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Highest shall overshadow thee,” Luke i, 35--thus declar. ing the power of the Holy Spirit to be the power of the Highest.

(5.) He is represented as supreme. The gifts just now mentioned, the donation of which requires the exertion of prescience, omniscience, and omnipotence, are said to be by the Spirit “ divided to every man severally as he will,” i Cor. xi, 11. Even Mr. G. acknowledges his su. premacy: “That its (the Holy Spirit's) commands are to be obeyed, we know, because they are the commands of God." (Vol. i, p. 131.)

3. The word of God is said to be the word of the Holy Spirit. “ God," says the writer to the Hebrews, " at sundry times, and in divers manners, spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,” Heb. i, 1. They said, “ Thus saith Jehovah," Isa. xlii, 5. "All Scripture is given by inspiration of God," 2 Tim. iii, 16. On the other hand, “No prophecy of the Scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man; but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost," 2 Pet. i, 20, 21. “ For David himself said by the Holy Ghost," &c., Mark xii, 36. “ The Holy Ghost also is a witness unto us : for after that he had said before, This is the covetant that I will make with them,” &c., Heb. x, 15. It would be easy to multiply passages to the same purpose. But these

It is an important observation, that in the lat. ter passage the Holy Ghost is represented as the God who had made a covenant with Israel, Let the reader compare with it the following :-“Behold the days come, saith Jehovah, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel," &c., Heb, viii, 8.

4. The works of God are ascribed to the Spirit of God, “ He that built all things is God,” Heb. iii, 4. 66 Thus saith Jehovah, thy Redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am Jehovah that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone ; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself,” Isa. xliv, 24. Yet these works, which Jehovah hath wrought alone, and by him. self, were wrought by the Spirit of God. “The Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters," Gen. i, 2. “By his Spirit he hath garnished the heavens," Job xxvi, 13.

are enow.

Such are the testimonies of the sacred writers to the proper divinity of the Holy Spirit. If any addition to them be wanting, it is the testimony of Mr. G., whose arguments will clear up whatever remains of difficulty, thus :

“Omnipresence is exclusively a divine attribute. I appeal to you to say what are the representations you have commonly received from” Christ and his apostles concerning the Holy Spirit ? “ Are they not, that he is everywhere, at all times present with you? What is this but the divine attribute of omnipresence ?"

“ Is he not also represented to you as omniscient? Does he not dive into your most secret thoughts? Has he not access to your hearts? Does he not suggest to you motives of action? What is this but the divine attribute of omniscience?"

“ Does he not possess the power of changing the laws of nature, by the operation of a miracle ?” « Has he not also the power of prescience? This being is represented as foreknowing the counsels of God."

“ These attributes are all divine. And, if there actually be a being possessing these attributes, that being ought to be a deity. If he be a deity, he ought to be worshipped.” (Vol. i, pp. 19, 20.)

Thanks to Mr. G. for thus saving us the trouble of proving that divine worship ought to be rendered to the Holy Spirit. “He which persecuted us in times past, now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed !"


Of the Scriptural Doctrine of the Trinity. To a being like man, who knows noting of the essence of any of the creatures of God, it is absolutely impossible to entertain precise and adequate ideas of the Most High. God has therefore been pleased to make himself known to us by analogy. This method is to be distinguished from that which the Socinians call call metaphorical. Metaphor in their hands is a mere figure of rhetoric: a form of speech in which, for the sake of either beauty or force, any qua. lity not proper to the subject is attributed to it; and in the explication of which, that the subject may be viewed in its own light, the borrowed idea is to be exchanged for the proper one which it represents. In this case the sub. ject is supposed, when stripped of its ornament, to be well understood. It is only an artificial method of dressing up an idea of which we have already some conception. The analogical method of teaching is very different. It is founded in a certain resemblance, in circumstances, be. tween two things which are in their nature different. That resemblance is supposed to be distinctly perceived by the teacher, though not by the learner. In this case ideas are borrowed from such things as are known to the learner, and applied to the thing unknown to him; and these borrowed ideas, which are sufficiently plain and intelligible, are made to stand for the precise idea which the learner is incapable of entertaining. To receive instruction in this manner, the figure is not to be withdrawn that the subject may be understood; for the subject can be understood only by retaining it. The idea thus communi. cated is not, however, to be entertained as the precise idea (i. e., the altogether proper and perfect picture) of the thing in question, (for it is, “a shadow, and not the very image of the thing;") but as the best idea of it of which we are capable.

