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SIR ALFRED IRTHING, with appropriate words Like wild beasts without home! Their hour was Accompanied, still extant, in a wreath

i come; Or posy, girding round the several fronts

But why no softening thought of gratitude, Of three clear-sounding and harmonious bells No just remembrance, scruple, or wise doubt ? That in the steeple hang, his pious gift.”

Benevolence is mild; nor borrows help, “ So fails, so languishes, grows dirn, and dies,” Save at worst need, from bold impetuous force, The gray-hair'd wanderer pensively exclaim'd, Fitliest allied to anger and revenge. All that this world is proud of. From their spheres But human kind rejoices in the might The stars of human glory are cast down;

Of mutability, and airy hopes, Perish the roses and the flowers of kings,*

Dancing around her, hinder and disturb Princes, and emperors, and the crowns and palms Those meditations of the soul that feed Of all the mighty, wither'd and consumed ! The retrospective virtues. Festive songs Nor is power given to lowliest innocence

Break from the madden'd nations at the sight Long to protect her own. The man himself Of sudden overthrow; and cold neglect Departs; and soon is spent the line of those Is the sure consequence of slow decay. Who, in the bodily image, in the mind,

Even," said the wanderer, “as that courteous In heart or soul, in station or pursuit,

knight, Did most resemble him. Degrees and ranks, Bound by his vow to labour for redress Fraternities and orders-heaping high

Of all who suffer wrong, and to enact New wealth upon the burden of the old,

By sword and lance the law of gentleness, And placing trust in privilege confirm’d

(If I may venture of myself to speak, And reconfirm'd-are scoff'd at with a smile Trusting that not incongruously I blend Of greedy foretaste, from the secret stand

Low things with lofty,) I too shall be doom'd Of desolation, aim'd: to slow decline

To outlive the kindly use and fair esteem These yield, and these to sudden overthrow; of the poor calling which my youth embraced Their virtue, service, happiness, and state

With no unworthy prospect. But enough; Expire; and nature's pleasant robe of green, Thoughts crowd upon me, and 'twere seemlier now Humanity's appointed shroud, inwraps

To stop, and yield our gracious teacher thanks Their monuments and their memory. The vast For the pathetic records which his voice frame

Hath here delivered ; words of heartfelt truth, Of social nature changes evermore

Tending to patience when amiction strikes; Her organs and her members with decay

To hope and love; to confident repose Restless, and restless generation, powers

In God; and reverence for the dust of man."
And functions dying and produced at need;
And by this law the mighty whole subsists :
With an ascent and progress in the main,

BOOK VIII.
Yet, O! how disproportion'd to the hopes
And expectations of self-Hattering minds !

THE PARSONAGE.
The courteous knight whose bones are here interr'd,

ARGUMENT. Lived in an age conspicuous as our own

Pastor's apprehensions that he might have detained his For strife and ferment in the minds of men ;

auditors too long. Invitation to his house. Solitary Whence alteration, in the forms of things.

disinclined to comply, rallies the wanderer; and some Various and vast. A memorable age !

what playfully draws a comparison between his itine Which did to him assign a pensive lot-

rant profession and that of the knight-errant; which To linger 'mid the last of those bright clouds, leads to wanderer's giving an account of changes in the That, on the steady breeze of honour, sail'd

country from the manufacturing spirit. Favourable

effects. The other side of the picture, and chiefly as it In long procession, calm and beautiful.

has affected the humbler classes. Wanderer asserts He who had seen his own bright order fade,

the hollowners of all national grandeur is unsupported And its devotion gradually decline,

by moral worth; gives instances. Physical science (While war, relinquishing the lance and shield, unable to support itself. Lamentations over an excess Her temper changed, and bow'd to other laws,)

of manufacturing industry among the humbler classes Had also witnessed, in his morn of life,

of society. Picture of a child employed in a cotton

mill. Ignorance and degradation of children among That violent commotion which o'erthrew,

the agricultural population reviewed. Conversation In town, and city, and sequester'd glen,

broken off by a renewed invitation from the pastor. Altar, and cross, and church of solemn roof,

Path leading to his house. Its appearance described. And old religious house-pile after pile ;

