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honour and dignity, and sovereign rights, were fit of our affairs ; in short, when all has been the first objects of my wishes and ambition : a continued series of disappointment and dis. But how can I paint my astonishment at Lord grace vader Lord Macartney's management, Macartney's presumption, in continuing his (and in him alone has the management been usurpation, after their positive and reiterated vested,) I want words to convey those ideas mandates! and, as if nettled by their inter- of his insufficiency, ignorance, and obstinacy, ference, which he disdained, in redoubling the which I am convinced you would entertain, fury of his violence, and sacrificing the public had you been spectators of his ruinous ana and myself, to his malice and ungovernable destructive conduct. passions !

" But against me and my son, Ameer“I am, gentlemen, at a loss to conceive Omrah, has his lordship’s vengeance chiefly where his usurpation will stop, and have an been exerted; even the company's own subor end. Has he not solemnly declared that the dinate zerindars have found better treatment, assignment was only made for the support of probably because they were more rich; those war ? and, if neither your instructions, nor of Nizanagoram have been permitted, con:rary the orders of his superiours at Bengal, were to your pointed orders, to hold their rich zeto be considered as effectual, has not the treaty mindaries at the old disproportionate rate of of peace virtually determined the period of his little more than a sixth part of the real revetyrannical administration ? But so far from nue; and my zemindar of Tanjore, though he surrendering the Carnatic into my hands, he should have regarded himself equally cenhas, since that cvent, affixed advertisements cerned with us in the event of the war, and to the walls and gates of the Black Town, for from whose fertile country many valuable har letting to the best bidder the various districts, vests have been gathered in, which have sold for the term of three yoars; and has continued at a vast price, has, I understand, only conthe committee of revenue, which you posi- tributed last year, towards the public exigentively ordered to be abolished, to whom he has cies, the very inconsiderable sum of one lac allowed enormous salaries, from 6000 to 4000 of pagodas, and a few thousand pagodas-worth pagodas per annum, which each member has of grain. received from the time of his appointment, "I am much concerned to acquaint you, that though his lordship well knows that most of ever since the peace a dreadful famine has them are by your orders disqualified, by being swept away many thousands of the followers. my principal creditors.

and seapoys families of the army, from Lord “ If thosc acts of violence and outrage had Macartney's neglect to send down grain to been productive of public advantage, I conceive the camp, though the roads are crowded with his lordship might have held them forward, in vessels : but his lordship has been too intent extenuation of his conduct; but whilst he upon his own disgraceful schemes, to attend cloaks his justification under the veil of your to the wants of the army. The negotiation records, it is impossible to refute his asser- with Tippoo, which he has set on foot through tions, or to expose to you their fallacy ; and the mediation of Monsieur Bussy, has em when he is no longer able to support his con- ployed all his thoughts, and to the attainment duct by argument, he refers to those records, of that object he will sacrifice the dearest inwhere, I understand, he has exercised all his terests of the company to gratify his malevosophistry and malicious insinuations, to render lence against me, and for his own private me and my family obnoxious in the eyes of advantages. The endeavour to treat with the company, and the British nation; and Tippoo, through the means of the French, when the glorious victories of Sir Eyre Coote must strike you, gentlemen, as highly imhave been rendered abortive by a constant de- proper and impolitic; but it must raise your ficiency of supplies; and when, since the utmost indignation to hear, that by intercepted departure of that excellent general to Bengal, letters from Bussy to Tippoo, as well as from whose loss I must ever regret, a dreadful their respective vakecls, and from various famine, at the close of last year, occasioned accounts from Cuddalore, we have every reason by his lordship's neglect to lay up a sufficient to conclude that his lordship's secretary, Mr. stock of grain at a proper season, and from Staunton, when at Cuddalore, as his agent 10 ais prohibitory orders to private merchants; settle the cessation of arms with the French, and when no exertion has been made, nor was informed of all their operations and pron advantage gained over the enemy; when Hy- jects, and consequently thai Lord Macariner der's death and Tippoo's return to his own has secretly connived at Monsieur Bussy's re dominions operated in no degree for the bene- commendation to Tippon to return into the Cw

natic, as the means of procuring the most of truth and justice ; and while that is heard, advantageous terms, and furnishing Lord Ma- the wisdom of the English nation cannot fail cartney with the plea of necessity for concluding to accede to an effectual remedy for their disa peace after his own manner: and what further tresses, by any arrangement in which their confirms the truth of this fact is, that repeated claims may be duly considered, and equitably reports, as well as the alarms of the inhabi- provided for ; and for this purpose my ministants to the westward, leave us no reason to ter, Mr. Macpherson, will readily subscribe, in doubt that Tippoo is approaching towards us. my name, to any agreement you may think His lordship has issued public orders, that the proper to allopt, founded on the same principles garrison store of rice, for which we are in- with either of the engagements I entered into debted to the exertions of the Bengal govern with the supreme government of Bengal, for ment, should be immediately disposed of, and our mutual interest and advantage.-I a.ways has strictly forbid all private grain to be sold; pray for your happiness and prosperity.' by which act he effectually prohibits all private importation of grain, and may eventually causo 6th September, and Postscript of 7th Septemas horrid a farine as that which wo experi

ber, 1783. Translution of a Letter from the enced at the closo of last year, from the same

