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14 For I hope straightway to see thee, (xa, 212.) and so we shall speak face to face. 1 Peace BE to thee. The friends HERE salute thee. 2 Salute the friends by name.
14 Besides, it is needless to write these things, for I hope soon to see thee. And so we shall speak face to face freely concerning them. Peace be to thee, which is my apostolical benediction. The Christians with me wish thee health and happiness. In my name wish health and happiness to the Christians with thee, as if I named them particularly.
love which, in the first ages, subsisted among the true disciples of Christ. Let it not then be pretended that the gospel does not recommend private friendship.
3. Salute the friends by name. The apostle, by sending a salutation to the faithful disciples of Christ, who were in the church of which John was a member, and who were living together in great love, shewed his affection for them, and encouraged them to persevere in the truth.
EPISTLE OF THE APOSTLE JUDE.
The History of Jude the Apostle, and Brother of James.
In the catalogue which Luke gives of the apostles, chap. vi. 14,
15. James the Son of Alpheus, Simon called Zelotes, and Judas the brother of James, are mentioned. In the catalogue, Acts i. 13. we have the same persons named, and in the same order. But in the catalogue, Matt. x. 3. in the place of Judas, there is Lebbeus whose sirname was Thaddeus; and in Mark iii. 18. Thaddeus simply. Wherefore, as all the evangelists agree that there were only twelve apostles, we must suppose that Judas the brother of James, was sirnamed Lebbeus and Thaddeus.-The appellation of the brother of James was given to Judas, probably because James was the elder brother, and because, after our Lord's ascension, James became a person of considerable note among the apostles, and was highly esteemed by the Jewish believers.
In the preface to the epistle of James, sect. 1. we have shewn that James the son of Alpheus was our Lord's brother or cousingerman. From this it follows, that Judas the brother of James stood in the same relation to Christ. Accordingly we find James and Joses, and Simon and Judas, expressly called the brethren of Jesus, Matt. xiii. 55. Mark vi. 3.—We have no account of the time and manner, in which Judas the brother of James became Christ's disciple. But the history of his election to the apostleship is given, Luke vi. 13. Perhaps, like some others of the apostles, he was originally a follower of the Baptist, on whose testimony to Jesus, he believed him to be the Messiah.
None of the evangelists have said any thing of Judas after he became an apostle, except John, who tells us, that when our Lord spoke what is recorded, John xiv. 21. Judas saith to him,— ver. 22. Lord how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself to us and not to the world? 23. Jesus answered and said to him, If a man love me he will keep my words, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our abode with him; meaning, that after his resurrection, he would shew himself alive to his apostles; and that he and his Father, by the spiritual gifts bestowed on them, would make their abode with them; that is, would shew that they were present with them in all their ministrations. Accordingly, Judas the apostle was one of those to whom Jesus appeared, at different times, after his resurrection. He was also one of the 120 upon whom the Holy Ghost descended in the visible shape of flames of fire, on the memorable day of Pentecost. Being therefore an eye-witness, and endowed with the Holy Ghost, he no doubt, as Lardner remarks, joined his brethren apostles in witnessing their Master's resurrection from the dead, and shared with them in the reproaches and sufferings, which befel them on that account.
Lardner conjectures, that Judas the apostle was an husbandman before he became Christ's disciple; founding his conjecture on a passage of the apostolical constitutions, where the apostles are made to say, "Some of us are fishermen, others tent "makers, others husbandmen." He adds, " undoubtedly several "of the apostles were fishermen. But by the latter part of the ❝sentence no more may be meant, than that there was among "them one tent maker, even Paul; and one husbandman, in"tending perhaps St. Jude. For Hegesippus, as quoted by "Eusebius, writes, That when Domitian made inquiries after "the posterity of David, some grandsons of Jude called the Lord's
brother, were brought before him. Being asked concerning "their possessions and substance, they assured him, that they had "only so many acres of land, out of the improvement of which they "both paid him tribute, and maintained themselves with their own "hard labour. The truth of what they said was confirmed by the "callousness of their hands," &c. On this passage Lardner's remarks are, "Hence some may argue that St. Jude himself had "been an husbandman. And from this account, if it may be "relied upon, we learn, that this apostle was married and had children." Lardner on the Canon, vol. iii. chap. xxi. p. 325.
If Judas the apostle was the same person with Judas the author of the epistle, he lived to a great age. And his life being thus prolonged, we may suppose that after preaching the gospel and confirming it by miracles, he went into other countries for the same purpose.-Lardner tells us, some have said that Jude preached in Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia; and that he suffered martyrdom in the last mentioned country. But these things are not supported by any well attested history. With respect to his being a martyr, it may be doubted; because none of the ancients have mentioned his having suffered martyrdom. It is therefore generally believed that he died a natural death. Jerome in his commentary on Matt. x. 35. says, "That "the apostle Thaddeus, called by the evangelist Luke Judas "the brother of James, was sent to Edessa to Abgarus King of “Osroene."-Eusebius, Eccl. Hist. L. i. c. 13. says, Thomas one of the twelve, sent to Edessa Thaddeus, one of Christ' seventy disciples, to preach the gospel in these countries.
Shewing that the Epistle of Jude was written by Judas the Apostle, consequently that it is an inspired Writing.
I. In the inscription of this epistle, the writer styles himself, Ι8δας Ιησε Χρισε δελος, αδελφός δε Ιακο68, Judas a servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James. By these two characters, the author of this epistle hath shewed himself to be an apostle. For, 1. His name Judas, is precisely the same with that of the apostle Judas. 2. His designation is the same, and brother of James. If it be objected that Judas, the writer of the epistle, hath not called himself an apostle, but only a servant of Jesus Christ, the answer is, First, As there was ther apostle named Judas, to have called himself an apostle, was no distinction at all. Whereas by styling himself the brother of James, he hath made himself known to all who are acquainted with the catalogues of the apostles given by the evangelists, to be a different person from Judas the traitor, and hath as effectually declared himself to be an apostle, as if he had expressly assumed that title. Besides, by calling himself the brother of James, he hath asserted his relation to Christ, as his cousin-german, (see Pref. to James, sect. 1. paragr. 1.) and thereby hath secured to himself whatever respect was due to him on account of that honourable relation. Secondly, Some others who were undoubtedly