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The pre-eminence then of the Father is that He is God, not from any other but from Himself, and that there is no other Person who is God but is God from Him.

The Father is a Father by reason of His Son, but not God by reason of Him; the Son is not only Son, but also God, by reason of the Father.

And so also the Son is sent by the Father : (John vii. 29. “For I am from Him, and He hath sent me. Heb. iii. 1. “ Consider the Apostle......Christ Jesus”): 80 also, where the Three Persons of the Trinity are enumerated as the Rule of Faith, the Father is placed first, as in the form of Baptism (Matt. xxviii. 19.) though elsewhere the Son be named sometimes first, as in 2 Cor. xiii. 14.

Thus the proper notion of God the Father is, that He is a Person subsisting eternally in one infinite essence of the Godhead, which essence, not received by Him from any other Person, He hath communicated by generation to another Person, who thereby is the Son.

The name of God taken absolutely is often used in Scripture of the Father, and wheresoever Christ is called the Son of God, the name of God is to be taken for the Father, because Christ is no Son but of the Father. 1 Cor. viii. 6. “But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him : and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by

There is thus an ascending scale of degrees of Sonship with regard to God the universal Father: I. Sonship founded on Creation, the lowest degree, as belonging to all, good and bad : II. another higher degree, groun led on Regeneration and Adoption, belonging only to the faithful in this life : III. a third degree still higher, founded on the Resurrection, or collation to the eternal inheritance, belonging to the saints alone in the world to come; IV. the highest degree, belonging to the true Son of God alone, Jesus Christ, who is alone called 'His own Son,' Rom. viii. 32. and beloved Son,' Matt. iii. 17. and xvii. 5. and therefore peculiarly calls God His own Father, ,John v. 18. marépa żolov.

SECTION IV. I believe in God the Father ALMIGHTY. The Greek word hero translated ' Almighty' is Tavtokpátwp, which the oldest Greek interpreters use I. for

Him."

the Lord of Hosts (Kúplos Eaßace), II. for His name Shaddai,' as generally in Job.

The first implies God's dominion over all : the second the power by which He doeth all things.

The original title Kúpios Eaßawo is kept by Saint Paul (Rom. ix. 29. quoting Isaiah i. 9.) and by Saint James (James v. 4.) : Saint John turns it into Tavtokpátwp in Rev. i. 8; iv. 8, &c. So that from the use of the sacred writers, the sense of the word in Greek, and the testimony of the ancient Fathers, we ascribe in this Article to God the Father the dominion over all, and the rule and government of all.

There are three branches of God's authority or power.

(a) A right of making any thing He wills, and as He wills : the other two depend on this ; God's dominion implying a preceding creation.

(6) A right of possessing all things so made by Him, as His own, as their Lord and Master by direct dominion.

This right is I. independent in its origin, as God originates all power, and in its exercise, as He is irresponsible, and the fountain of all power (1 Tim. vi. 15.): II. infinite, in amplitude of object (Deut. x. 14.), and in plenitude of manner, both in extension, over all things, and intension, having all power over all things (Jer. xviii. 6; Rom. ix. 21.): III. in length of duration : (Psal. cxlv. 13. “Thy Kingdom is an everlasting Kingdom.” E.cod. xv. 18. “ The Lord shall reign for ever and ever.”)

(c) A right to the use of all things in His possession, by virtue of absolute dominion : (Prov. xvi. 4. ^ The Lord hath made all things for Himself.”)

The name 'Shaddai' is also contained in avtok pátwo, and implies active and executive power, active power in its infinity, either from Hebrew roots meaning "all-sufficient' or destruction.' See also Article VI. below.

παντοκράτωρ is also explained by old interpreters (a) 'holding, containing, and comprehending, all things,' and (b) 'sustaining or preserving all things. These meanings belong rather to philosophy than divinity. Compare Prov. xxx. 4; Isai. xĪ. 12. and Acts xvii. 28.

SECTION V.
I believe in God the Father Almighty,

MAKER OF HEAVEN AND EARTH.
This clause was not in the ancient Creeds; it was

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6. For

implied in the first Rules of Faith, and at last expressed in both the Greek and Latin confessions.

1. The words 'heaven and earthreally mean "all things visible and invisible: for the original Nicene Crecd had simply -“ Maker of all things visible and invisible, and the Constantinopolitan Creed added 'heaven and earth': hence they who in the Latin Church only used this last addition must have used it in the full sense of maker of all things visible and invisible.' See Exod. xx. 11. in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is”: so that by these two must be understood all things contained in them : and we know no being made or placed without them. 'Heaven and earth' together signify the Universe or the World, in which are contained all things, material and immaterial, visible and invisible. In Acts xvii. 24. “God that made the world, and all things therein, seeing that He is Lord of heaven and earth, &c.” St Paul combines both the Hebrew expression heaven and earth' and the Greek expression Kóguos or world.