His daughter. His wife. His son (a boy) enters with And shook the tenants out into the fields,

his companion. Their happy appearance. The wall.

derer, how affected by the sight of them. * The "transit gloria mundi" is finely expressed in the introduction to the foundation charters of some of the

The pensive skeptic of the lonely vale ancient abbeys. Some expressions here used are taken

To those acknowledgments subscribed bis own, from that of the abbey of St. Mary's Furness, the transla- / With a sedate compliance, which the priest tion of which is as follows:

Fail'd not to notice, inly pleased, and said, Considering every day the uncertainty of life, that the « If ve, by whom invited I commenced roses and flowers of kings, emperory, and dukes, and the

These narratives of calm and humble life, crowns and palms of all the great wither and decay; and that all things, with an uninterrupted course, tend to dig. Be satisfied, 'lis well; the end is gain'd; solution and death : I therefore," &c.

| And in return for sympathy bestow'd

And patient listening, thanks accept from me. | Affections seated in the muther's breast,
Lise, death, eternity! momentous themes

And in the lover's fancy; and to feed
Are they, and might demand a seraph's tongue, The sober sympathies of long-tried friends.
Were they not equal to their own support; By these itinerants, as experienced men,
And therefore no incompetence of mine

Counsel is given; contention they appease
Could do them wrong. The universal forms With gentle language ; in remotest wilds,
Of human nature, in a spot like this,

Tears wipe away, and pleasant tidings bring;
Present themselves at once to all men's view: Could the proud quest of chivalry do more ?”
Ye wish'd for act and circumstance, that make “ Happy," rejoined the wanderer, “they who
The individual known and understood :

gain
And such as my best judgment could select A panegyric from your generous tongue !
From what the place afforded have been given; But, if to these wayfarers once pertained
Though apprehensions cross'd me that my zeal Aught of romantic interest, 'tis gone ;
To his might well be likend, who unlocks

Their purer service, in this realm at least,
A cabinet with gems or pictures stored,

Is past for ever. An inventive age And draws them forth-soliciting regard

Has wrought, if not with speed of magic, yet To this, and this, as worthier than the last,

To most strange issues. I have lived to mark Till the spectator who a while was pleased

A new and unforeseen creation rise More than the exhibiter himself, becomes

From out the labours of a peaceful land, Weary and faint, and longs to be released.

Wielding her potent enginery to frame But let us hence ! my dwelling is in sight, And to produce, with appetite as keen And there--"

As that of war, which rests not night or day, At this the solitary sbrunk

Industrious to destroy! With fruitless pains With backward will: but, wanting not address Might one like me nou' visit many a tract That inward motion to disguise, he said

Which, in his youth, he trod, and trod again, To his compatriot, smiling as he spake ;

A lone pedestrian with a scanty freight, “ The peaceable remains of this good knight Wish'd for, or welcome, wheresoe'er he came, Would be disturbed, I fear, with wrathful scorn, Among the tenantry of Thorpe and Ville ; If consciousness could reach him where he lies

Or straggling burgh, of ancient charter proud, That one, albeit of these degenerate times,

And dignified by battlements and towers Deploring changes past, or dreading change Of some stern castle, mouldering on the brow Foreseen, had dared to couple, e'en in thought, Of a green hill or bank of rugged stream. The fine vocation of the sword and lance

The footpath faintly mark’d, the horse-track wild With the gross aims and body-bending toil

And formidable length of plashy lane, Of a poor brotherhood who walk the earth

(Prized avenues ere others had been shaped Pitred, and where they are not known, despised. Or easier links connecting place with place) Yet, by the good knight's leave, the two estates Have vanished, --swallow'd up by stately roads Are traced with some resemblance. Errant those, Easy and bold, that penetrate the gloom Exiles and wanderers—and the like are these ; Of Britain's farthest glens. The earth has lent Who with their burden, traverse hill and dale, Her waters, air her breezes ;" and the sail Carrying relief for nature's simple wants.