Nabob of Arcot to the Chairman and Direcshort-sighted policy and destructive prohibi

tors of the East India Company.-Recewed tions of Lord Macartney.

from Mr. James Macpherson, 14th January, “But as he has the fabrication of the re

1784. cords in his own hands, he trusts to those partial representations of his character and "I REFER you, gentlemen, to my inclosed conduct, because the signatures of those mem- duplicate, as well as to my minister, Mr. bers of government whom he seldom consults, Macpherson, for the particulars of my suffeare affixed, as a public sanction ; but you may rings. There is no word or action of mine form a just idea of their correctness and pro- that is not perverted; and though it was my priety, when you are informed, that his lord- intention to have sent my son Ameer-ul-Oinship, upon my noticing the heavy disbursements rah, who is well versed in my affairs, to Benmade for secret service money, ordered the sums gal, to impress those gentlemen with a full to be struck off, and the accounts to be erused sense of my situation, yet I find myself oliged from the cash-book of the company; and I to lay it aside, from the insinuations of the think I cannot give you a better proof of his calumniating tongue of Lord Macartney, that management of my country and revenues, takes every licence to traduce every action than by calling your attention to his conduct of my life, and that of my son. I am informed in the Ongole province, and by referring you that Lord Macartney, at this late moment, to his lordship's administration of your own intends to write a letter; I am ignorant of the jaghire, from whence he has brought to the subject; but fully perceive, that by delaying to public account the sum of twelve hundred pa- send it till the very eve of the dispatch, he godas for the last year's revenue, yet blazons means to deprive me of all possibility of com forth his vast merits and exertions, and ex- municating my reply, and forwarding it for pects to receive the thanks of his committee the information of my friends in England and council.-I will beg leave to refer you to Conscious of the weak ground on which he my minister, James Macpherson, esq. for a stands, he is obliged to have recourse to these more particular account of my sufferings and artifices to mislead the judgment, and support miseries, to whom I have transmitted copies for a time his unjustifiable measures by deceit of all papers that passed with his lordship. and imposition. I wish only to meet and

“ I cannot conclude without calling your at- combat his charges and allegations fairly and tention to the situation of my different creditors, openly; and I have repeatedly and urgently whose claims are the claims of justice, and demanded to be furnished with copies of those whose demands I am bound by honour, and parts of his fabricated records relative to myevery moral obligation, to discharge; it is not self; but as he well knows I should refute bis therefore without great concern I have heard sophistry, I cannot be surprised at his refus al, insinuations tending to question the legality of though I lament that it prevent sou, gentheir right to the payment of those just debts ; tlemen, from a clear investigation - his colle they proceeded from advances made by them duct towards me. openly and honourably for the support of my “ Inclosed you have a translaticn of an arzoo own and the public affairs. But I hope the from the killidar of Vellore: I have thousands 'ongue of calumny will never drown the voice of the same kind; but this just now received

will serve to give you some idea of the mise- in the breast of the amildar. Some of the ries brought upon this my devoted country, and children that were somewhat large, he exposed the wretched inhabitants that remain in it, to sale. In short, the violences of the amildar by the oppressive hand of Lord Macartney's are so astonishing, that the people, on seeing management; nor will the embezzlements of their present situation, remember the loss of collections thus obtained, when brought before Hyder with regret. With whomsoever the you in proof, appear less extraordinary, which amildar finds a single measure of natehinee, or shall certainly be done in due time.

rice, he takes it way from him, and appropri

ates it to the expenses of the Sibindy that he Translation of an Arzee, in the Persian Lan- keeps up. No revenues are collected from

the countries, but from the effects of the poor guage, from Uzzeem ul Doen Cawn, the Kul. lidar of Vellore, to the Nabob, dated 1st Sep- who intended to return to their habitations,

wretched inhabitants. Those ryots (yeomen) tember, 1783. Inclosed in the Nahob's Letter hearing of those violences, have fled for refuge, to the Court of Directors, September, 1783.

