duct of managers, and the most conciliating holds, and having entirely desolated the coun attention to the rights of the inhabitants can try, there is little room to hope for more from possibly recover them.
it, than a bare subsistence to the few garrisons It now only remains for us to lay before your we have left there. Jordship, &c. the inclosed statement of the We shall not fail to give our attention to sums at which the districts lately advertised wards obtaining every information respecting have been let, compared with the accounts of this province, that the present times will pertheir produce delivered by the nabob, and en- mit; and to take the first opportunity to pro tered on our proceedings of the 21st January. pose such arrangements for the management Likewise a comparative view of the former as we may think eligible. and present expenses.
We have the honour to be The nabob's accounts of the produce of these
Your most obedient districts state, as we have some reason to
Humble servants, think, the sums which former renters engaged
CHARLES OAKLEY, to pay to him (and which were seldom, if ever,
EYLES IRWIN, made good) and not the sums actually produced
HALL PLUMER, by the districts; yet we have the satisfaction to
DAVID HALIBURTON, observe, that the present aggregate rents, upon
GEORGE MOUBRAY. an average, are equal to those accounts. Your lordship, &c. cannot indeed expect, that, in
Fort St. George, 27th May, 1732. the midst of the danger, invasion, and distress,
A true copy, which assail the Camatic on every side, the
J. Hudleston, Sea