Of traffic glides with ceaseless interchange, What though no higher recompense they seek Glistening along the low and woody dale, Than honest maintenance, by irksome toil

Or on the naked mountain's lofty side. Full oft procured, yet such may claim respect, Meanwhile, at social industry's command, Among th' intelligent, for what this course

How quick, how vast an increase! From the germ Enables them to be, and to perform.

Of some poor hamlet, rapidly produced Their tardy steps give leisure to observe,

Here a huge town, continuous and compact, While solitude permits the mind to feel;

Hiding the face of earth for leagues—and there, Instructs and prompts her to supply defects Where not a habitation stood before, By the division of her inward self,

Abodes of men irregularly mass'd For gratefui converse ; and to these poor men Like trees in forest,-spread through spacious (As I have heard you boast with honest pride)

tracts Nature is bountiful, where'er they go ;

O'er which the smoke of unremitting fires
Kind nature's various wealth is all their own. Hangs permanent, and plentiful as wreaths
Versed in the characters of men: and bound, Of vapour glittering in the morning sun.
By ties of daily interest, to maintain

And wheresoe'er the traveller turns his steps, Conciliatory manners and smooth speech ;

He sees the barren wilderness erased, Such have been, and still are in their degree,

* In treating this subject, it was impossible not to re. Examples efficacious to refine

collect, with gratitude, the pleasing picture, which, in his Rude intercourse : apt agents to expel,

poem of the Fleece, the excellent and amiable Dyer has By importation of unlook 'd-for arts,

given of the influences of manufacturing industry upon Barbarian torpor, and blind prejudice;

the face of this island. He wrote at a time when machiRaising, through just gradation, savage life

nery was first beginning to be introduced, and his beneTo rustic, and the rustic to urbane.

volent heart prompted him to augur from it nothing but

good. Truth has compelled me to dwell upon the baneWithin their moving magazines is lodged

ful effects arising out of an ill-regulated and excessive Power that comes forth to quicken and exalt

| application of powers on adinirable in themselves.

Or disappearing; triumph that proclaims

That there should pass a moment of the year, How much the mild directress of the plough When in their land th’ Almighty's service ceased. Owes to alliance with these new-born arts !

" Triumph who will in these profaner rites Hence is the wide sea peopled, -hence the shores Which we, a generation self-extollid, Of Britain are resorted to by ships

As zealously perform ! I cannot share
Freighted from every climate of the world His proud complacency; yet I exult,
With the world's choicest produce. Hence that sum Casting reserve away, exult to see
of keels that rest within her crowded ports, An intellectual mastery exercised
Or ride at anchor in her sounds and bays;

O'er the blind elements; a purpose given,
That animating spectacle of sails

A perseverance fed ; almost a soul Which, through her inland regions, to and fro Imparted to brute matter. I rejoice, Pass with the respirations of the tide,

Measuring the force of those gigantic powers, Perpetual, multitudinous ! Finally,

That by the thinking mind have been compellid Hence a dread arm of floating power, a voice To serve the will of feeble-bodied man. Of thunder daunting those who would approach For with the sense of admiration blends With hostile purposes, the blessed isle,

The animating hope that time may come Truth's consecrated residence, the seat

When strengthen'd, yet not dazzled, by the might Impregnable of liberty and peace.

Of this dominion over nature gain'd, “And yet, 0 happy pastor of a flock

Men of all lands shall exercise the same
Faithfully watch'd, and, by that loving care In due proportion to their country's need ;
And Heaven's good providence, preserved from Learning, though late, that all true glory rests,
taint!

All praise, all safety, and all happiness,
With you I grieve, when on the darker side Upon the moral law. Egyptian Thebes,
of this great change I look; and there behold Tyre by the margin of the sounding waves,
Such outrage done to nature as compels

Palmyra, central in the desert, fell;
Th’indignant power to justify herself ;

And the arts died by which they had been raised. Yea, to avenge her violated rights,

Call Archimedes from his buried tomb For England's bane. When soothing darkness Upon the plain of vanish'd Syracuse, spreads

And feelingly the sage shall make report
O'er hill and vale,” the wanderer thus express'd How insecure, how baseless in itself,
His recollections, and the punctual stars, Is the philosophy, whose sway depends
While all things else are gathering to their homes, On mere material instruments; how weak
Advance, and in the firmament of heaven