with their wives and children, into Hyder's "I have repeatedly represented to your country. Every day is ushered in closed with highness the violences and oppressions exer- these violences and disturbances. I have no cised by the present amildar (collector of re- power to do any thing; and who will hear renue) of Lord Macartney's appointment, over what I have to say ? My business is to irthe few remaining inhabitants of the district form your highness, who are my master. The of Vellore, Ambore, Saulguda, &c.

people bring their complaints to me, and I “ The outrages and violences now commit- tell them I will write to your highness."* ced, are of that astonishing nature as were never known or heard of during the adminis*ration of the circar. Hyder Naik, the cru

Translation of a Tellinga Letter from Vera ellest of tyrants, used every kind of oppression Permaul, Head Dubash to Lord Macartney, in the circar countries; but even his mea

in his own hand-writing, to Rajah Ramsures were not like those now pursued. Such chunda, the renter of Ongole; dated 25th of of the inhabitants as had escaped the sword and pillage of Hyder Naik, by taking refuge *[The above-recited practices, or practices in the woods, and within the walls of Vellore, similar to them, have prevailed in almost every &c. on the arrival of Lord Macartney's amil- part of the miserable countries on the coast of dar to Vellore, and in consequence of his they prevailed as strongly and generally as they

Coromandel, for near twenty years past. That cowle of protection and support, most cheer- could prevail, under the administration of the fully returned to the villages, set about the nabob, there can be no question, notwithstancultivation of the lands, and with great pains ding the assertion in the beginning of the above rebuilt their cottages.—But now the amildar petition, nor will it be otherwise, whilst affairs

are conducted upon the principles which intiu. has imprisoned the wives and children of the

ence the present system. Whether the particu. inhabitants, seized the few jewels that were

lars here asserted are true or false, neither the on the bodies of the women, and then, before thought proper to enquire. If they are true, in

court of directors nor their ministry have the faces of their husbands, flogged them, in order to bring them to affect Lord Macartney, it order to make them produce other jewels and ought to be proved that the complaint was made effects, which he said they had buried some

to him; and that he had refused redrese. Inwhere under ground, and to make the inhą, to the court of directors. The above is one of

stead of this fair course, the complaint is carried bitants bring him money, notwithstanding the documents transmitted by the nabob, in there was yet no cultivation in the country. proof of his charge of corruption agaiost Lord Terrified with the flagellations, some of them Macartney. If genuine, it is conclusive, at least produced their jewels, and wearing apparel of against Lord Macartney's principle agent and

manager. If it be a forgery (as in all likelihool Their women, to the amount of ten or fifteen it is) it is conclusive against the nabob and his pagodas, which they had hidden; others, who evil counsellors; and fully demonstrates, if any declared they had none, the amildar flogged thing further were necessary to demonstale, th their wonien severely, tied cords around their biting the residence of the native princes 'a the

necessity of the cause in Mr. Fox's bill prohi breasts, and tore the sucking children from company's principal settlements : which clause their teats, and exposed them to the scorching was, for obvious reasons, not admitted into Mr. heat of the sun. Those children died, as did Pill's. It shews too the absolute necessity of a the wife of Ramsoamy, an inhabitani vi Bring.. his English evil counsellors and creditors to

severe and exemplary punishment on certain or poor. Even this could not stir up compassion whom such practices are carried on.)

PRESENT

the Hindoo month Mausay, in the year Pla- this for your satisfaction, and has engaged to
vcnamal, corresponding to 5th March, 1782. me that I shall have this letter returned to me
1
my respects to you, and am very

in the space of twelve days. vell here, wishing to hear frequently of your

The present governour is not like the for. welfare.

mer governours-he is a very great man in Your peasher Vancatroyloo has brought the Europe and all the great men of Europe are Visseel Bakees, and delivered them to me, as

much obliged to him for his condescension in also what you sent him for me to deliver to my accepting the government of this place. It is master, which I have done. My master at first his custom when he makes friendship with any refused to take it, because he is unacquainted

one to continue it always, and if he is at enmiwith your disposition, or what kind of a person ty with any one, he never will desist till he has you are. But after I made encomiums on your

worked his destruction ; he is nou exceedingly goodness and greatness of mind, and took my displeased with the nabob, and you will underoath to the same, and that it would not become

stand by and by that the nabob's business cannot public, but be held as precious as our lives,

be carried on; he (the nabob) will have no my master accepted it. You may remain sa

power to do any thing in his own affairs , you tisfied, that I will get the Ongole business set

have therefore no room to fear him. You may tled in your name ; I will cause the jamau- remain with a contented mind—I desired the bundee to be settled agreeable to your desire. gorernour to write you a letter for your satis It was formerly the nabob's intention to give when the business was settled. This letter

faction; the governour said he would do so this business to you, as the governour knows full well, but did not at that time agree to it, you must peruse as soon as possible, and send which you must be well acquainted with.