It is by this analogical method, God has been pleased to make to mankind the brightest discoveries of himself 6 We know only in part,

6 We see, di' EOORTPOU EV aiviyyatı, through a mirror, in an enigma," i Cor. xiii, 12. For instance :

"God is light.” The idea suggested by this assertion is, that there is a certain analogy between God and light. What light is to the natural world, God is to the spiritual. But light is matter, and is divisible and movable. Is God then divisible and movable matter? No: God is spiritual light. But what consistency is there between spirituality and matter? None at all. The idea is “not the very image;" it is but, as it were, a shadow” of God. But we must not lay it aside, for it is one of the best we can have. We speak as the oracles of God when we say, “God is light,” though the idea is not strictly compatible with the spirituality which we attribute


to him. The spirituality of God is not, however, contra. dictory to his real nature, but to our imperfect idea of him. If our idea of him were perfect, there would not be even the appearance of inconsistency. Again :

“ God is a Spirit.” That is, God is something analo. gous to the human spirit. Of the nature of our own spirit we have no precise idea ; although we have some idea of its properties. But if we had the most definite idea of our own spirit, that idea would be infinitely short of him who is a Spirit very different from ourselves. The idea then conveyed by these words is not the precise and perfect idea of God. Must we then relinquish it? No : for we have no substitute for it. It is the idea which God himself has suggested. Yet the same diffi. culty occurs here which we meet in the doctrine of the trinity: to this imperfect and finite idea we attribute in. finite perfections. There is som ing in the idea con. tradictory to what we ascribe to him whom it is supposed to represent. But all the apparent contradiction arises from the imperfection of our idea. We have no alter. native, however, but imperfect knowledge, or perfect ignorance.

As by analogy God has discovered to us his nature in general, so, by analogy, he has discovered to us that great mystery of his nature, the distinction between the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and the respective relation of each of them to the other.

1. The first analogy which we trace is that of matter, form, and motion. It is not asserted that God is any. where said to be a material being. The passage to which we refer is that in which, speaking of Jesus Christ, the apostle says he “ was ev uopon Jeov, in the form of God," Phil. ii, 6. Now it is granted that God is a Spirit.” He is not an extended, solid substance; and, properly speaking, he has no external form. Moses, therefore, reminded the children of Israel, “ Ye saw no similitude," Deut. iv, 12. Form is predicated of God improperly, and under the borrowed idea of matter. Here then we have the idea of matter and its form. The Holy Spirit is spoken of as of matter in motion. “The Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters," Gen. i, 2. It is spoken of as “descending," "coming," and "go. ing," Luke iii, 22; John i, 32, &c.; 1 Chron. xii, 18; 1 Kings xxii, 24 ; 2 Chron. xviii, 23. Motion, however, does not properly belong to spirit, especially to the omnipresent Spirit. It is therefore attributed to imma. terial substance, under the borrowed idea of matter in motion. We have then the ideas of matter, of the form of matter, and of matter in motion. What the internal, unknown essence of matter is to material substance, that the unknown Father is in the divine nature. What the form of matter is to the internal, unknown essence of matter, that the Son is to the Father. As the un. known essence of matter is perceived and distinguished only by its external form, so the Father is perceived and known only through the Son. As matter operates upon matter only by motion, so God operates on his creatures only by the Spirit.

2. The next analogy on which we shall remark, is that of the sun, its light and its vital influence. The sacred writers, in speaking of God, often allude to the sun, which is

Of this great world both eye and soul. “ Unto you that fear my name, shall the Sun of right. eousness arise,” Mal. iv, 2. What the internal, unknown substance is in the sun, that the Father is in the godhead. As from the former all natural light proceeds, the latter is “the Father of lights.” What perceptible light is to the internal, unknown substance of the sun, that the Son is to the Father : the anavyaqua ens dofns, “bright. ness of his glory.” The Son is therefore “the light of the world.” As the sun is seen only by the light of his beams, and his beams impress on all nature an image of the sun, so the Father is seen only in the Son, and in the Son all who have eyes to see behold the Father. In like manner what the vital influence of the sun and of its beams is to the sun and to its beams, that the Holy Spirit is to the Father and to the Son. As the vital influence flows from the sun through its beams, so the Spirit pro. ceeds from the Father through the Son. And as the in. fluence of the sun is the material origin and support of vegetable and animal life, so the Spirit of God is the spiritual cause of life to animals and to spirits. 66 With thee is the fountain of life; and in thy light shall we see

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