Those arts, and high inventions, if unpropp'd
Glitter-but undisturbing, undisturb’d;

By virtue. He with sighs of pensive grief, As if their silent company were charged

Amid his calm abstractions, would admit With peaceful admonitions for the heart

That not the slender privilege is theirs Of all beholding man, earth's thoughtful lord; To save themselves from blank forgetfulness !" Then, in full many a region, once like this

When from the wanderer's lips these words bad Th' assured domain of calm simplicity

fallin, And pensive quiet, an unnatural light

I said, “ And, did in truth these vaunted arts Prepared for never-resting labour's eyes,

Possess such privilege, how could we escape
Breaks from a many-winduw'd fabric huge ; Regret and painful sadness, who revere,
And at the appointed hour a bell is heard,

And would preserve as things above all price, of harsher import than the curfew-knoll

The old domestic morals of the land,
That spake the Norman conqueror's stern behest Her simple manners, and the stable worth
A local summons to unceasing toil!

That dignified and cheer'd a low estate?
Disgorged are now the ministers of day:

0! where is now the character of peace,
And, as they issue from th’illumined pile, Sobriety, and order, and chaste love,
A fresh band meets them, at the crowded door, And honest dealing, and untainted speech,
And in the courts--and where the rumbling stream, And pure good-will, and hospitable cheer;
That turns the multitude of dizzy wheels,

That made the very thought of country life
Glares, like a troubled spirit, in its bed

A thought of refuge, for a mind detain'd Among the rocks below. Men, maidens, youths, Reluctantly amid the bustling crowd ? Mother and little children, boys and girls,

Where now the beauty of the Sabbath kept Enter, and each the wonted task resumes

With conscientious reverence, as a day Within this temple, where is offer'd up

By the almighty Lawgiver pronounced To gain-the master idol of the realm

Holy and blest ? and where the winning grace Perpetual sacrifice. E'en thus of old

Of all the lighter ornaments attach'd Our ancestors within the still domain

To time and season, as the year roll'd round?” Of vast cathedral or conventual church,

“ Fled!” was the wanderer's passionate reTheir vigils kept: where tapers day and night

sponse, On the dim altar burn'd continually,

“Fled utterly! or only to be traced In token that the house was evermore

In a few fortunate retreats like this; Watching to God. Religious men were they ; Which I behold with trembling, when I think Nor would their reason, tutor'd to aspire

What lamentable change, a year-a mont:Above this transitory world, allow

May bring; that brook converting as it runs

Into an instrument of deadly bane For those, who, yet untempted to forsake The simple occupations of their sires, Drink the pure water of its innocent stream With lip almost as pure. Domestic bliss, (Or call it comfort, by a humbler name,) How art thou blighted for the poor man's heart; Lo! in such neighbourhood, from morn to eve, The habitations empty! or perchance The mother left alone, no helping hand To rock the cradle of her peevish babe ; No daughters round her busy at the wheel, Or in despatch of each day's little growth Of household occupation; no nice arts Of needle-work; no bustle at the fire, Where once the dinner was prepared with pride ; Nothing to speed the day, or cheer the mind; Nothing to praise, to teach, or to command; The father, if perchance he still retain His old employments, goes to field or wood, No longer led or followed by the sons; Idlers perchance they were, but in his sight; Breathing fresh air, and treading the green earth; l'ill their short holyday of childhood ceased, Ne'er to return! That birthright now is lost. Economists will tell you that the state Thrives by the forfeiture,-unfeeling thought, And false as monstrous! Can the mother thrive By the destruction of her innocent sons? In whom a premature necessity Blocks out the forms of nature, preconsumes The reason, famishes the heart, shuts up The infant being in itself, and makes Its very spring a season of decay! The lot is wretched, the condition sad, Whether a pining discontent survive, And thirst for change; or habit hath subdued The soul deprest, dejected---even to love of her dull tasks, and close captivity. 0, banish far such wisdom as condemns A native Briton to these inward chains, Fix'd in his soul, so early and so deep, Without his own consent, or knowledge, fix'd ! He is a slave to whom release comes not, And cannot come. The boy, where'er he turns, Is still a prisoner; when the wind is up Among the clouds and in the ancient woods; Or when the sun is shining in the east, Quiet and calm. Behold him, in the school or his attainments ? no; but with the air Fanning his temples under heaven's blue arch. His raiment whitend o'er with cotton flakes, Or locks of wool, announces whence he comes. Creeping his gait and cowering, his lip pale, His respiration quick and audible ; And scarcely could you fancy that a glcam From out those languid eyes could break, or blush Mantle upon his cheek. Is this the form, Is that the countenance, and such the port, Of no mean being? One who should be clothed With dignity befitting his proud hope ; Who, in his very childhood, should appear Sublime, from present purity and joy? The limbs increase, but liberty of mind Is gone for ever; this organic frame, So joyful in ber motions, is become