it back with all speed by the bearer Ramadoo, Your peasher Vancatroyloo is a very care- accompanied by three or four of your people, ful god man-he is well experienced in busi

to the end that no accident may happen on the ness-he has bound me by an oath to keep all road. These people must be ordered to march this business secret, and that his own, yours, and

in the night only, and to arrive here with the my lives are responsible for it. I write this greatest dispatch. You sent ten mangoes for letter to you with the greatest reluctance, my master, and two for me, all which I have and I signified the same io your peasher, and delivered to my master, thinking that ten was declared that I would not write to you by any

not sufficient to present him with. I write mcans ; to this the peasher urged, iha: if I did this for your information, and salute you with

ten thousand respects. not write to his master, how could he know to whom he (the peasher) delivered the money, and what must his master think of it? therefore I I, Muttu Kistnah, of Madras Patnam, write you this letter, and send it by my ser

dubash, declare, That I perfectly vant Ramanah, accompanied by the peasher's

understand the Gentoo language; servant, and it will come safe to your hands:

and do most solemnly affirm, that the after perusal you will send it back to me im

foregoing is a true translation of the mediately-until I receive it I don't like to

annexed paper writing from the Geneat my victuals, or take any sleep. Your

too language. seasher took his ath, and urged me to write

(Signed) Muttu Kistanh.

Vol. 1,--29

SUBSTANCE OF MR. BURKE'S SPEECH

IN THE DEBATE ON THE ARMY ESTIMATES, IN THE HOUSE OF COM MONS, ON TUESDAY, THE 9ru DAY OF FEBRUARY, 1790. COMPRE. HENDING A DISCISSION OF THE PRESENT SITUATION OF AFFAIRS IN FRANCE.

MR. BURKE's speech on the report of the balance. If the increase of peace establisharmy estimates has not been correctly stated ments demantud of parliament agreed with the in some of the public papers. It is of conse- manifest appearance of the balance, confidence quence to him not to be misunderstood. The in ministers, as to the particulars, would be matter which incidentally came into discussion very proper. If the increase was not at all is of the most serious importance. It is thoughi supported by any such appearance, he thought that the heads and substance of the speech great jealousy might, and ought to be, enterwill answer the purpose sufficiently. If in tained on that subject. making the abstract, through defect of memory, That he did not find, on a review of all in the person who now gives it, any difference Europe, that, politically, we stood in the at a! should be perceived from the speech as smallest degree of danger from any one state it was spoken, it will not, the editor imagines, or kingdom it contained; nor that any other be found in any thing which may amount to a foreign powers than our own allies were likely retraction of the opinions he then maintained, to obtain a considerable preponderance in the or lo any softening in the expressions in which scale. they were conveyed.

That France had hitherto been our first Mr. Burke spoko a considerable time in object, in all considerations concerning the answer to various arguments which had been balance of power. The presence or absence insisted upon by Mr. Grenville and Mr. Pitt, of France totally varied every sort of speculafor keeping an increased peace establishment, tion relative to that balance. and against an improper jealousy of the mi- That France is, at this time, in a political nisters, in whorn a full confidence, subject to light, to be considered as expunged out of the responsibility, ought to be placed, on account system of Europe. Whether she could ever of their knowledge of the real situation of appear in it again, as a leading power, was affairs; the exact state of which it frequently not easy to determine: but at present he conhappened, that they could not disclose, with sidered France as not politically existing; and out violating the constitutional and political most assuredly it would take up much time to secrecy, necessary to the well-being of their restore her to her former active existence

Gallos quoque in bellis floruisse audumus, Mr. Burke said in substance, That confi- might possibly be the language of the rising dence might become a vice, and jealousy a generation. He did not mean to deny that it virtue, according to circumstances. That con- was our duty to keep our eye on that nation, fidence, of all public virtues, was the most and to regulate our preparation by the sympdangerous, and jealousy in a house of commons, toms of her recovery. of all public vices, the most tolerable ; espe- That it was to her strength, not to her form cially where the number and the charge of of government, which we were to attend; be standing armies, in time of peace, was the cause republics, as well as monarchies, were question.

susceptible of ambition, jealousy, and anger, That in the annual mutiny bill, the annual the usual causes of war. army was declared to be for the purpose of But it, while France continued in this swoon preserving the balance of power in Europe. we should go on increasing our expenses, we 'Tho propriety of its being larger or smaller should certainly make ourselves less a match deponded, therefore, upon the true state of that for her, when i became our concern to arm

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