II. In answer to various objections of some ancient heathen philosophers, we must show how the world was made.

(a) Creation is production out of nothing.

The opinion of the Jewish Church is given in 2 Macc. vii. 28.

the heaven and the earth and all that is therein, and consider that God made them of things that were not."

Scriptural authority is that of St Paul : calleth those things which be not as though they were, Rom. iv. 17. where “ to callmeans "to make or cause to be.” Cf. Heb. xi. 3, where the same making out of nothing is implied. The universal proposition 'out of nothing, nothing can be produced' is false ; it is founded solely on observation of particular works of art and nature, and of creatures continuing by successive generation, which could not have been so continued without a being antecedent to all such succession, and therefore this maxim has nothing to do with the production of that first being which we call creation.

(6) Creation is I. proper, of things made immediately out of nothing, as angels, and human souls, and the elemental bodies, as earth, water, air : II. improper, of things made mediately, out of something formerly made

* Look upon

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out of nothing; as animals and vegetables, cf. Gen. ii. 7. “ the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground.”

(c) As concerns the Agent in Creation, God was moved solely by His own goodness, and was free, though moved by His goodness : in that freedom He determined, and so created. (Eph. i. 11. “He worketh all things after the counsel of His own will.") With Him to will was to effect, to determine was to perform. Rev. iv. 11. hast created all things, and for Thy pleasure (i. e. by Thy will) they are, (or exist) and were created : ” and Gen. i. 4. Let there be light; and there was light : " in the original Hebrew there is no difference in point or letter between God's command 'Let there be,' and the immediate effect there was.'

(d) As concerns the time of creation.

I. The world had a temporal beginning : (John xvii. 5. where Christ speaks of the glory which He had with the Father 'before the world was.')

II. In spite of Egyptian and Assyrian fables of great antiquity belonging to the world, even the human testimony of historians and poets respecting inventions, arts, and sciences, shows the want of this great antiquity.

Experience and observation, in brief, induce us to believe the account of the Creation in Genesis, by which the world was created within about 6000 years from the present time.

(e) As concerns the Person to whom Creation is ascribed.

I. The creation of the world was performed by (a) that one God in whom we believe, (B) the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

(a) What is now evil is not so originally, and therefore there is no pretence for the old Manichæan heresy of two co-eternal principles of good and evil, to account for the present badness of some created things.

(B) That one. God has been proved to be the Father : it is now to be shown that that one God the Father was the Maker of the World. See then Acts iv. 24. and 27, which show the Father of Jesus Christ to be the Creator of the world.

II. The Creation is peculiarly ascribed to the Father in the Creed, (a) in respect of the ancient heresy concerning another Creator of the world than God the Father of Jesus Christ, (B) in respect of the Paternal priority in the

6. For

implied in the first Rules of Faith, and at last expressed in both the Greek and Latin confessions.

1. The words 'heaven and earthreally mean "all things visible and invisible': for the original Nicene Crecd had simply -“ Maker of all things visible and invisible, and the Constantinopolitan Creed added 'heaven and earth': hence they who in the Latin Church only used this last addition must have used it in the full sense of maker of all things visible and invisible.' See E.cod. xx. 11. in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is ”: so that by these two must be understood all things contained in them : and we know no being made or placed without them. * Heaven and earth' together signify the Universe or the World, in which are contained all things, material and immaterial, visible and invisible. In Acts xvii. 24. “God that made the world, and all things therein, seeing that He is Lord of heaven and earth, &c.” St Paul combines both the Hebrew expression 'heaven and earth' and the Greek expression Kóguos or world.'

II. In answer to various objections of some ancient heathen philosophers, we must show how the world was made.

(a) Creation is production out of nothing.

The opinion of the Jewish Church is given in 2 Macc. vii. 28. “Look upon the heaven and the earth and all that is therein, and consider that God made them of things that were not.'

Scriptural authority is that of St Paul : God...... calleth those things which be not as though they were,' Rom. iv. 17. where “ to callmeans “ to make or cause to be.Cf. Heb. xi. 3, where the same making out of nothing is implied. The universal proposition 'out of nothing, nothing can be produced' is false ; it is founded solely on observation of particular works of art and nature, and of creatures continuing by successive generation, which could not have been so continued without a being antecedent to all such succession, and therefore this maxim has nothing to do with the production of that first being which we call creation.

(b) Creation is I. proper, of things made immediately out of nothing, as angels, and uman souls, and th elemental bodies, as earth, water, air : II. improper, of things made mediately, out of something formerly made

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