Dull, to the joy of her own motions dead;
And e'en the touch, so exquisitely pour'd
Through the whole body, with a languid will
Performs her functions ; rarely competent
T'impress a vivid feeling on the mind
of what there is delightful in the breeze,
The gentle visitations of the sun,
Or lapse of liquid element, by hand,
Or foot, or lip, in summer's warmth, perceived.
Can hope look forward to a manhood raised
On such foundations ?

“ Hope is none for him!” | The pale recluse indignantly exclaim'a, “And tens of thousands suffer wrong as deep. Yet be it ask'a, in justice to our age, If there were not, before those arts appeara, These structures rose, cummingling old and young, And unripe sex with sex, for mutual taint; Then, if there were not in our far-famed isle, Multitudes, who from infancy had breathed Air unimprisoned, and had lived at large;

Yet walk'd beneath the sun, in human shape, | As abject, as degraded ? At this day, Who shall enumerate the crazy huts And tottering hovels, whence do issue forth A ragged offspring, with their own blanch'd hair Crown'd like the image of fantastic fear; Or wearing, we might say, in that white growth An ill-adjusted turban, for defence Or fierceness, wreathed around their sunburnt

brows, By savage nature's unassisted care. Naked, and coloured like the soil, the feet On which they stand; as if thereby they drew Some nourishment, as trees do by their roots, From earth the common mother of us all. Figure and mien, complexion and attire, Are leagued to strike dismay, but outstretch'd hani And whining voice denote them supplicants For the least boon that pity can bestow. Such on the breast of darksome heaths are found ; And with their parents dwell upon the skirts Of furze-clad commons; such are born and rear'd At the mine's mouth, beneath impending rocks, Or in the chambers of some natural cave; And where their ancestors erected huts, For the convenience of unlawful gain, in forest purlieus; and the like are bred, All England through, where nooks and slips of

ground, Purloin'd, in times less jealous than our own, From the green margin of the public way, A residence afford them, 'mid the bloom And gayety of cultivated fields. Such (we will hope the lowest in the scale) Do I remember oft-times to have seen 'Mid Buxton's dreary heights. Upon the watch, Till the swift vehicle approach, they stand; Then, following closely with the cloud of dust, An uncouth feat exhibit, and are gone Heels over head, like tumblers on a stage. Up from the ground they snatch the copper coin And, on the freight of merry passengers Fixing a steady eye, maintain their speed; And spin-and pant-and overhead again, | Wild pursuivants ! until their breath is lost,

Or bounty tires, and every face that smiled With pure cerulean gravel from the heights Encouragement, hath ceased to look that way. Fetch'd by the neighbouring brook. Across the vale But, like the vagrants of the gipsy tribe,

The stately fence accompanied our steps; These, bred to little pleasure in themselves, And thus the pathway, by perennial green Are profitless to others. Turn we then

Guarded and graced, seemed fashion'd to unite, To Britons born and bred within the pale

As by a beautiful yet solemn chain, Of civil polity, and early train'd

The pastor's mansion with the house of prayer. To earn, by wholesome labour in the field,

Like image of solemnity, conjoin'd The bread they eat. A sample should I give With feminine allurement soft and fair, of what this stock produces to enrich

The mansion's self display'd ; a reverend pile The tender age of life, ye would exclaim,

With bold projections and recesses deep;
Is this the whistling ploughboy whose shrill notes Shadowy, yet gay and lightsome as it stood
Impart new gladness to the morning air !!

Fronting the noontide sun. We paused t'admire Forgive me if I venture to suspect

The pillar'd porch, elaborately emboss'd ; That many, sweet to hear of in soft verse,

The low wide windows with their mullions old; Are of no finer frame: his joints are stiff ;

The cornice richly fretted, of grey stone ; Beneath a cumbrous frock, that to the knees And that smooth slope from which the dwelling Invests the thriving churl, his legs appear,

rose, Fellows to those that lustily upheld

By beds and banks Arcadian of gay flowers The wooden stools for everlasting use,

And flowering shrubs, protected and adorn'd; Whereon our fathers sate. And mark his brow! Profusion bright! and every flower assuming Under whose shaggy canopy are set

A more than natural vividness of hue, Two eyes, not dim, but of a healthy stare ; From unaffected contrast with the gloom Wide, sluggish, blank, and ignorant, and strange ; Of sober cypress, and the darker foil Proclaiming boldly that they never drew

Of yew, in which survived some traces, bere A look or motion of intelligence

Not unbecoming, of grotesque device From infant conning of the Christ-cross-row, And uncouth fancy. From behind the roof Or puzzling through a primer, line by line, Rose the slim ash and massy sycamore, Till perfect mastery crown the pains at last. Blending their diverse foliage with the green What kindly warmth from touch of fostering hand, Of ivy, flourishing and thick, that clasp'd What penetrating power of sun or breeze,

The huge round chimneys, harbour of delight Shall e'er dissolve the crust wherein his soul For wren and redbreast, where they sit and sing Sleeps, like a caterpillar sheath'd in ice?

Their slender ditties when the trees are bare. This torpor is no pitiable work

Nor must I leave untouch'd (the picture else Of modern ingenuity; no town

Were incomplete) a relique of old times Nor crowded city may be tax'd with aught

Happily spared, a little gothic niche Of sottish vice or desperate breach of law

Of nicest workmauship: that once had held
To which in after years he may be roused.

The sculptured image of some patron saint,
This boy the fields produce :' his spade and hoe Or of the blessed virgin, looking down
The carter's whip that on his shoulder rests On all who entered those religious doors.
In air high-towering with a boorish pomp,

But lo! where from the rocky garden mount
The sceptre of his sway; his country's name, Crown'd by its antique summer house, descends,
Her equal rights, her churches and her schools Light as the silver fawn, a radiant girl;
What have they done for him? And let me ask, For she hath recognised her honour'd friend,
For tens of thousands uninform'd as he ?

The wanderer ever welcome ! A prompt kiss In brief, what liberty of mind is here ?"

The gladsome child bestows at his request; This ardent sally pleased the mild, good man, And, up the flowery lawn as we advance, To whom the appeal couched in its closing words Hangs on the old man with a happy look, Was pointedly address'd : and to the thoughts And with a pretty, restless hand of love. That, in assent or opposition, rose

We enter, by the lady of the place
Within his mind, he seem'd prepared to give Cordially greeted. Graceful was her port :
Prompt utterance; but, rising from our seat, A lofty stature undepress'd by time,
The hospitable vicar interposed

Whose visitation had not wholly spared
With invitation urgently renew'd.

The finer lineaments of form and face ; We followed, taking as he led, a path

To that complexion brought which prudence trusts Along a hedge of hollies, dark and tall,

in Whose flexile boughs, descending with a weight And wisdom loves. But when a stately ship Of leafy spray, conceal'd the stems and roots Sails in smooth weather by the placid coast That gave them nourishment. When frosty winds On homeward voyage, what, if wind and wave, Howl from the north, what kindly warmth, me And hardship undergone in various climes, thought,

Have caused her to abate the virgin pride, Is here, how grateful this impervious screen ; And that full trim of inexperienced hope Not shaped by simple wearing of the foot

With which she left her haven, not for this, On rural business passing to and fro

Should the sun strike her, and the impartial breeze Was the commodious walk; a careful hand Play on her streamers, fails she to assume Had mark'd the line, and strewn the surface o'er Brightness and touching beauty of her own,

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